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Cold war 1945-1949

This podcast aims to look at three key areas – why the alliance between
the USA and the USSR broke down in 1945, how Stalin take control of
eastern Europe in 1945 and America’s reaction to it, and the
consequences of the Berlin Blockade.
By the end of World War 2 in 1945, two clear superpowers had emerged:
the USA and the USSR. They had fought alongside each other during the
war, but due to their ongoing political disagreements were to become
enemies in its immediate aftermath. This relationship, and the events that
occurred as a result of it, are referred to as the Cold War.
The central reason for the suspicion and mistrust that led to the Cold War
was that of differing political beliefs. The USSR, which included Russia and
various other countries that are now independent states such as the
Ukraine and Georgia, had become Communist following the Bolshevik
revolution in 1917. Examiners aren’t usually too fussed over whether you
refer to the USSR, the Soviet Union, or Russia as a term for this country –
but it’s worth me defining it at this point in order to avoid confusion.
The communist ideas that lay at the heart of Soviet politics were simply
unacceptable to the USA, whose society was based on democracy and
capitalism. Although the two countries fought on the same side in the
Second World War, it was only because they shared a common enemy in
Hitler. They detested each other, but they both opposed Hitler’s Germany
more.
The final years of the war, however, saw the relationship deteriorate. The
Allies refused to help Stalin’s fight against the Nazis by starting a second
front in 1943. Stalin believed the Allies were purposefully making the USSR
fight a difficult war in order to weaken the Communists for when the war
was over.
In February 1945, when it is was clear that the Nazis were well on their
way to defeat, the three war leaders – Churchill of Britain, Roosevelt of the

USA, and Stalin from the USSR – met at Yalta where They were able to
agree a number of points, which you may be asked to describe in your
exam. Firstly, they agreed that Germany would be divided into four zones
– American, French, British and Soviet. Berlin was in the Soviet zone so it
would also be divided into four. Secondly, as the Allies were liberating
countries from German occupation, they agreed that countries could hold
free elections to choose the government they wanted. Other agreements
involved the USSR sending its troops to help in Japan after the defeat of
the Nazis, and the establishment of a United Nations to promote world
peace. Finally, because the Soviet Union had suffered enormous losses
during the war, they agreed that Eastern Europe should be a Soviet
‘sphere of influence’ in order to ease Stalin’s concerns that the USSR could
not be invaded again.
This all sounds very nice and fluffy, but one major issue went unsettled.
Although the leaders agreed to holding free elections in Nazi-occupied
countries, it was clear that the Allies’ and Stalin’s idea of free and
democratic governments differed. Stalin was keen that these countries
should have pro-Soviet people in power so that they could be influenced
by the USSR. The problem for the allies was that the huge Red Army was
already dominating the countries to the East of Germany. By the time
Germany surrendered in May 1945, the Soviet Red Army, effectively
controlled the bulk of eastern Europe and the people of these countries –
Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary – viewed the Red Army as their liberators.
The leaders met again at Potsdam, a suburb of Berlin, in July to August
1945. By this time, Harry Truman was the President of the USA as
Roosevelt had recently died. Truman was much more anti-Communist than
Roosevelt had been, which led to increased tension between the USA and
the USSR. Truman had further raised the tension with the use of the
atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Some historians believe the
bomb was used just as much as a threat to the Soviets as it was an
attempt to bring the War in the Pacific to a close.
At Potsdam the Allied leaders discussed the future of the newly liberated
Germany, but with the war over the one unifying factor between the three
countries had disappeared. Stalin wanted Germany to pay huge
compensation to the USSR, but based on lessons learned from the Treaty
of Versailles Truman was not keen. Stalin viewed Truman’s opposition as
an attempt to rebuild a strong Germany to threaten the Soviet Union.
Furthermore, the leaders, with Churchill later being replaced by Clement
Atlee, failed to re-confirm the promise made at Yalta - of free and
independent elections in eastern Europe. Stalin continued to insist on the
countries of eastern Europe being subject to Soviet rule, while Truman
continued to argue for democratic elections. Stalin’s growing influence in
eastern Europe threatened Truman, who began to think that Stalin
intended to take over the rest of Europe as well.
Therefore, by the end of 1945, the tensions that led to the Cold War had
begun to emerge. The war was over so there was no longer a reason to

cooperate with each other. Stalin didn’t get along as well with Truman as
he had with Roosevelt. The unknown quantity of America’s atomic bombs
worried Stalin, but at the same time Truman was concerned over Stalin’s
strength within eastern Europe. Over the next few years these concerns
became more and more firmly embedded in the policies and actions of the
USA and the USSR.
The five years following the end of the war saw relations between the USA
and the USSR deteriorate even further. The Cold War was developing in
Europe, as the Soviet Union built a barrier round itself – a kind-of bufferzone against the West. The states surrounding the USSR, rather than
holding the democratic elections agreed in the earlier meetings, had
Communist governments imposed upon them. Stalin firmly believed that
his actions were justified in order to ensure any possible future war did not
cause further devastation to the Soviet Union like it had experienced
against the Nazis.
In Poland, a rigged election in 1947 saw the communists won 400 out of
450 seats. These communists were hand-picked people loyal to Moscow.
Hungary saw the communists win just 17% of the vote, but under threat
from Moscow the majority politicians handed over control the Communists
out of fear of what the USSR might do to them. Romanian elections
brought the communists to power, and in Bulgaria – following the killing of
non-communist leaders in October 1946 – the communists won a massive
victory.
Yugoslavia and Greece, however, presented problems for Stalin. The
Yugoslavian leader, Tito, was communist but was not easily controlled.
When Tito’s political party won 96% of the vote, even Stalin didn’t feel
confident enough to overthrow him. In Greece, meanwhile, the Greek
communists fought hard from 1946-9 to overthrow the monarchy. It was
here that America finally got involved to stop communism spreading – in
March 1947 Truman made a speech that became known as the Truman
Doctrine. While not naming Greece specifically, he said that America
would help any country oppose a communist take-over: he wanted to stop
communism from spreading. He wanted to contain it. His first move in the
policy of containment was to support the anti-Communist forces in Greece
by sending money and equipment. It worked: the communist uprising was
defeated and communism was stopped in its tracks.
To ensure communism couldn’t spread to other European countries,
Truman decided to use America’s economic power. George Marshall, a US
general, was ordered to develop an economic plan that in the end
provided $17 billion to European countries to rebuild themselves after the
devastation of the Second World War. Truman hoped that by doing this, the
people suffering in these countries would not be easily persuaded to
become communist as a result of promises made by Stalin. Truman
believed that the Marshall Plan would help the people in Europe to get
back to work, make money and feel good about democracy.

All this changed when the Soviet detonated their first A-bomb in 1949. and Marshall Aid. Greece. The Berlin Blockade demonstrated the stubbornness of the two sides that persisted for the rest of the Cold War. America and the USSR – divided Germany between them into four zones. Stalin held a firm grip on eastern Europe. He closed of all rail lines. saw Marshall Aid as the USA making Europe economically dependent on America. medicine. who insisted on keeping his zones weak in case a strong Germany decided to attack the USSR in the future. sweets and candies – into West Berlin. the four winning nations – France. If Stalin tried to shoot down the Allied planes he risked starting a war! The flights continued for almost a year before Stalin gave up and lifted the blockade in May 1949. Other people argue that the aid was an anti. which would be able to recover from years of Nazi dictatorship. Britain. Stalin. Despite the challenges of Yugoslavia.The Marshall Plan has been interpreted in a number of different ways. Following the blockade. and while others acknowledge the generosity they claim it was done in order for the countries to recover enough to start buying American goods. democratic Germany. On Stalin’s side of the line. It was because of this division between West and East that Churchill made his famous Iron Curtain speech. his control was absolute – but while the USA had the atomic bomb and the USSR didn’t. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany. For as long as the blockage went on. Suddenly America’s advantage had narrowed. Germany was firmly divided into two nations – East and West Germany – and the . Britain and France worked together to strengthen their zones. They also divided Berlin into four zones and controlled one zone each. he banned the countries of eastern Europe from accepting the money. Worried that America might dominate European politics. which suggested to those people living in Soviet-controlled Berlin that it was better to live elsewhere! Stalin needed to remove the Allies from Berlin. since only countries without communist governments were eligible to receive funding. France and the USA would have to leave. He didn’t mean there was a real iron barrier between East West. food. Stalin couldn’t afford to provoke America.Communist weapon. But the Allies responded by flying supplies – coal. was that in Berlin the population could see the difference between the communist and non-communist styles of zones. the people of West Berlin would suffer from a lack of supplies and in the end Britain. though. Some people argue that it was generous of America and its people to provide such aid. The Arms Race was on. but was talking figuratively about the line that had split Europe in two. The USA. The problem for Stalin. They wanted a strong. Stalin tried to force the Allies out of Berlin. canals and roads that entered West Berlin through the Soviet-controlled sector of Germany.

