Gland/Tissue Hypothalamus (Chapter 75

)

Anterior pituitary (Chapter 75)

Hormones Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH) (somatostatin) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Dopamine or prolactininhibiting factor (PIF) Growth hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Prolactin Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Chemical Major Functions Structure Stimulates secretion of TSH and Peptide prolactin Peptide Causes release of ACTH Peptide Causes release of growth hormone Peptide Inhibits release of growth hormone Amine Causes release of LH and FSH Inhibits release of prolactin

Posterior pituitary (Chapter 75) Thyroid (Chapter 76)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (also called vasopressin) Oxytocin Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) Calcitonin

Adrenal cortex Cortisol (Chapter 77)

Stimulates protein synthesis and Peptide overall growthof most cells and tissues Stimulates synthesis and secretion of Peptide thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) Stimulates synthesis and secretion of Peptide adrenocortical hormones (cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone) Promotes development of the female Peptide breasts and secretion of milk Causes growth of follicles in the Peptide ovaries and sperm maturation in Sertoli cells of testes Stimulates testosterone synthesis in Peptide Leydig cells of testes; stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in ovaries Increases water reabsorption by the Peptide kidneys and causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure Stimulates milk ejection from Peptide breasts and uterine contractions Increases the rates of chemical Amine reactions in most cells, thus increasing body metabolic rate Promotes deposition of calcium in Peptide the bones and decreases extracellular fluid calcium ion concentration Has multiple metabolic functions for Steroid controlling metabolism of proteins,

carbohydrates, and fats; also has anti-inflammatory effects Aldosterone Increases renal sodium reabsorption, Steroid potassium secretion, and hydrogen ion secretion Adrenal medulla Norepinephrine, epinephrine Same effects as sympathetic Amine (Chapter 60) stimulation Pancreas Insulin (β cells) Promotes glucose entry in many Peptide (Chapter 78) cells, and in this way controls carbohydrate metabolism Glucagon (α cells) Increases synthesis and release of Peptide glucose from the liver into the body fluids Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Controls serum calcium ion Peptide (Chapter 79) concentration by increasing calcium absorption by the gut and kidneys and releasing calcium from bones Testes (Chapter Testosterone Promotes development of male Steroid 80) reproductive system and male secondary sexual characteristics Ovaries Estrogens Promotes growth and development Steroid (Chapter 81) of female reproductive system, female breasts, and female secondary sexual characteristics Progesterone Stimulates secretion of "uterine Steroid milk" by the uterine endometrial glands and promotes development of secretory apparatus of breasts Placenta Human chorionic Promotes growth of corpus luteum Peptide (Chapter 82) gonadotropin (HCG) and secretion of estrogens and progesterone by corpus luteum Human somatomammotropin Probably helps promote Peptide development of some fetal tissues as well as the mother's breasts Estrogens See actions of estrogens from Steroid ovaries Progesterone See actions of progesterone from Steroid ovaries Kidney (Chapter Renin Catalyzes conversion of Peptide 26) angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (acts as an enzyme) 1,25Increases intestinal absorption of Steroid Dihydroxycholecalciferol calcium and bone mineralization Erythropoietin Increases erythrocyte production Peptide Heart (Chapter Atrial natriuretic peptide Increases sodium excretion by Peptide 22) (ANP) kidneys, reduces blood pressure

Stomach Gastrin (Chapter 64) Small intestine Secretin (Chapter 64) Cholecystokinin (CCK) Adipocytes (Chapter 71) Leptin

Stimulates HCl secretion by parietal Peptide cells Stimulates pancreatic acinar cells to Peptide release bicarbonate and water Stimulates gallbladder contraction Peptide and release of pancreatic enzymes Inhibits appetite, stimulates thermogenesis