High Power Factor Flyback Converter for LED

Driver with Boundary Conduction Mode Control
*Tzuen-Lih Chern

Yu-Lun Chern

Jao-Hwa Kuang

Department of Electrical Engineering

**Li-Hsiang Liu

***Ching-Nan Huang

Department of Electrical Engineering

National Sun Yat-Sen University
Kaohsiung, Taiwan R.O.C

I-Shui University
Kaohsiung County, Taiwan R.O.C

Department of Mechanical and
Electro-Mechanical Engineering

Abstract—A varying-frequency control Flyback rectifier for LED
driving in Boundary-Conduction Mode (BCM) is presented.
Comparing with Discontinuous-Conduction Mode, BCM has the
advantages like smaller coupling inductor current, less current
stress for circuit component, slight output current ripple, and
higher power factor performance. For lower output application
circumstance, the boundary conduction mode can be chosen with
smaller inductance value. In this control scheme, input line
voltage sensing, analog multiplier/divider and inner current loop
are neglected. Design and analysis for BCM control circuit are
derived and simulated. To verify the ideal vary-frequency
controller, the circuit experiment has been applied to driving
LED module, and stabilized the output current. The
experimental results show that the system can provide constant
current output with high power factor and it also compared with
the system is operating in DCM.


978-1-4244-5046-6/10/$26.00 2010






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Figure 1. Flyback Converter Operating in DCM with Voltage Following

Control Method.



In active power factor correction technique, it depends on
the inductor current conduction mode. Most of high power
output load are conducting in Continuous Conduction Mode
(CCM). It shows good performance such as high power factor
and fast output-voltage regulation [6]. In that case, the storage




In recent years, LED technology has been evolved and
grown maturely. Bring most of the advantages like small size,
longevity, fast response, and high efficiency made this
photoelectron material become the main trend lighting
equipment in current generation[1][2][3]. From green power
perspective, it is not just only talking about the component
material but also including the power pollution. Usually, the
most electric appliances have the characteristics with
inductance or capacitance. In those situations, the
characteristics make a deviation between line input voltage and
line input current. Besides, the input current contains a lot of
harmonic components from power supply after the bridge
rectifier. The phase shift and harmonic distortion will decrease
the power efficiency and interfere the other equipments.
Therefore, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
established the standards of Total Harmonic Distortion as IEC555-2, IEC-1000-3-2, and IEEE-519. That is the reason of
power factor correction method wild spreading[4][5].



Keywor: Boundary Conduction Mode;Power Factor; LED


National Sun Yat-Sen University
Kaohsiung, Taiwan R.O.C






Boundary Conduction Mode Control
1. Zero-Current Detection
2. Constant-Time Conduction Control

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Figure 2. Flyback Converter Operating in BCM Control Method.

capacitor voltage varies with the output load, and it will suffer
high voltage stress at high input voltage and light load that
increases the switch voltage stress of the power converter [7].
Another approach is Discontinuous Conduction Mode
(DCM) operation gives a lower total harmonic distortion of the
line current compared to the CCM operation [8]. In DCM
operation, it just only need a single control loop to regulate the
output voltage with Flyback converter as shown in Fig. 1 [9].
Although it has simple structure, this approach has an
undesirable feature: the peak current is twice of the average
increasing the switching loss. In low power application, the
converter can be controlled to operate at the boundary of the