Remember that in essay answers you should PEE – use the Point. point out Soviet intervention in eastern European elections to ensure that communism flourished.countries that opposed Stalin formed NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation). There had been distrust between these three countries since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. This question requires balance: you need to give examples of actions by the USA that show it was responsible for starting the Cold War. Explanation to consider America’s blame for the Cold War. this alliance did not mean close friendship and harmony. These three powers together became known as the Grand Alliance. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Evidence. Conclude your paragraph by explaining why these actions led to tensions that caused the Cold War and remember the magic word – BECAUSE! Once you’ve looked at one side of the argument it’s time to consider the opposing view – use the same structure of Point. Britain faced Germany with few allies. Furthermore. Evidence. Moreover. Explanation system to score maximum marks. A popular question in examinations is about who was more to blame for the Cold War – the USA or the USSR. Remember there is no wrong answer here – as long as you explain why you think the USSR or the USA was more to blame for starting the war then the examiner will award you marks accordingly. This alliance was extended when Hitler declared war on the USA after Japan’s attack on the USA in December 1941. This brought Britain. However. Round off your answer with a third paragraph in which you reach an overall conclusion. Roosevelt (USA) and Stalin (Soviet Union) became known as the ‘Big Three’. Britain and the Soviet Union formed an alliance against Hitler. the Soviet Union and the USA together as allies. as well as giving examples of things the Soviet Union did that caused it. for example. he suspected that they had encouraged Hitler in the 1930s and sought to use him as a bulwark against communism. Begin by making your point (you might say. ‘it could be argued that the USSR was more to blame for the Cold War). There was constant tension throughout the war. and their leaders – Churchill (Great Britain). . Many more stand-offs were to come. The widening gulf between the Allies When the Second World War began in 1939. Stalin always pointed to the fact that the Western Allies had intervened in the Russian Civil War in 1918-9. Follow this with evidence and examples of things the USSR did to cause tensions – you might. He was aware of the intrigue that Britain and France had been a party to in 1939 when they were trying to create defensive alliances.

The two western allies still believed that communism’s aim was to impose that belief-system on the whole world. the distrust was compounded by Stalin’s suspicion that the Allies deliberately delayed the opening of the Second Front in France. The decision to attack Japan only after the defeat of Germany confirmed Churchill’s opinion of Stalin The Yalta Conference. communism was a loathsome philosophy and capitalism had to be protected at all costs. approximately 25m) and Stalin wanted to avoid a recurrence of this.Stalin’s view about future decisions was also influenced by the two German invasions of 1914 and 1941. The mistrust between the wartime allies was not wholly on Stalin’s part. even after agreements were made about the date. Furthermore. In addition. Stalin’s army had reached the German border and was ready for the final onslaught. both Churchill and Roosevelt needed Stalin's support in case it was necessary to invade Japan. Millions of Soviet citizens were killed in the war (by 1945. He wanted to build a buffer zone against possible future German attacks and this idea of a buffer zone conflicted with the ideas of Churchill. February 1945 By early 1945. Stalin’s army now totalled 12 million and this outnumbered the forces under Eisenhower (4 million). its Allies and those territories it had absorbed had to be made. Churchill’s distrust was evident in his letters to Roosevelt when he said that Stalin was a threat to the free world. He also felt that any weakening of the Soviet Union would leave Britain and the USA in a stronger position than the Soviet Union. Some of the Teheran decisions were confirmed. Roosevelt appeared rather tired and weak at the conference and afterwards some observers accused him of giving in to Stalin’s demands. The USA had supplied huge amounts of war materiel to the Soviet Union and the latter was only fighting a war on one front. Churchill was becoming convinced that Soviet troops would remain in the countries they liberated from German occupation. Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta in the southern Soviet Union to plan the end of the Second World War. who did not wish to see communism spread into Western Europe. Decisions about the fate of Germany. Roosevelt. . For many people in the west. He believed that the USA and Britain had wanted the Soviet Union to destroy itself fighting Germany on its own. Differences between the Big Three emerged. Nevertheless. Britain and the USA felt that the Soviet Union was being selfish because Stalin did not declare war on Japan in 1941.

However.What decisions were made at Yalta? Germany The Allies eventually decided to divide Germany into four zones. which would be taken from Germany and would lose land to the USSR. However. Both the USA and Britain needed the assistance of Soviet intervention. Stalin was keen to cripple Germany’s so that it could never become a military power and Churchill did not want any punishment to bee too severe – as had happened in the peace settlement of 1919. Stalin agreed to accept France as one of the powers – this was after much persuasion by Churchill. no agreement could be reached about reparations. Stalin saw an attack against Japan as another way of acquiring more territory. The other key decisions taken at Yalta clearly indicated the rising tensions and the way in which Stalin sought to increase the power and influence of the Soviet Union. It should also be noted that by the time of the Yalta Conference. However. Poland Poland would be given land in the west. The Potsdam Conference. July–August 1945 After Yalta. He promised to allow free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe which had been occupied by the Soviet army. Its aim would be to promote and keep peace. Roosevelt was happy to put up with Stalin’s actions and accept his claims because it was clear at this time that the war against Japan could go on for some time. Roosevelt saw Stalin’s acceptance of this body as crucial and thought that this was a successful outcome of Yalta. it soon became evident that Stalin was not about to adhere to . It was also decided that Berlin would be divided into four sectors. he had no intention of doing so and hoped to secure control of large areas of land. it was agreed that Nazi war criminals would be tried in an international court of justice. He did agree that some members of the Polish government in exile (the London Poles) would be allowed to join the Polish government that he had set up (the Lublin Poles). Stalin saw this acquisition of land as creating his buffer zone. each one would be occupied by one of the four allies. a figure of $20 billion dollars was put forward. (Austria and Vienna were to be divided in a similar way. The Big Three agreed that a conference at San Francisco in April of 1945 should formulate plans for a new world body – to be called the United Nations. Free elections would be held. Britain was clearly the third ally and some way behind the other two in the Grand Alliance.) In addition.

So. The USA did not wish to share the technology which had created the atomic bomb and Stalin saw this as a clear threat to the Soviet Union. These trials were held in Nuremberg during 1946. when President Roosevelt died on 12 April. Churchill was replaced by Clement Attlee. Germany was to be de-militarised. but Britain and the USA were able to resist this. Wherever possible. Berlin was divided into four sectors. Great Britain. a message condemning the actions was sent to Stalin. Hungary. Stalin and his Soviet forces resisted democracy and tried to ensure that new governments would be loyal to the Soviet Union. Nazis were removed from important positions and leading Nazis were to be put on trial for war crime. by April colder relations between the two countries were already evident. There would be free elections in Germany. Lithuania. Each zone would be occupied by one of the four Allies. Stalin was desperate to re-build the damaged Soviet economy. freedom of speech and a free press. Romania. Soviet forces were occupying parts of Germany and Austria.democratic actions in Poland. He was succeeded by Harry Truman who took a much tougher line with Stalin. Germany would pay reparations for the damage caused by the war. Stalin wanted the permanent partition of Germany.the promises he had made. Most of this would go to the USSR. either in money or goods. War criminals would be tried and punished. relations between the USA and the Soviet Union became more strained. The Nazi Party would be dissolved. the USA and the USSR. . Estonia. Latvia. On 16 July the USA had tested its atomic bomb. France. In addition. However. It was agreed that Stalin could take machinery from the Soviet occupied zone and would be allowed some machinery from the western zones (the Soviet zone was primarily agricultural). Bulgaria. who had become Britain’s new Prime Minister following the July general election. The Potsdam conference was the last of the conferences between the leaders of the allies during the Second World War. During the conference. Germany was divided into four zones. which meant that Truman no longer needed to rely upon the Soviet Union in the war against Japan. What was decided at Potsdam? Germany Ideally. When Truman became aware of Stalin’s anti. Germans living in Eastern Europe would be transferred into Germany. All German naval and merchant ships were to be given to the Allies. By July Soviet forces had occupied most of Eastern Europe: Finland. Czechoslovakia and Poland.

The note stated that the Soviet Union would never co-operate with the USA and its long-term aim was to expand its empire. The UN had emerged from decisions made at meetings in Moscow. A hot war is a conflict in which actual fighting takes place. but during the 1950s and 1960s it spread across world. During 1945–46. It was agreed that the Polish frontier was to be moved westwards to the rivers Oder and Neisse. there were also many disagreements at Potsdam. Stalin’s policies showed that he did not trust the West and he kept control of those countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated from Nazi rule. President Truman received a note about Soviet foreign policy from one of his advisers. . It was to be the means whereby a buffer zone would be created. A cold war is a war conducted against an enemy by every means without resorting to fighting. What was the Cold War? The events of 1945 to 1949 led to what became known as the COLD WAR. One of the most important decisions at Potsdam was the agreement of the Allies to take part in the United Nations. which had been occupied after the end of the war. Missouri in 1946. Winston Churchill made a speech in Fulton. Eventually. President Truman tried to force the USSR to allow free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe. This was the beginning of the ‘Cold War’. but there was very little actual fighting. during which he referred to the ‘iron curtain’. It was a war of propaganda and ideas. This is the name used to describe the hostility between East and West which existed until the late 1980s. the ‘iron curtain’ became a thousand mile long armed border cutting off the Communist countries of Eastern Europe form the non-communist west. (Stalin’s agents in the USA had kept him informed of the whole bomb project. Washington and finally San Francisco. Churchill said the ‘iron curtain’ started at Stettin in the Baltic and went to Trieste in the Adriatic. Thus the Soviet Union had to be contained – the policy of containment was born. the cement which had kept the Allies together began to erode. At first it was confined to Europe. This led to Winston Churchill coining the term ‘Iron Curtain’.Poland Stalin viewed the issue of Poland as crucial to the security of the Soviet Union. Stalin pretended to be very angry about not being told about the US development of the atomic bomb. In March of that year. The ‘iron curtain’ In February 1946. Teheran. as the USA and the Soviet Union sought to gain influence and control over as many countries as possible. Despite the progress made about Germany and Poland.) Thus the Grand Alliance began to fracture and with the defeat of Hitler in 1945.

