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# Bio paper 6

What is the importance of a control?
- Compares
- It shows that the factor under test is responsible for the change
observed

why is it necessary to calculate the percentage change in mass when
comparing the chips
- Difference in starting mass
In an experiment, a half slide of cucumber is placed in solution E. After 5
minutes the shape of the pieces in solution E had changed. The second piece
is placed in water. These are compared.
State one source of error in the method in this investigation and suggest a
improvement
Source of error
- Cut unevenly
Improvement
- Cut halves equally
In an experiment an onion leaf was cut into three pieces each 2 cm long.
Four cuts were made in each piece. First piece was put into water, second to
salt solution and third to dry filter paper. Observation is made after 10
minutes.
Suggest how this investigation could be improved
- More leaf pieces
- Leave for longer time
- Controls- e.g) same type/ age/ species
Explain why three potato were used in each solution and not just one piece

To come to same temperature The students found it difficult to determine when the milk had gone completely clear Suggest how they could improve the method (1) .use more precise instrument to measure volume of drops . temperature was varied. the test tubes of milk and trypsin were both placed in the water bath for six minutes Suggest a reason for this procedure .Mark X on the underside .repeat .use buffers . Suggest four ways in which you could improve this method to find the concentration of the unknown vitamin C solution . Two are known and one is unknown.control variables: iodine solution/ starch solution/ size of tubes Describe an investigation to show the effect of pH on the activity of the enzyme that is sued to extract apple juice .Milk concentration . Suggest and explain one variable that needs to be controlled .Type of milk .get average .Compare with distilled water and undigested milk Suggest and explain why each test was carried out three times .Hold against dark background .Increased reliability .measure volume in cm3 not drops alone . drop by drop until a blue colour appeared.pH .To identify and reduce errors .Will alter time to endpoint .To identify the endpoint (of the milk to go completely clear) clearly In this investigation.prepare range of different pH .control of pH.vary activity of enzyme A test for vitamin C was carried out.Alters enzyme activity . They were added iodine solution.- For repeat/ to increase reliability Before being mixed together. The solutions had different concentrations.use a colorimeter .

agitate the same .repeats the effect of pH on the activity on enzyme was investigated.equal amounts of food .grind up .repeat the experiment . Five test tubes were set up each with different pH.keep all variables the same Number of leaves were removed from a holly tree.buffer .same size of apparatus .same temperature . Students investigated the variation in the number of spines on the holly leaves.add ethanol .use the same volume of enzymes .add water . Suggest how you might improve this investigation Describe how you would safely test samples of green leaves and meat to find out which has more fat .compare .same size of catalase .more sophisticated timer .increase in range of pH tested .equal amounts of reagents . describe what steps you would take to ensure that your results were as reliable and valid as possible . The same volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide was used in each testube.dissolve the fat . Time taken for filter paper in the hydrogen peroxide is measured.- same same same same type of pulp volume of enzyme concentration of enzyme temperature An experiment is carried out to find the effect of pH on the activity of catalase. The solutions were made up.control temperature .use of same amount of substrate . Suggest four ways in which this experiment can be improved .emulsion . experiment was set up and was timed how long the enzyme took to digest the protein and clear the film If you were to carry out this investigation.

pH7. tongs .Range of temperatures .because the enzyme is denatured as the shape of active site is changed Describe how you could safely test a piece of banana for two different carbohydrates .reducing sugar test: . lab coats The activity of the enzyme is measured by collecting the volume of oxygen gas given off as shown .Repeats and find average .Same enzyme source or concentration .Safety features: use forceps to handle pieces of papers.Safety: goggles. goggles. yellow.heat .Equilibrate the tubes in different water baths .blue to purple Describe and explain the effect of pH on the activity of trypsin .biuret solution .crush pieces and mix with water .same volumes of hydrogen peroxide .Control temperature by keeping it in water bath throughout the investigation .One pH .increased rate .blue to green.Same size of tubing .Add iodine solution .add benedict’s solution .Volume of oxygen measures .From orange to blue black Suggest how an experiment could be changed to investigate the effect of temperature on the activity of catalase .decreased rate . lab coat.5 is optimum .- wear googles wear lab coat Describe a food test you could do to show that bean seeds contain protein .Starch test: . orange red .