ANALYSIS OF BOUNDARY CONDUCTION MODE AND INDUCTOR DESIGN A. Voltage Following Control is a traditional method to have the output voltage regulation. the turn-off period is different because of the inductor current falling time is varying in each period. avoiding turn-on losses and electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems. After the output current flowed by Figure 4. the inductor store the energy from input voltage again. 2. VOLTAGE FOLLOWING CONTROL METHOD The AC-DC converters in the open loop usually use Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the switch to regulate the output voltage. the more time is needed when the current from peak falls to zero. the power switch turns on with a fixed period. the raising time of inductor current is fixed as the same as the time of switching on. a constant current output LED driver Flyback converter with boundary conduction mode controller is proposed. Then the error signal v c is acquired after the reference voltage V ref compared with V f and passed by the voltage compensator. Let the sawtooth voltage and v c signal into the comparator. In this fixed period time. Therefore. the frequency bandwidth of voltage compensator is designed under the ripple of line voltage is about 100Hz to 120Hz. To prevent to consume too much power in the output stage. But there are some factors like input/output voltage disturbances and ripples cause the output voltage unstable. there is no dead time while conduction is operating. III. A BCM control Flyback converter topology is shown in Fig. Generally. a feedback loop is added to the system. (3) the smaller sized inductor can be used to reduce the size and cost of the system [10][11]. In the switching off duration. Here. the switching frequency of BCM converter varies with changes in the load current or the input voltage. 4. It can be seen as a special case of hysteresis current control because of its current lower bound is set to zero. CCM and DCM called Boundary Conduction Mode (BCM). the converter operating in DCM has better PF performances. That means when the inductor current descends to zero. Boundary conduction mode inductance current and the duty ratio. When the inductor current is equal to zero. In this paper. The simulation and experimental results are presented in Section 5. the 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis 2089 . When the inductor current peak is higher. inductor current follows the line input voltage and the phase shift decreases naturally. There is a sensing resistor R f to sense the output current. the sensing feedback voltage V f can be obtained. the inductor current and the corresponding duty ratio is shown. It is operating between CCM and DCM. Flyback Converter Operating in DCM with Voltage Following Control Method. In this condition. In Section 3 analyzes and design of boundary conduction mode and the inductor. BCM control power factor correction LED driver is shown in Section 4. The single control loop discontinuous conduction mode control constant current Flyback converter is described in Section 2. Therefore. 3. The system block diagram is shown in Fig.D RL Vac Co Vin Vo Rf Q PWM Sawtooth Voltage Vc Voltage Compensator Output Voltage Feedback ¦ + Vf Vref Figure 3. From Fig. the flyback converter under VFC is operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). (2) there is no diode recovery current problem in a BCM converter. 4. inductor current raises depending on the line input voltage. The duty ratio is a proportional relation to the input and output voltage. Boundary Conduction Mode The boundary conduction mode is also called Critical Conduction Mode (CRM). The BCM method is attractive in low-power applications because: (1) the switch operates under zero-current turn-on. Besides. and the output signal becomes the control signal of power MOS switch Q. R f . That is the reason the flyback combines with DCM to drive the LED and to conquer the output voltage disturbance. In contrast to constant-frequency PWM. In Fig. a small resistance about 0. That is the reason the system has high power factor when circuit operates in boundary conduction mode. It is simple to construct and control the system. II. BCM is frequently used in lowpower power factor correction (PFC) rectifier application.43 ȍ is chosen. To deal with the problem.