Stalin ensured that any new governments were coalitions which meant that the Communist Party would have a say in the running of the country. whereas the western Allies wanted Germany to be allowed to recover from the effects of the war. Such tactics enabled the Communist Party to take over the government of the country and then began to establish a one-party country – a communist state. In Czechoslovakia. Stalin ordered Gottwald. the Communist Party would infiltrate the key areas of government and security organisations. The Polish Communist Party set up a government which took its orders from Stalin in Moscow. In 1948. There was a distinct pattern to the Soviet takeover and control of the countries of Eastern Europe. Above all. When elections took place. Stalin was trying to prevent western influence reaching the west and refugees leaving the east for Western Europe. Romania. Masaryk. all the countries which had been occupied by the Red Army at the end of the war were brought under Soviet control (Poland. when countries were liberated from the Nazis. Refugees and displaced persons soon discovered that life in Soviet occupied areas was not always pleasant. In addition. In Czechoslovakia the leaders were simply murdered.Stalin felt justified in establishing military rule in Hungary and Romania because these two countries which had fought on the Nazis’ side. all communist opponents were removed.  Soviet Control of Eastern Europe How did Stalin secure control of Eastern Europe? During the years 1945–48.Why did Stalin build the Iron Curtain? He sought to set up a buffer zone of countries in Eastern Europe to protect the USSR against another invasion by Germany – he had seen two invasions in his own lifetime . the Communist Party used any means necessary to discredit and frighten opponents. Hungary – the Baltic States of Estonia. Then. Bulgaria. the Communist leader to remove the non-communists in the government. Having been a member of the coalition for two years. The western Allies were aware of the mistakes that had been at the Treaty of Versailles and did not want to see History repeat itself. Stalin was determined to prevent this happening a third time and he wanted to make sure that Germany was kept weak. Stalin ensured that Soviet troops remained there.1914 and 1941. Gradually. Firstly. the Communist Party was the largest party in the coalition government by 1947. a leading opponent of Gottwald was found dead. the Polish Communist Party fixed the elections of January 1947. Latvia and Lithuania had been absorbed in 1940 and then kept as part of the Soviet Union). .

He had seen the devastation. Why was the Truman Doctrine published? By 1947.In Bulgaria. Rakosi. What was the Allied response to Soviet control of Eastern Europe? The Truman Doctrine The USA began to be concerned about the growth in popularity of the communist parties in France and Italy during the winter of 1946-47. By the November election of 1946. Soviet domination was thus complete. Truman and his advisers had become convinced that the Soviet Union was trying to spread communism through Eastern Europe and then to the west and beyond. In February 1947 the British government informed the USA that it could no longer afford to support the Greek government against Communist rebels. a one-party sate was established The Hungarian Communist Party secured a large share of the vote and took over the government following the general election of August 1947. The USA had seen the spread of communism in the immediate aftermath of the war and now viewed the prospect of further countries becoming communist with great alarm. The USA would use its economic and military strength to protect the world from the threat of communism.000. which was not. which he claimed was the free camp. Truman also wanted to help the countries of Europe recover from the effects of the Second World War. Truman also hoped that he . which the war had caused and he wanted the USA to play a part in recovery. The US government stepped in with an offer of $400. Truman was frightened that if Greece was to become a communist country then this opened the gates to the rest of ‘free’ Europe. All other parties were then banned and the Communist leader. The ‘iron curtain’ had already cut Europe in two and it was felt that the USA should be seen to be resisting communism. the Romanian Communist Party had won a huge majority and set up a government which then forced King Michael to abdicate in 1947. the November elections of 1945 were fixed and the Communists won a majority of seats and in 1946. and the communist. established a Stalinist regime.000 to Greece and Turkey. Truman was openly committing the USA to a policy of what became known as containment. it was obvious that it was intended as a warning to Stalin that Truman was not going to let him get away with any more attempts to take control of Europe. Truman argued that the world was becoming divided into two armed camps – the capitalist camp. While the Truman Doctrine did not actually mention the Soviet Union. Marshall Aid was announced at the same time.

the body which was set up to determine how the money would be divided amongst participants.000.operation. Iceland. but withdrew when they discovered that they would have to join the Organisation for European Economic Co. Poland and Czechoslovakia had applied early for Marshall Aid and looked forward to receiving assistance – until Stalin stepped in. received $600. Denmark. Altogether seventeen countries (Austria. Great Britain.might be able to persuade some of the countries of Eastern Europe to break away from Communism. which allowed them to recover from the war much more quickly than the countries of the east. Luxembourg. Netherlands. The Eastern Bloc countries were forced to withdraw applications for Marshall Aid. When the Soviet Union realised how much influence the USA would have and that the USA would become close trading partners with members of the OEEC. Portugal. In March 1947 President Harry Truman offered grants of American money to all European countries.000. Italy. France. Norway. Marshall Aid was one of the reasons why Stalin tried to force the west out of West Berlin in 1948. Turkey and the West’s zones in Germany) received a total of $13.000. Sweden. He had also served as a captain in the US army in Europe in 1918 and wanted to help Europe recover from the effects of a second world war. Switzerland. It put the ideas of the Truman Doctrine into effect and together the two were called ‘two halves of the same walnut’ by Truman. It emerged from a meeting about . Belgium. This was what Truman had hoped would happen.000. The USA intended to offer Marshall Aid to all countries in Europe.750. Eire. The plan was named after his Secretary of State George C Marshall who had visited Europe and seen the devastation caused by the war. How did Marshall Aid work? Marshall Aid was an attempt to rebuild Europe after the Second World War. Greece. Italy. How did the Soviet Union react to the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan? COMINFORM (Communist Information Bureau) This was established in September 1947. The USSR and other eastern countries did attend the first meetings in 1948. which had been an ally of Germany during the war. Truman had also been shocked by the damage caused when he visited Europe for the Potsdam Conference. This would mean that the USA would be able to influence the countries of the east and undermine communism.

COMECON eventually became a major drain on the resources of the Soviet Union and helped to bring about its economic downfall in the 1980s. It was governed by the Joint Kommandatura. COMECON. Berlin the capital of Germany was inside the Soviet Zone. Bulgaria. Stalin. Romania and Poland. Romania on agriculture and Czechoslovakia on industry. this was not always successful. 1948-49 The Berlin Blockade lasted from June 1948 until May 1949. Stalin insisted that any Communist state or Party which did not follow the Moscow partyline would be expelled from the organisation. In June 1948. one each for the USA. The Soviet Union wanted each member to develop its own specialisms – e. At Potsdam it had been agreed that Germany would be divided into four zones. but the world. had to create his own economic rescue plan to communist countries in order to help them recover from the effects of the Second World War. Hungary. For Stalin. Each of the four allies was to be responsible for its own sector. They especially hated the price fixing which favoured the Soviet Union. COMECON (The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) Naturally. and some member states objected to the Soviet Union forcing specialisms on them.whether to attend US meetings about the Marshall Plan. Britain and France. He closed all the road. the USSR.g. COMINFORM was to indicate how Stalin’s foreign policies were to be followed. the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. But the key agreement was that all decisions had to be agreed by the four occupying nations. Essentially. COMINFORM was a way of spreading his anti-American and anti-British views to communist parties across not only his satellite states. canal and rail routes. on January 25 1949. which contained the military leaders of the four allies. in denying Eastern Europe access to the Marshall Aid. Joseph Stalin ordered that all traffic between West Germany and West Berlin should be stopped. Its purpose was to co-ordinate the activities of Communist Parties in the world not only in Soviet dominated countries. 1948-49 How was Germany governed after the war? The agreements at Potsdam about Germany’s future eventually caused the major rift between the wartime allies. One of the first messages Stalin put across was that the Marshall Plan was a US policy to enslave European states. The Berlin Blockade. East Germany joined in 1950. The development of the Cold War. Czechoslovakia. However. but . Decisions affecting Germany as a whole would be taken jointly and it was intended that Germany would be reunited in the future. The founding members were The Soviet Union. and this was also divided into four sectors. He thus set up a Soviet version of Marshall Aid.

