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Leavening agent

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A leavening agent (/ˈlɛvənɪŋ/, also leaven agent; /ˈlɛvən/), also known as a raising agent, is any one of a
number of substances used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action that lightens and softens it, by
incorporating gas bubbles into it. The alternative or supplement to leavening agents is mechanical leavening
by which air is incorporated by mechanical means. Leavening agents can be synthetic chemical compounds,
or consist of biological agents. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, but other gases such as hydrogen
are also used. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour mixes with the water in the dough to
form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or polysaccharides like pentosans or xanthan
gum), then gelatinizes and "sets"; the holes left by the gas bubbles remain.

Contents
1 Biological leavening agents
2 Chemical leaveners
2.1 History
3 Other leaveners
4 Mechanical leavening
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links

Biological leavening agents
Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing carbon dioxide found in:
baker's yeast
beer (unpasteurised—live yeast)
ginger beer
kefir
sourdough starter
Clostridium perfringens producing hydrogen found in salt-rising bread

Chemical leaveners
Chemical leaveners are mixtures or compounds that release gases when they react with each other, with
moisture, or with heat. Most are based on a combination of acid (usually a low molecular weight organic
acid) and a salt of bicarbonate (HCO3−). After they act, these compounds leave behind a chemical salt.

Since chemical expertise is required to create a functional chemical leaven without producing off-flavors from the chemical precursors involved. creating a temporary foam in the butterfat matrix of the cream. such substances are often mixed into premeasured combinations for maximum results. and to a lesser extent in tempura. The breakthrough in chemical leavening agents occurred in the 1930s with the introduction of monocalcium phosphates (Ca(H2PO4)2). This effect is typically used in popovers. notably cream or egg whites. can also create foams through mechanical action. To take advantage of this style of leavening. These compounds combine with sodium bicarbonate to give carbon dioxide in a predictable manner. as well as cookies and numerous other applications where a long biological fermentation is impractical or undesirable. where an egg protein matrix produced by vigorous whipping provides almost all the structure of the finished product. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant in aerosol whip cream cans. This integrates tiny air bubbles into the mixture. These are generally referred to as baking powders. The Chorleywood Bread Process uses a mix of biological and mechanical leavening to produce bread. See also Aerated Bread Company. and sodium aluminium phosphates (NaH14Al3(PO4)8·4H2O and Na3H15Al2(PO4)8).[2] Other leaveners Steam and air are used as leavening agents when they expand upon heating. This is the method employed in the making of sponge cakes. since the sugar crystals physically cut through the structure of the fat. disodium pyrophosphate (Na2H2P2O7). the baking must be done at high enough temperatures to flash the water to steam. The process has nevertheless been adapted by industrial bakers in other parts of the world. Sour milk and carbonates were used in the 1800s. while it is considered by food processors to be an effective way to deal with the soft wheat flours characteristic of British Isles agriculture. with a batter that is capable of holding the steam in until set. History Chemical leavening were publicized by Amelia Simmons in her American Cookery. This is often used in cookies.Chemical leaveners are used in quick breads and cakes. the nitrous oxide escapes emulsion instantly. it is controversial due to a perceived lack of quality in the final product.[1] published in 1796. Other leavening agents developed include sodium aluminium sulfate (NaAl(SO4)2·12H2O). bakeries started in 1862 in the UK that made carbon dioxide leavened bread Baking powder . Yorkshire puddings. Creamed mixtures are usually further leavened by a chemical leavener like baking soda. Large densities of N2O are dissolved in cream at high pressure. Mechanical leavening Creaming is the process of beating sugar crystals and solid fat (typically butter) together in a mixer. When expelled from the can. wherein she mentions the use of pearl ash as a leavening agent. Using a whisk on certain liquids.

pub2 (https://dx.pub2) Further reading Matz. .Chametz Unleavened bread References 1. Mary Tolford Wilson (1984) [1958]. 2. a non-profit organization.0308051303082114. NY: Dover. The First American Cookbook (1984 reprint ed. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. AVI Publishing Co.1002%2F0471238961. S (1972). doi:10. "Bakery Technology and Engineering". By using this site.php?title=Leavening_agent&oldid=717458492" Categories: Leavening agents Fermentation in food processing This page was last modified on 27 April 2016.a01.. John Brodie.0308051303082114.). Inc.wikipedia. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. additional terms may apply. Amelia.org/10.doi. Chemical Leavening Agents" in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2001. Simmons. at 20:48. ISBN 0-486-24710-4. John Godber "Bakery Processes.1002/0471238961. Mineola. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.org/w/index. John Wiley & Sons.a01. External links Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Leavening agent Retrieved from "https://en.