it still has the advantages such as zero-current for soft switching. I Lmag ( pk ) = 2 ⋅ I in ( pk ) . the switch-on time switch-on time Lp . (7) After combining (5) and (7). ηVin ( rms) (1) Lp = input voltage and the efficiency of transformation respectively. that is. the switching frequency is inverse proportion to that is. the charging and discharging inductor current is the same in BCM as shown in Fig. the minimum switching frequency f s (min) of converter yields 2 f s (min) = η ⋅ nVo ⋅ Vin ( rms ) 1 1 . B. and substituting (1) and (2) into (3) obtains the relation of L p and switch-on time period as Lp = where Pin Vin ( rms ) = 2⋅ Po . and output power PI Controller 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis . (8) = = Ts t on + t off 2 ⋅ Po ⋅ L p (nVo + 2Vin ( rms ) ) From (8). Therefore. 2 2 ⋅ Po t off = 2 2 ⋅ Po ⋅ L p η ⋅ nVo ⋅ Vin ( rms ) (6) . turn-on period is fixed but the turn-off period is varying. The maximum coupling inductor current I Lmag ( pk ) is twice the The coupling inductor current (2) I Lmag ( pk ) in a switching period Ts . (3) L p is the 2 ⋅ Po ⋅ L p η ⋅ Vin( rms ) 2 (4) . LP where n is the turns ratio of the transformer. when the line input voltage is maximum. η ⋅ nVo ⋅ Vin ( rms ) ⋅ t off I in ( pk ) . The waveform of coupling inductor current in a switching period. In addition. I Lmag ( pk ) = 2 ⋅ Po and the relation of L p and switch-off time period as Vin (rms ) and η are the root-mean-square value of line maximum input current η ⋅ Vin( rms ) 2 ⋅ t on t on = Po can be [12] I in ( pk ) = 2 ⋅ ¦ + Error Amplifier Vref A power factor correction Flyback converter under boundary conduction mode control. 2090 . the t on and t off are the period time of switch on and off respectively. According to (8). (5) . and less voltage stress for the control circuit. Although the control circuit is more complicated than DCM operation. the relationship between the maximum input current I in ( pk ) . The proposed Boundary Conduction Mode control LED driver power factor correction block diagram. The t on is bigger while L p value is increasing. t on is direct ratio with L p . input power Pin . the relationship between the maximum coupling inductor current and the power switch turns on and off yields 2 ⋅ Vin ( rms ) ⋅ sin ωt LP nV t on = o t off . Design of The Circuit Component in Boundary Conduction Mode Constant-Time Conduction Controller Figure 6. and the switching frequency is decreasing. 5. smaller output current ripple.i Lmag(pk) + Vac + D Vo Co Vin Rf - - Δi Lmag Gate-Driving Circuit Zero-Current Detection Circuit R-S Flip Flop Figure 5. that is ωt = π / 2 . inductance. And the variable-frequency control is developing for BCM.

9. The control signal v pi is the voltage error signal after passing the proportional-integral controller.+ Vac D Co Vin LED Output Load ZeroCurrent Detection Q Q R S RESET SET Rf Vzero Vzero(positive) + - Vcc Vtri + - Ctri Sc Vpi Vzero(negative) Error Amplifier Constant-Time Coduction Control PI controller + Vf Vref Figure 7. the positive. power switch turns off. For constant current output. The corresponding system circuit and the control signals are shown in Fig. η ⋅ nVo ⋅ Vin ( rms ) 2 2 ⋅ Po ⋅ f s (min) ( nVo + 2Vin ( rms ) ) . the capacitor comparator generates a pulse signal to reset the RS flip-flop and turns the power-MOS off. The DCM and BCM simulation results are shown in Table 2. The control signal v zero depends on the inductor current. While vtri is higher than v pi . SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS For verifying the control scheme. the LED is replaced by a equivalent resistor. 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis 2091 . and constant-time conduction controller as shown in Fig. In the output load. In a constant-time conduction period. inductance value L p under minimum switching frequency f s (min) condition is Lp = IV. The inductor current following the line input voltage makes the line input current shaping as like the input voltage. an additional inductor set is made in the secondary of the transformer. Therefore. The waveforms of zero-current detection and constant-time conduction period control signals. 8. the switch turns off and the inductor current decreases in this period. In addition. At the same time. The system power factor is corrected from this cycle-by-cycle control. V. The corresponding control signals simulated by IsSpice software are shown in Fig. The proposed PFC in Boundary Conduction Mode LED driver circuit diagram. (9) BOUNDARY CONDUCTION CONTROLLER FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION There are three main subjects in the BCM control scheme which includes the output current regulation. the inductor current is detecting to see if the current falls to a slight negative value. the inductor current decreases and recharges after the current is equal to zero. When system operating in BCM control. the angle deviation between line input voltage and line input current is decreasing. 6. zero-current detection. the power switch turns on. a small resistor R f is chosen for sensing the output current and transforming the current into voltage signal to the feedback loop. The power factor correction system with BCM controller and DCM operation condition compares each other in the same environment setting. the maximum inductor current is referring to the line input voltage. When v zero is Ctri is charging and the power-MOS turns on in this duration. In the output stage. Table 1 shows the simulation and experimental parameter specifications. When switch off. Figure 8. The load range is set from full load (240 Ω ) to light load (100 Ω ) to observe the system performance in different output condition. After vtri is higher than v pi . the constant-time conduction controller determines the switch turn-on time when t on exceeds a criterion. 7 and Fig. it sends a set signals to turn the switch on when the inductor is increasing. This additional inductor set is used for detecting the inductor current. a small resistor is used to sense and transfer the output current into voltage signal and compare to the reference signal. a constant current output Flyback converter for LED driving circuit is constructed in simulation and experiment.