he did not like the prospect of parts of Germany recovering economically – his aim still remained .000 tons of supplies in 24 hours. Clay offered to fight his way out of West Berlin. by 1948. On 12 May 1949. Eventually they were bringing in 8. even coal was brought in by plane. the US commander in Berlin said.000 tonnes were needed every day. His fears increased in April 1948. The U. Stalin called off the blockade. the Marshall Plan was beginning to make life much better and already East Berliners and East Germans were trying to escape to the west. Tension continued to increase. Stalin saw that West Berlin was a temptation to East Berliners.The Allies began to bring supplies into West Berlin by air. How did the Allies react to the Blockade? The Western Allies were determined that Stalin should not succeed in his plans to blockade West Berlin. Bizonia would assist in the future economic recovery. This was the Berlin Airlift. General Lucius Clay. action gave the name Operation Vittles and the British gave the name name Operation Plainfare to the airlift.was not able to prevent the western allies.to keep Germany weak. The new currency would mean that the eastern and western parts of Germany would now be separate economically and would begin to develop at different rates. In the west. Furthermore.S. the Western Allies announced that they were going to introduce a new currency. it had only about 500.The Airlift began on 28 June 1948. The airlift reached its peak on 16–17 April 1949 when almost 1400 flights landed nearly 13. 4. The solution was to fly supplies to the two million citizens of West Berlin. This seemed to accord with the US view of communism. The Western Allies said the new currency was introduced to prevent inflation and to stop the black market trade and bartering which were still common three years after the end of the war. when the French zone was added to create ‘Trizonia’. West Germany will be next’. that once it had a foothold in an area it would spread like in on blotting paper. Stalin said this broke the Potsdam agreements. the Deutschmark. He . but was ordered not to by Truman.000 soldiers. Once more Stalin said that this broke the Potsdam agreements. Shortly after the creation of Trizonia. Great Britain. Moreover. the British and US zones were joined together in ‘Bizonia’. This angered Stalin and the Soviet authorities. France and the USA from bringing supplies into West Berlin by air. ‘If West Berlin falls. to help the economy get going again. Stalin yet again said the new currency broke the Potsdam agreements. then more and more countries would be taken over. The USA had reduced its army after the war and. The Allies believed that if they gave in Stalin would behave as Hitler had in the 1930s.000 tonnes. In January 1947. Why did Stalin blockade Berlin? The main reason for the blockade was that Great Britain and the USA had made it clear that they intended to rebuild the economy in their zones of Germany.

79 pilots and aircrew were killed as a result of accidents during the Operation. Member states were – USA. During the Airlift.  After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. at the time of the Munich Crisis. The invasion. It was a sign that relations between the Superpowers were now so bad that some form of military alliance was necessary. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was set up in April 1949. NATO led to US troops and aircraft being stationed in European countries to protect them against a possible attack by the countries of Eastern Europe. Above all. Iceland. The division between East and West was further confirmed when many East German and East Berlin citizens began to try to escape the Soviet zone and move to the West. D Day. Not only did the Blockade lead to the formation of the military alliance which showed once and for all that the wartime alliance was over. During the Berlin Blockade.had failed to starve the Allies out of Berlin. . The Cold War had started in earnest. but they refused.  In 1938. France. the USA had become concerned about the military power of the USSR in Europe and set up its own military alliance to counter the threat.000 flights were made. Netherlands. only took place in 1944. Stalin believed that the West had hoped that Germany and the USSR would destroy each other. Stalin had offered to form an alliance with Britain and France. 1949 saw the creation in May of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in October. Norway. The members of NATO made it clear that any attack on any part of their territories would be considered an attack on the whole alliance. What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade? The distrust that had been growing between the USA and USSR was now clear for the world to see.  He had urged Roosevelt and Churchill to invade France to take pressure off of the Soviet army. Canada. Belgium. more than 320. Italy and Portugal.  He remembered that they had intervened in the Russian Civil War in 1918-9 and he suspected that they had encouraged Hitler in the 1930s.  Since the 1920s Stalin's basic policy had been 'Socialism in One Country'. Denmark. He was also very suspicious of Britain and the USA. Luxembourg. but they had not taken him up. This meant building up the Soviet Union defences so that it was as strong as possible. Success came with a price. Great Britain. Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to breakdown in 1945? Joseph Stalin  Stalin became the ruler of the Soviet Union in 1928.

When the three leaders met at Yalta. to take a leading role in the United Nations and accept its responsibilities in a new world order.  Roosevelt had refused because it would have cost too many casualties. This made Stalin determined that this should never happen again. During the Second World War the Soviet people suffered terribly. .  He had urged Roosevelt to order US forces to advance across Europe and occupy Berlin.  Truman convinced the US people that the USA could not afford to adopt an isolationist policy after the Second World War. Harry S Truman  Truman had served in the US army during the First World War and had seen the effects that warfare could have.  He was also determined to 'get tough with the Russians' and force them to keep the promises that they had made at Yalta.    In 1945. Stalin did not trust the West and was determined to build a buffer zone against further German attacks.  Truman believed that a stand had to be made against the growing influence of the Soviet Union and was afraid that otherwise there would a repetition of the situation in the 1930s.  He persuaded Stain to issue the Yalta Declaration which promised free elections in the countries occupied by the Red Army. when Hitler had been allowed to get away with a series of aggressive moves. He wanted Germany to be as weak as possible.  He needed Soviet help in the war against Japan and wanted to persuade Stalin to declare war on Japan as soon as possible. Roosevelt was a very sick man (he died on 12 th April 1945) and he probably did not take a very tough line with Stalin.  He visited Europe in 1945 in order to attend the Potsdam Conference and was horrified by what he saw. 26.000 died altogether. Roosevelt  By the time of Yalta.  He did not want to replace one dictator with another. Stalin's main aim was to ensure that the Soviet Union was safe from another attack by Germany. Churchill  Churchill did not want Stalin to be allowed to take control of Eastern Europe.  Roosevelt did not enquire too closely about Stalin’s intentions in Eastern Europe. he stated repeatedly.000.  He may have allowed Stalin to think that Eastern Europe was his sphere of influence and that he could therefore act as he liked.  It was the duty of the USA. particularly as Germany had invaded Russia twice during the twentieth century.  Churchill believed that more should be done to force Stalin to hold free elections and wanted Roosevelt to be tougher at Yalta. He wanted to ensure that there was a barrier in Eastern Europe to stop any possibility of another attack.

He also believed that the Soviet army would be needed in the final attack on Japan. Months later his Secretary of State.  Stalin agreed to accept France as one of the powers.  Poland would be given land in the west.  Churchill did not think that this was a good idea. But there were also disagreements at Potsdam.  The USSR would declare war on Japan three months after the end of the war with Germany. War criminals would be tried and punished. each one would be occupied by one of the four allies.  Germany would pay reparations for the damage caused by the war. Each zone would be occupied by one of the four Allies. In 1948 Truman approved the Berlin Airlift and the plans to set up NATO.  Berlin was divided into four sectors. Berlin would also be divided into four sectors. outside Berlin.  The Nazi Party would be dissolved. Truman approved aid to Greece and then announced the Truman Doctrine.   Truman believed that Germany must be allowed to recover from the effects of the war. this would help to prevent a recreation of the situation in the 1930s. in July 1945. What happened at Yalta?  They agreed to divide Germany into four zones. after the defeat of Germany. who took over when Roosevelt died on 12 April. In 1947. France.  The new president. George C Marshall announced the Marshall Plan.  Stalin promised to allow free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe which had been occupied by the Soviet army. it was clear that Churchill had been right. By the time of the Potsdam conference in July.  All the Allies agreed to take part in the United Nations. Harry Truman.  Germany was divided into four zones. Why did the West not take a firmer line at Yalta?  Roosevelt believed that Stalin would keep his promises. It was held in Potsdam. Great Britain. which would be taken from Germany and would lose land to the USSR. .  There would be free elections in Germany. the USA and the USSR. freedom of speech and a free press. Most of this would go to the USSR. Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta in the southern Soviet Union to plan the end of the Second World War. took a much tougher line with Stalin. Stalin agreed that some members of the Polish government in exile (the London Poles) would be allowed to join the Polish government that he had set up (the Lublin Poles). The Yalta Conference  In February 1945 Roosevelt. so he was prepared to leave the Soviet Union in control of Eastern Europe. The Potsdam Conference  The Potsdam conference was the last of the conferences between the leaders of the allies during the Second World War.

Romania and Hungary).  Why did Stalin build the Iron Curtain?  He wanted to set up a buffer zone of countries in Eastern Europe to protect the USSR against another invasion by Germany. the ruler of the USSR in the years after the Second World War.  Such tactics enabled the Communist Party to take over the government of the country and then began to establish a one-party country – a communist state. Latvia and Lithuania had been absorbed in 1940 and then kept as part of the Soviet Union). The name came from a speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946.  Stalin was determined to prevent this happening a third time. all the countries which had been occupied by the Red Army at the end of the war were brought under Soviet control (Poland. . Britain and the USA.  This was the beginning of the ‘Cold War’.  During the years 1945 –48. whereas the western Allies wanted Germany to be allowed to recover from the effects of the war. Bulgaria.The new US president.  He did not trust Germany – there had been two invasions in his own lifetime .  Stalin was trying to prevent western influence reaching the west and refugees leaving the east for Western Europe. the Communist Party used any means necessary to discredit and frighten opponents. Stalin ensured that Soviet troops remained there.1914 and 1941. How did Stalin secure control of Eastern Europe?  When countries were liberated from the Nazis.  In Hungary and Romania. He wanted to make sure that Germany was kept weak. because they had invaded Russia in 1919 and he believed they had delayed the invasion of France until 1944. two countries which had fought on the Nazis’ side.  The Iron Curtain became a thousand mile fence cutting off the Communist countries of Eastern Europe form the non-communist west.  Stalin was angry that the USA had not told him about the atomic bomb which he knew that the USA had developed.  When elections took place. Harry Truman tried to force the USSR to allow free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe which had been occupied after the end of the war. In the next year Stalin set up the Iron Curtain How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948 What was the Iron Curtain?  The Iron Curtain was the name given to the border between east and west in Europe that was set up by Joseph Stalin.  Gradually the Communist Party would infiltrate the key areas of government and security organisations. In Czechoslovakia the leaders were simply murdered.  The Baltic States of Estonia. Stalin felt justified in keeping Soviet troops there as occupying forces.  Stalin ensured that any new governments were coalitions which meant that the Communist Party would have a say in the running of the country.  He did not trust the west.

the USSR. How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?  In February 1947 the British government informed the USA that it could no longer afford to support the Greek government against Communist rebels. Romania  By the November election of 1946. French and British sectors in Berlin from 1945 to 1991. one each for the USA. How was Germany governed after the war?  When the Allies met at Potsdam to decide how to govern Germany at the end of the Second World War. the Communist Party fixed the elections of January 1947. Stalin ordered Gottwald.  All other parties were then banned and the Communist leader. in March 1947. so this was also divided into four sectors. a leading opponent of Gottwald was found dead. they agreed to divide the country into four zones. Poland  Having been a member of the coalition for two years. but East Berlin and East Germany did not. Harry Truman also took the opportunity to extend the offer of aid to Turkey.000.  The Truman Doctrine was announced by Harry Truman. the Communist leader to remove the non-communists in the government. which began after the Truman Doctrine was published in March 1947.000.  West Berlin benefited from Marshall Aid.  Each of the four allies was to be responsible for its own sector.Czechoslovakia  The Communist Party was the largest party in the coalition government by 1947. all communist opponents were removed.  Berlin the capital of Germany was inside the Soviet zone.  West Berlin was very awkward for the Soviet Union and East Germany.  In 1948.  The Polish Communist Party set up a government which took its orders from Stalin in Moscow. Britain and France. a one-party sate was established Hungary  The Communist Party secured a large share of the vote and took over the government following the general election of August 1947. Masaryk.  The US government stepped in with an offer of $400. which contained the military leaders of the four allies. It allowed people behind the Iron Curtain an opportunity to see what life was like in the West. Decisions affecting Germany as a whole would be taken jointly and it was intended that Germany would be reunited in the future. the Romanian Communist Party had won a huge majority and set up a government which then forced King Michael to abdicate in 1947. West Berlin  West Berlin was formed by the US. established a Stalinist regime. Rakosi. Bulgaria  The November elections of 1945 were fixed and the Communists won a majority of seats and in 1946. . It was governed by the Joint Kommandatura. the president of the USA.  Soviet domination was thus complete.

but in fact only countries in the west accepted it. Why was the Truman Doctrine published?  Truman wanted to help the countries of Europe recover from the effects of the Second World War.  The USSR and other eastern countries attended the first meetings in 1948.  Truman also hoped that he might be able to persuade some of the countries of Eastern Europe to break away from Communism. How did Marshall Aid work?  Marshall Aid was an attempt to rebuild Europe after the Second World War.  Truman had said that he was going to ‘get tough with Russia’. Individual countries would not be able to decide for themselves  This would mean that the USA would be able to influence the countries of the east and undermine communism.  Truman intended that Marshall Aid would be made available to all countries in Europe. Marshall Aid was announced at the same time.  Altogether seventeen countries received a total of $13. were forced to withdraw applications for Marshall Aid. which the war had caused and he wanted the USA to play a part in recovery. It put the ideas of the Truman Doctrine into effect. it was obvious that it was intended as a warning to Stalin that Truman was not going to let him get away with any more attempts to take control of Europe. He offered to help any country that was being threatened either from within or from without its own borders. The plan was named after his secretary of state George C Marshall. Marshall Aid was also intended to help here. .  Truman was trying to stop any other countries in Europe becoming Communist.000. but withdrew when they discovered that they would have to join the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.  Marshall Aid was one of the reasons why Stalin tried to force the west out of West Berlin in 1948.000.  The Marshall Plan would control how Marshall Aid would be spent.750. this was one example of his policy. Britain got more money than any other country.600. received $600.000. receiving $2.  While the Truman Doctrine did not actually mention the Soviet Union.  In March 1947 President Harry Truman offered grants of American money to all European countries. other Eastern Bloc countries. which had been an ally of Germany during the war. which allowed them to recover from the war much more quickly than the countries of the east. This was what Truman had hoped would happen.000. Already the Iron Curtain had cut Europe in two. He did not name any country.000.000 in total. he did not want that to go any further. nor did he specify what sort of aid would be given. Czechoslovakia and Poland in particular.  He had seen the devastation.  When the Soviet Union realised what Truman was up to.  Italy.

Great Britain. The Berlin Blockade  At first travel between the four sectors in Berlin had been easy.COMECON  Stalin set up a Soviet Version of Marshall Aid.  In 1948 the western allies announced that they were going to introduce a new currency in the west to help the economy get going again. In the west the Marshall Plan was beginning to make life much better. Joseph Stalin ordered that all traffic between West Germany and West Berlin should be stopped.  The West was in fact breaking agreements made at Yalta and Potsdam.  He was able to close the road. More and more countries would be taken over. How did the Allies react?  They were determined that Stalin should not succeed. . ‘If West Berlin falls. COMECON.  The Berlin airlift lasted ten and a half months and one plane landed in West Berlin every ninety seconds.  The Soviet Union lacked the financial strength of the USA and the attempt to set up a communist rival led to bankruptcy and ruin. France and the USA from bringing supplies into West Berlin by air. All changes to Germany had to be agreed by all four occupying powers. but was not able to prevent the western allies.  But COMECON was only a pale shadow of the economic institutions of the West. General Lucius Clay the US commander in Berlin said.  Stalin offered aid to communist countries to help them recover from the effects of the Second World War. people could live in one sector and work in another. Why did Stalin blockade Berlin?  The main reason for the blockade was that Great Britain and the USA had made it clear that they intended to rebuild the economy in their zones of Germany.  The Allies believed that if they gave in Stalin would behave as Hitler had in the 1930s.  West Berlin was also a temptation to East Berliners. West Germany will be next’.  In 1947 the British and US zones were joined together in ‘Bizonia’ and the French zone was added in 1948 (Trizonia).  This would mean that east and west would be separate economically.  From June 1948 until May 1949. but was ordered not to by Truman. the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance on January 25 1949.  COMECON was a major drain on the resources of the Soviet Union and helped to bring about its economic downfall in the 1980s. Then in June 1948 Stalin blockaded West Berlin. He also wanted to get reparations from Germany to help rebuild the Soviet Union. It was intended to be the Soviet Union's response to Marshall Aid.  Already East Berliners and East Germans were leaving for the west. canal and rail routes.  Clay offered to fight his way out of West Berlin.  Stalin believed that Germany should be kept weak to prevent any risk of further trouble.

Eventually they were bringing in 8. including Britain and the USA.  The most important aspect of the alliance was that if anyone of the member countries was to be attacked.000 tonnes were needed every day. with its capital at Bonn in the Rhineland.  Since 1949 most countries of Western Europe have joined NATO and in the last years some of the former communist countries.000 tonnes. It became a member of the UN and was admitted to NATO in 1955. were agreed at Yalta and Potsdam? .  In May 1949 Stalin gave up.  It led to US troops and aircraft being stationed in European countries to protect them against a possible attack by the countries of Eastern Europe.  It was a sign that relations between the Superpowers were now so bad that some form of military alliance was necessary. What were the immediate consequences of the Berlin Blockade?  Many East Germans began to try to leave the Soviet zone for the other three. This led to an Arms Race between the superpowers. in relation to Germany. West Germany  After the Berlin Blockade the Allies decided to create the Federal Republic of Germany. The Allies continued to occupy it and there are still British forces in Germany today. It was obvious that the West was not going to give in so he ended the blockade.  NATO was set up in 1949.  In 1949 the Soviet Union also exploded its first atomic bomb. although it was never allowed to have nuclear weapons.  The Federal Republic of Germany was set up in 1949.  The two Superpowers had now given up any pretence of cooperation. This became known as West Germany. Yalta & Potsdam Conferences What decisions. none of the members has been attacked.  The West believed that they were now under threat from Stalin and needed to protect themselves from a possible invasion.000 flights were made altogether and 79 pilots died.  Thirteen countries joined in 1949. which was set up in 1949 after the Berlin Blockade. such as Poland and Hungary have joined. What is NATO?  NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The Cold war had begun in earnest. Since the alliance was set up. 4. all the others would immediately protect it.  More than 320. even coal was brought in by plane.  West Germany existed as a separate country from 1949 to 1990.The Allies began to bring supplies into West Berlin by air.