I mag . Output Loading (Ω) 240 200 160 120 100 THD (%) 17.56 DCM Power Factor 0. V gs . 10. Vzero(negative) . THD estimation from Power Measurement software. .05 0. The steady state maximum 2092 Figure 12. Item Symbol Input voltage v ac Parameter DCM BCM 110 ACV Output voltage Magnetize inductance Switching frequency Output capacitor Vo 84 V Lm 360 ȝH 2 mH fs 50 kHz 27-40 kHz Co Output load (LED) RL Output power Po 680 ȝF Series connection of ten to twenty-four 1W (3. In the experiment step. The waveform of the line input voltage and the line input current.894 BCM THD Power (%) Factor 15. Table II. The waveforms (from top to bottom) of inductor current control signal LED Module Flyback Figure 10.75 25.983 30. 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis .09 32.26 0. each 1W LED connects consecutively for different output load condition. the power factor results are higher than the DCM’s and still maintains above 0.5V/350mA) LED 10W ~ 24W Figure 9. Vzero .02 17.07 0.01 A and 1. The prototype BCM control Flyback converter with LED output module is shown in Fig.954 0. inductor current in DCM and BCM are 3.9. and RESET signal. The constant current output Flyback converter with BCM control power factor correction for LED driving prototype board. V pi BCM Controller Figure 11. The simulation results of constant current output PFC scheme in DCM and BCM control.955 31.916 From Table 2.974 0. But in BCM operation condition.985 0. V zero ( positive ) .954 43.TABLE I.65 A respectively.38 0. the THD is increasing and the power factor is decreasing when the output adjusts from full load to light load both in DCM and BCM control.11 0. The specifications of DCM and BCM simulation and experiment. Vtri .927 0.99 39.987 18.

pp98-104. 5. A. Kazimierczuk and W. 41. J.96 in full load condition. pp.M. 1991.07 10.919 0. 1993.960 0. Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition. [12] J.942 0.9 with lower current ripple output. M. Rico-Secades. 2004.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. The output current is held at 350 mA from full load to light load range. [6] Jun-Young Lee. the LED driver power factor is about 0. Vol. Vol. “Power Factor Correction and IEC 555-2.76 18.” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. “Design Consideration for Power Factor Correction Boost Converter Operating at the Boundary of Continuous Conduction Mode and Discontinuous Conduction Mode.” Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. D.1386-1390. 1. Zongbo Hu. the lighting efficiency is decreasing. “Averaged switch modeling of boundary conduction mode DC-to-Dcconverters. [5] C. 4th IEEE Conference . VI. Comparing with DCM operation condition. The waveforms of line input voltage and line input current for 24W output is shown in Fig. 11 and THD is measured in Fig.39 31. [9] Tzuen-Lih Chern. K. pp. No.923 0. Jovanovic. the control block is more complicated comparing with the constant-frequency operation. If the output current ripple increases. K. After estimation in BCM control. In this method. R. the switching frequency range is about 22 kHz to 45 kHz in the full load LED output experiment.” IEEETransactions on Industry Applications.936 0. May 2009.386-395. The power factor results are almost above 0.38 50. 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis 2093 . Li-Hsiang Liu. 54.60 THD (%) Power Factor 26.. The zero-current detection and constant-time conduction period controller are [1] Samuel Peralta and Harry Ruda “Application for Advanced Solid-State Lamps. By DCM control method. 4. 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