Germany was to be divided into four zones of occupation. Britain and the USA protested but Stalin insisted it was a defensive measure against possible future attacks. Once Germany was defeated. deep in the Soviet zone. Hungary and Czechoslovakia would be sent back to Germany. Refugees were fleeing from these states fearing a Communist take-over. would also be divided into four similar sections. (2 marks) Prisoners of war from Soviet territories were returned to the USSR to be dealt with. At Potsdam. It was agreed that the Allies should receive reparations from Germany. Berlin was to be in the Soviet zone and to be divided into four. Berlin. Germany was to be defeated and then disarmed. It was agreed to hunt down and punish war criminals. This included a large amount of territory from eastern Poland. By the time of the Conference. The Nazi Party was banned and its leaders were to be tried as war criminals. Soviet troops had liberated countries in Eastern Europe but instead of withdrawing his troops. An agreement that the USSR could enter the war against Japan. USSR. ignoring the wishes of the majority of Poles. (2 marks) That eastern Europe should be seen as a Soviet sphere of influence His plans for Polands boundaries. . Germany would have to pay reparations. In Poland free elections were to be held. A United Nations Organisation to be set up to keep the peace. What was decided at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? How to organise Europe at the end of the War. It was agreed that Germans living in Poland. Truman was less trusting of Stalin than Roosevelt. An agreement that each country should have a veto on the decisions of the Security Council. Stalin had set up a Communist government in Poland.That Germany should be divided up. one Soviet zone in Berlin. Why was it difficult to reach agreement at the Potsdam Conference? [7] Why did tensions between the USSR and the Western Allies increase at the Potsdam conference? Because the USSR and the West held differing views regarding the future of Germany and Eastern Europe. one controlled by USSR. the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan. There were to be adjustments to the Polish/USSR border. The West was suspicious of the activities of the USSR. Eastern Europe would become a sphere of influence for the USSR. Stalins troops controlled the Baltic States. Br and Fr. which to be controlled by USA. one by Britain and one by France. They disagreed over Soviet policy in eastern Europe. one by the USA. As east European countries are liberated. they were to hold free elections to set up democratic governments. Stalin had left them there. it was agreed that Germany and Berlin would be divided as stated at Yalta. What did Stalin gain from the Yalta Conference? [5] One Soviet zone in Germany. It was agreed at Yalta that Germany should be divided into zones of occupation.

Nuremberg trials set up to deal with Nazi war criminals. Anything of value could be taken from Germany as reparations. A guarded border. USSR to have additional reparations. In 1947 Britain threatened to withdraw because it could not afford to maintain them. Truman saw Stalins actions as preparations for a Soviet take-over of the rest of Europe. But the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of USA being actively involved and taking responsibility for world collaboration and that . The mythical division of Europe into two halves. Details of German zones of occupation finalised. After the First World War. Privately Roosevelt and Stalin seemed to accept the other superpowers right to dominate and control their half of Europe – their spheres of influence. This was the start of the era of the Truman Doctrine. Germans living in Hungary and Czechoslovakia sent back to Germany. the USA turned its back on Europe and became increasingly isolationist. Separation of free democratic states from communist dominated ones. The democratic elections were rigged by Stalin. Cold War . The Red Army remained in those countries to ensure that there was a buffer zone against any future attacks from the West. Truman informed Stalin at the start of the Conference that the USA had successfully tested an atomic bomb. Both super powers left Potsdam determined to keep their half of Europe. Eastern border of Poland to be moved west and all non-Poles sent back to Germany. These countries had been occupied by the Nazis during the War and had been liberated by the Soviet Union Red Army. The USA stepped in and offered financial aid for British troops to stay and help maintain the monarchy and won. Japan would be attacked as planned. The border between the Soviet-controlled countries and the West.general questions What was the Iron Curtain? A term introduced by Churchill. USSR dominated countries following Potsdam. Industrial equipment could be taken from own zone in Germany as reparations.Roosevelt had died and been replaced by Truman who was much more antiCommunist and suspicious of Stalin. The idea of West versus East. In 1945 Britain sent troops to Greece to support the Monarchists against the Communists. The Soviet Union was determined that these countries remained friendly. Why was Eastern Europe largely in the hands of the USSR by 1946? Because they were occupied by the Soviet Union to act as a buffer zone. What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference? Aug 1945 What to do about Germany. A denial of freedom and democracy. Truman Doctrine / Marshall Plan Why was the Truman Doctrine significant? It ensured Greece did not fall to the Communists. leading to increased suspicion and tension. To have war trials.

There was the Berlin Blockade. The Doctrine was significant because the USA was resolved to send money. Stalin was convinced this was a ploy to try to get East Berliners to become envious of what capitalism might give them. .) There was no trust. To help the US stem the flow of communism which they thought developed through poverty. equipment and advice to any country threatened by a Communist take-over. Stalin said this broke the agreements as both superpowers had to agree on any decisions. Eventually Stalin had to back down. It was to lead to the formation of NATO. Stalin feared that the Allies were planning to reunite Germany and wanted to force the Allies to remove their troops from West Berlin to stop such plans. It contributed to the Cold War and the ongoing tension between the two superpowers. To halt communism. equipment and advice being invested in receiving countries to recover from WWII. Stalin thought this was against the Yalta Agreement. To restore economies. Trumans aim was containment .to stop communism from spreading further. This also ensured an Europe prosper enough to resist communist threat. Because of the Containment Policy. especially in Korea and Vietnam. Marshall Aid provided money. In 1948 USA. It had widespread consequences. From now on. Because Stalin opposed what the allies were doing. USA convinced the world that Stalin was plotting to take over the whole of Ger and then the rest of Europe. The USA poured millions of dollars into West Berlin to rebuild it. Stalin was angry that the Allies were planning to introduce a new currency. By these actions West Berlin became a small island of capitalism and democracy surrounded by communism.there would be no more appeasement of dictators. Berlin Blockade / Airlift 1948-1949 Why was there continuing tension over Berlin in the years 1945-1949? Why was Berlin a cause of tension between East and West after the Second World War? (Note: Allow up to the Wall. Countries struggling to recover the effects of war were vulnerable to communist take over. Br and Fr zones merged to form West Berlin and introduced a new currency. Berlin was divided into zones of occupation. Explain why the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin. Tension came to a head when Stalin blockaded all road and rail routes into West Berlin. USA was determined to prevent the spread of Communism. Why did the USA introduce the Marshall Plan? To help themselves. To improve trade with western Europe. Truman was worried that Europes economic devastation after WWI would be vulnerable to communist take-over. It meant money. On one side was capitalism and on the other communism. He was determined to restore economies affected by war so as to provide trading opportunities for American companies. Every Communist action would meet an American reaction. the arms race and the heavy involvement of US troops not only in Europe but also in Asia.

The USSR saw this as a threat. 8 mark question for the topic: How far was the Cold War caused by Truman's hostility towards the Soviet Union? [8] It was Truman not Stalin who brought about the Cold War. The USA interpreted the Soviet takeover of eastern Europe as the start of spreading communism around the world and responded with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan which was to help the vulnerable European economy suffering from the after effects of war. Then came Churchill and his “Iron Curtain” speech. Stalin refused to allow Soviet controlled countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries. Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak so that it would not be a threat to the USSR. Stalin created the Warsaw Pact. The Red Army made sure their new governments were communist controlled. The soviets were concerned they were trying to create a new Germany that was wealthier than the Soviet eastern Germany. To counter the Marshall Plan. They thought the Western Allies had no right to be in Berlin and saw them as a threat because they had a base in the Soviet Zone and they showed off the capitalist way of life. Stalin wanted to spread communism. Truman was against Communism. The Soviet Union wanted a weak Germany to avoid any future attack. They wanted the Socialists of Berlin city council to merge with the communists. Eastern Europe was communist controlled. How far do you agree? [8] Each side was to blame because they followed different ideas. To stop people wanting to change from communism. This was the opposite of what the US wanted. The fact that the USA had the atom bomb but failed to tell Stalin encouraged Stalin to rush through the Soviet response and the arms race had started. Stalin set . Zones had been combined. Truman was more anti-communist than Roosevelt who had got on reasonably well with Stalin. AND USA and USSR held different ideologies of capitalism v communism and actions led to suspicion and hostility as they drifted apart at the end of the war as there was no common enemy. In response. Stalin blockaded Berlin and this affected the relationship. USA introduced economic aid. The USA had the atomic bomb. There was the Berlin Blockade. Following Yalta it was expected that there would be free elections in Eastern Europe countries after their liberation. Stalin opposed the planned introduction of a new currency. This was prevented through western support. Soviet Union and USA did not trust each other. The Soviet Union wanted to avoid any future attack. To test resolve.To stop the supply of food and goods. European countries set up NATO to help each other if attacked by Stalin. Stalin set up Cominform and Comecon.

Stalin refused to reduce the size of the Red Army. USA introduced economic aid. In Eastern Europe he believed the Soviet leader intended to set up USSR controlled buffer states. USSR wanted a weak Germany to avoid any future attack. Stalin set up Cominform and Comecon. Rather than allowing free elections the USSR began to impose Communist rule on the countries it had occupied. The west in general: The West had been against Communism since WWI. He was much less trusting than Roosevelt had been. Stalin set up Cominform to strengthen co-operation between communists and Comecon to develop economic co-operation between communist countries.\ USA: The USA had kept the atomic bomb as secret from Stalin. Stalin was convinced the US would use the bomb to gain world-wide power and so started work on producing one. . She responded with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan.? The Soviet Union was to blame for the Cold War. replacing them with Communists. Following Yalta. The Red Army made sure their new governments were communist controlled. USA interpreted the Soviet takeover of E Europe as the start of spreading communism around the world. Eastern Europe was communist controlled. To counter the Marshall Plan.up Cominform to strengthen co-operation between communists and Comecon to develop economic cooperation between communist countries. Stalin blockaded Berlin. it was expected that there would be free elections in eastern European countries after their liberation. the biggest in the world. the USA or the USSR? Each side was to blame because they followed different ideas and did not trust each other. They drifted apart as the war had ended and there was no common enemy. USSR: Stalin was spreading Communism across Eastern Europe and did not allow free elections. The USA and the USSR held different ideologies of capitalism and communism and actions led to suspicion and hostility. It was the Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe that caused the Cold War. Stalin refused to allow Soviet controlled countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries. The Marshall Plan was to help the vulnerable European economy suffering from the after effects of war. Truman was highly suspicious of Stalins motives. The West was suspicious of Soviet intentions in Eastern Europe. Stalin refused to allow Soviet bloc countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries. The USSR saw this as a threat. offering support to peoples struggling to avoid communism. How far do you agree? Who was more to blame for starting the Cold War. Stalin had removed non-Communist leaders in Poland.

Stalin did not allow free elections. The West had success over Berlin. The Western Allies wanted Germany to recover as quickly as possible. An example of this was in relation to Greece where aid was provided under this policy of containment. He believed Communism grew out of poverty and so offered Marshall Aid to enable countries to prosper. realising that it would be a barrier against Communism. The Soviet Union fixed elections to establish Communist satellites. The USA responded to Soviet aggression with the Truman Doctrine. The USA had the atomic bomb. which was designed to enable member countries help each other if attacked by Stalin. The USSR began to impose Communist rule on the countries it had occupied rather than allowing free elections. USA formed NATO. replacing them with Communists. which offered support to any free peoples struggling to avoid communism. Stalin set up Cominform and Comecon. Marshall Plan was devised to help the vulnerable European economy recover after effects of the war. realising that it would be a barrier against Communism. The USA successfully supported western Berlin with the Berlin Airlift. The USSR wanted a weak Germany. Through Truman Doctrine. In opposition to the threat Stalin set up Cominform to strengthen co-operation between communists and Comecon to develop economic co-operation between communist countries. The West managed to defeat Stalins attempts to blockade West Berlin.Harmony was not helped by politicians such as Churchill and his “Iron Curtain” speech and Truman who was more anti-communist than Roosevelt who had got on reasonably well with Stalin. USSR: The USSR spread Communism throughout Eastern Europe. The USA gave support to the West in halting the spread of Communism. It did keep the spread of Communism in check. Western Allies were frustrated at the Soviet refusal to help the economic recovery of Ger and so decided to develop the economy in their zones. Stalin considered this as a threat The Western Allies accused Stalin of breaking agreements over Germany. The Marshall Plan improved the chances of keeping countries non-Communist. The USSR was less successful in Yugoslavia where Tito applied Communism in his own . Which country had the more successful policies towards Europe 1945-1949 – the USA or the USSR? How successful was the West in containing communism in Europe up to 1949? Explain. The USA wanted Germany to recover as quickly as possible. European countries set up NATO to help each other if attacked by Stalin. The Truman Doctrine contained Communism. Stalin had success in countries such as Hungary. USA: The USA introduced economic aid. Truman did not want to send troops but wished to attack Communism at its roots. USA made it clear that it would help any country to stop the spread of Communism. Stalin had removed non-Communist leaders in Poland. Romania and Czechoslovakia where Communist governments were established. Stalin refused to allow Soviet controlled countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries.

e. Pro­Soviet governments had been set up. A Type Questions!! a What decisions. the containment of Communism.g. Truman thought this was repeating the problems caused after the First  World War.’ ‘Russia gained control of one of the sectors of Berlin.’ a What did Stalin gain from the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences? e. Having freed much of Eastern Europe from the Nazis. would also be divided into four similar sections. one controlled by USSR. The Soviets had  kept forces in eastern European countries despite agreeing at Yalta that they would be withdrawn. Romania and Bulgaria. one by the USA. Berlin was in the Soviet zone of . were agreed at Yalta and Potsdam? e.because of the restrictions to accept Marshall Aid.’ ‘The Nazi Party was banned and its leaders were to be tried as war criminals.’ ‘It was agreed that the Allies should receive reparations from Germany. Hungary and Czechoslovakia would be sent back to Germany.g.’ ‘It was agreed that Berlin. and  Truman showed his displeasure by adopting a ‘get tough’ attitude towards Stalin. was another Communist state. Stalin responded by turning their zone into the GDR which. in effect. including in Poland.g.’ ‘It was agreed that Germans living in Poland. ‘They disagreed over what to do about Germany.’ ‘They disagreed over Soviet policy in Eastern Europe.  Stalin wanted considerable compensation for the damage done to USSR and its 20  million deaths.’ ‘It was agreed to hunt down and punish war criminals. Stalin refused to allow Soviet bloc countries to accept Marshall Aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up trade and friendships with European countries and. in relation to Germany.’ a Describe the disagreements between the USSR and the USA which emerged at the Potsdam Conference. Poland. the Red Army remained in occupation and the Soviet Union established Communist governments through fixed elections. ‘It was agreed at Yalta that Germany should be divided into zones of occupation. Stalin wanted to cripple  Germany completely to protect the USSR against future threats.’ ‘They disagreed over reparations. which was deep in the Soviet zone. This happened in Czechoslovakia. Despite the West viewing the defeat of the Berlin Blockade as a success.way and Greece where the Communist takeover was unsuccessful.’ ‘At Potsdam. it was agreed that Germany and Berlin would be divided as stated at Yalta. Hungary. one by Britain and one by France. Truman did not want to repeat the mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles. ‘Russia gained control of one of the zones of a divided Germany.

’ ‘A guarded border.’ ‘The zones were to be controlled by USA. ‘The border between the Soviet controlled countries and the West.’ ‘A denial of freedom and democracy.g.’ ‘It was signed between Russia and her satellite states shortly after West Germany was admitted to NATO.’ ‘As east European countries are liberated. rail and canal links between West Berlin and West Germany.’ ‘Berlin was to be in the Soviet zone. ‘It was signed in 1955.’ .’ ‘Germany would have to pay reparations.’ ‘Russia was able to take industrial equipment from its zone in Germany as reparations.g.’ ‘Eastern Europe would become a ‘sphere of influence’ for the USSR. ‘The Blockade and Airlift took place between June 1948 and May 1949.Germany.’ ‘Over 2 million tons of supplies were airlifted to the blockaded city.g.’ a What was decided at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? e.’ ‘It was recognised that eastern Europe should be seen as a ‘Soviet sphere of influence’.’ ‘Poland’s eastern border would be moved west to the rivers Oder and Neisse. ‘Germany was to be defeated and then disarmed.’ ‘Once Germany was defeated. e.’ a Describe the Berlin Blockade and airlift of 1948–9.’ ‘The Pact was a mutual defence agreement.’ ‘USSR dominated countries following Potsdam.’ ‘Stalin closed all road.’ ‘The mythical division of Europe into two halves. USSR.’ ‘A joint command structure was set up under the Soviet Supreme Commander. Britain and France.’ (a) What did Churchill mean by the ‘iron curtain’? e.’ ‘Berlin was to be divided into four. the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.’ ‘It gained a seat at the United Nations Organisation.g.’ ‘In Poland free elections were to be held.’ a What was the Warsaw Pact? e.’ ‘Germany was to be divided into four zones of occupation.’ ‘The Pact was conceived by Stalin but implemented by Khrushchev.5 million West Berliners to keep them fed and warm through the winter.’ ‘Separation of free democratic states from communist dominated ones. they would be able to hold free elections to set up democratic governments.’ ‘The US and British decided to fly supplies in to the 2.’ ‘A United Nations Organisation to be set up to keep the peace.

g. Capitalism v Communism. ‘During 1944.g. Stalin wanted to cripple Germany completely but Truman did not agree. ‘The border between the Soviet-controlled countries and the West.’ a What was the ‘Iron Curtain’? e. ‘It was not a military conflict but a war of words and propaganda.’ a What was the ‘Cold War’? e.’ ‘It was a rivalry that started in 1945 and lasted for over 40 years.‘There were to be adjustments to the Polish/USSR border.’ ‘USSR dominated countries following Potsdam.’ a What were the main problems facing the Allied leaders when they met at Potsdam? e.’ ‘In January 1947. Truman was suspicious of Stalin’s intentions and thought he was trying to dominate all of Eastern Europe.’ a Describe how Poland came under Communist control.’ ‘A denial of freedom and democracy.’ .’ ‘It brought a frosty atmosphere but no actual fighting.’ ‘A tension of different ideologies. however.’ ‘They disagreed over Soviet policy in Eastern Europe.g. ready to take over.’ ‘There were no free elections. e. the USA and the USSR. the Red Army moved westwards and had occupied Poland by January 1945. ‘Roosevelt had died and Truman was much more anti-communist. the Lublin Poles.’ ‘The mythical division of Europe into two halves. Stalin wanted compensation from Germany but Truman resisted this demand. He thought this would just repeat the mistakes made at Versailles. Stalin wanted Poland to expand westwards into Germany to create a buffer zone between Germany and the Soviet Union. He already had a government in exile.’ ‘At Yalta.’ ‘It was a period which included the arms race.’ a What was decided at the Potsdam Conference? e. ‘Germany would be divided as agreed at Yalta.’ ‘Stalin wanted a pro-Soviet government.’ ‘They disagreed about reparations.g.’ ‘There were disagreements about the future of Germany.g.’ ‘It was increasing tension that developed between two superpowers. fresh elections saw the return of a totally communist government.’ ‘The London Poles were not allowed to be in government.’ ‘Industrial equipment could be taken from own zone in Germany as reparations.’ ‘A guarded border.’ ‘Separation of free democratic states from communist dominated ones.

’ ‘A guarded border.’ .’ ‘Details of German zones of occupation finalised.’ [worth additional mark] ‘Berlin would be divided in the same way.g.g.’ ‘Countries freed from Nazi occupation would be allowed to hold free elections to choose the government they wanted. Hungary and Czechoslovakia would be sent back to Germany.’ ‘Nuremberg trials set up to deal with Nazi war criminals.’ ‘Separation of free democratic states from communist dominated ones. British and Soviet.’ ‘It was agreed that war criminals would be hunted down and punished. ‘Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany had surrendered.’ ‘Anything of value could be taken from Germany as reparations.’ ‘USSR dominated countries following Potsdam.g.’ ‘Eastern border of Poland to be moved west and all non-Poles sent back to Germany.’ a What was decided at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? e.’ ‘Details of German zones of occupation finalised.’ ‘The mythical division of Europe into two halves. French.’ ‘USSR to have additional reparations.’ ‘The Nazi Party was banned and its leaders were to be tried as war criminals. ‘Japan would be attacked as planned.’ ‘Eastern Europe should be seen as a Soviet sphere of influence. ‘Japan would be attacked as planned.’ ‘Germany would be divided into four zones: American.g.’ ‘A denial of freedom and democracy.’ ‘Anything of value could be taken from Germany as reparations.‘Poland’s eastern border would be moved west to the rivers Oder and Neisse.’ ‘Industrial equipment could be taken from own zone in Germany as reparations.’ a What was the ‘iron curtain’? e. ‘The border between the Soviet-controlled countries and the West.’ a What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference? e.’ ‘Germans living in Hungary and Czechoslovakia sent back to Germany.’ ‘Germans living in Poland.’ a What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference? e.

’ B Type Questions!! Why did the USA introduce the Marshall Plan? e.g.’ ‘Berlin  was to be divided into four.’ ‘Once Germany defeated.’ ‘Truman did not want to use soldiers.’ a What did Stalin gain from the Yalta Conference? e. one Soviet zone in Berlin. He wanted to attack ‘misery and want’.g.’ ‘Germany was to be divided into  four zones of occupation.’ ‘The zones to be  controlled by USA.’ ‘A rivalry that started in 1945–46 and lasted for over 40 years.’ (2 marks) ‘Prisoners of war from Soviet territories were returned to the USSR to be dealt with.’ a What was agreed at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? e.’ ‘Berlin was to be in Soviet zone.’ ‘An agreement that the USSR could enter the war against Japan.’ ‘Nuremberg trials set up to deal with Nazi war criminals. ‘Germany was to be defeated and then disarmed.’ The increased tension brought a frosty atmosphere but no actual fighting.’ (2 marks) ‘That eastern Europe should be seen as a ‘Soviet sphere of influence’.’ ‘As east European Countries liberated they would be able to hold free elections to set up democratic  governments.’ C Type Questions!!! .’ ‘USSR to have additional reparations.’ a What was the ‘Cold War’? e.’ ‘A United Nations Organisation to be set up to keep the peace. ‘Increasing tension that developed between two superpowers. This included a large amount of territory from easternPoland.’ (2 marks) ‘It was an arms race.’ ‘Countries struggling to recover the effects of war were vulnerable to communist take over.’ ‘Ideology expressed by supporting opposing sides in conflict.‘Industrial equipment could be taken from own zone in Germany as reparations.g.’ ‘In Poland free elections were to be held.’ ‘Germany would have to pay reparations. Capitalism v Communism.’ ‘His plans for Poland’s boundaries. ‘One Soviet zone in Germany. ‘To help the US stem the flow of communism which they thought developed through poverty. Britain and France. Soviet Union to join war against  Japan.’ ‘An agreement that each country should have a veto on the decisions of the Security Council. He wanted to restore economies affected by war so as to provide trading opportunities for Americancompanies. USSR.’ ‘Germans living in Hungary and Czechoslovakia sent back to Germany.’ ‘Eastern border of Poland to be moved west and all non-Poles sent back to Germany. the USA and the USSR.g.’ ‘A tension of different ideologies.

 Germany was divided even more firmly  and relations between East and West worsened. ‘The Soviet Union wanted a weak Germany to avoid any future attack.g.g.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.’ ‘To counter the Marshall Plan Stalin set up Cominform to strengthen cooperation between communists and Comecon to develop economic co-operation between communist countries.’ Stalin refused to allow Soviet bloc countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries.’ ‘The fact that the USA had the atom bomb encouraged Stalin to rush through the Soviet response and the arms race had started.’ ‘A direct result of the Berlin Blockade was  the formation of NATO and this was a serious challenge to Stalin. The USSR saw this as a threat.  Stalin responded by turning their zone into the GDR.’ (c) How far was the Cold War caused by Truman’s hostility towards the Soviet Union? .’ ‘Harmony not helped by politicians such as Churchill and his “Iron Curtain” speech.’ OR e. The Red Army made sure their new governments were communist controlled. accusing the US of fostering self­interest.’ (c) ‘It was Truman not Stalin who brought about the Cold War. resulting in Stalin backing down.  The USSR saw this as a threat. e. ’Truman was more anti-communist than Roosevelt who had got on reasonably well with Stalin.’ ‘The USA interpreted the Soviet takeover of eastern Europe as the start of spreading communism around the world and responded with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan which was to help the vulnerable European economy suffering from the after effects of war. ‘The USA interpreted the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe as the start of spreading  communism around the world and responded with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan  which was to help the vulnerable European economy suffering from the after effects of war.’ ‘Following Yalta it was expected that there would be free elections in Eastern Europe countries after their liberation.g.’ ‘The USA and USSR held different ideologies of capitalism v communism and actions led to suspicion and hostility as they drifted apart at the end of the war as there was no common enemy. In response Stalin created the Warsaw Pact.’ ‘Truman’s offer of aid enabled countries to prosper but it was of benefit to the USA’s trade.’ ‘European countries set up NATO to help each other if attacked by Stalin. e. Stalin prevented Eastern European countries from being  involved. ‘The Soviets introduced a  blockade but the West defeated this by flying in supplies.(c) The Truman doctrine was more responsible for increasing Cold War tension than the Berlin Blockade.

’ . The Red Army made sure their new governments were communist controlled. Harmony not helped by politicians such as Churchill and his “Iron Curtain” speech. ‘The Soviet Union wanted a weak Germany to avoid any future attack.’ ‘Following Yalta it was expected that there would be free elections in Eastern Europe countries after their liberation.’ OR ‘The USA and USSR held different ideologies of capitalism v communism and actions led to suspicion and hostility as they drifted apart at the end of the war as there was no common enemy.g. e.’ ‘The USA interpreted the Soviet takeover of eastern Europe as the start of spreading communism around the world and responded with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan which was to help the vulnerable European economy suffering from the after effects of war. Stalin blockaded Berlin and this affected the relationship. ‘Truman was more anti-communist than Roosevelt who had got on reasonably well with Stalin. Stalin set up Cominform to strengthen co-operation between communists and Comecon to develop economic cooperationbetween communist countries. This was the opposite of what the US wanted. To counter the Marshall Plan.’ ‘The fact that the USA had the atom bomb but failed to tell Stalin encouraged Stalin to rush through the Soviet response and the arms race had started.’ ‘European countries set up NATO to help each other if attacked by Stalin. The USSR saw this as a threat.Explain your answer. In response Stalin created the Warsaw Pact.’ ‘Stalin refused to allow Soviet controlled countries to accept aid as he thought the real purpose was for the USA to build up friendships with European countries.