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IC Value: 13.98

Volume 3, Special Issue-1, May 2015
ISSN: 2321-9653

International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering
Technology (IJRASET)

Design and Implementation of Battery Charger
Using Flyback Converter for Constant Current and
Voltage Control
M. Mano Raja Paul1, A. Bhuvanesh2
1

Assistant Professor, Dept. of EEE, Nehru Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore,
Tamil Nadu, India-641105
2
Research scholar, Dept. of EEE, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi,
Tamil Nadu, India- 626005

Abstract—This paper presents the design and implementation of battery charger using flyback converter for constant current
and voltage control without current feedback. This constant current charging control can be done by limiting the duty cycle of
charger. So, the current feedback signal is not necessary and in that way reducing the cost of A/D converter, current sensor, and
computation complexity necessary for current control. Additionally, when the battery voltage is improved to the preset voltage
level by means of constant current charge, the charger changes the control mode to constant voltage charge. A flyback converter
based charger is designed and employed for Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) system. The proposed system is designed using
MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results show the success of the design and implementation.
Keywords—Charger, constant current charge, constant voltage charge, flyback converter and UPS
I.

INTRODUCTION

Currently, rechargeable battery has been broadly applicable in different kind of electronic device, such as portable devices,
uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system, electrical vehicle, etc. So, battery charger [1]–[3] plays a vital role in recharging batteries
professionally and extending the battery life. Conventional type chargers are controlled by analog controller, such as UC384x,
L6561 ... etc. control ICs; these controllers can adjust charge voltage and also achieve current control. Though, in analog controller,
compensation parameters are composed of resistor and capacitors, where the components are highly dependent on temperature
variation and with aging issues.
In the proposed system, the compensation parameters are employed digitally, therefore, temperature and aging issues can be
neglected. Also, it has some benefits including implementing difficult control methods [4]–[7], robustness to noise, programmable
compensator, short-time to market, and on-the-fly parameter tuning [8]. Therefore, in this paper, a digital controlled charger is
implemented to charge the batteries [9] in UPS system [10]–[19] as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Proposed UPS system
The charging characteristics have three stages [23], [24] as shown in Fig. 2. The first stage is constant current charging. The second
one is constant voltage charging. The third one is floating charge. To achieve constant current charging, conventional charging
control needs current sensor to feedback the current information [16], [17], [20]–[22]. There are numerous types of current sensing
techniques, the most frequently used methods include shunt resistor, Hall sensor, and current transformer. Though, these three
methods will cause additional power loss, cost, and component count to the system. For constant voltage charge and floating charge,
the control is recognized by output voltage feedback and temperature compensation. Temperature compensation approaches have

153
©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved

The proposed charging method can achieve constant current/voltage charging without the requirement of current sensor. the control is dominated by voltage controller. 5 shows the basic idea of the control scheme.com IC Value: 13.98 Volume 3. 4. and batteries. voltage divide resistors R1. 3. a output capacitor Cout. 2. Special Issue-1. the proposed duty cycle limit controller. UPS SYSTEM WITH PROPOSED CHARGER The flyback converter based controller with the proposed constant current charging technique is shown in Fig.www. no current sensor and the related A/D converter are necessary for the presented constant current control. As battery voltage is charged up to its nominal value. 4. As shown in Fig. 154 ©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved .ijraset. The charging characteristics In this paper. at the beginning of charging. Fig. 3. digital controller is already employed in the UPS system. Fig. the constant current is controlled by duty cycle limitation. thereby. Fig. As presented in Fig. a secondary rectifier diode D. The digital controller contains A/D converter. The proposed digital controlled constant current charging method for UPS battery charger aims at providing constant current control without current sensor. R2. where the current will decrease gradually. a high frequency transformer TR. sharing some resources of the digital controller to control the charger with the proposed technique will not bring more cost to the whole system. Fig. 5. voltage controller. The schematic view of UPS system with proposed battery charging technique II. 4. and digital PWM generator. The flyback converter based controller with the proposed constant current charging technique. a digital controlled UPS system with proposed battery charging technique is presented as shown in Fig. The charger contains of an input capacitor Cin. a controlled power switch Q. May 2015 ISSN: 2321-9653 International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) been presented by many authors [25]–[27]. In some cases.

The advanced PWM controller FAN104W can alleviate the burden of meeting international energy efficiency regulations in charger designs. Constant Voltage (CV) When the rectifier diode current reaches zero. It includes instructions for designing the transformer and output filter. and MP3 players that require constant output voltage and current regulation for battery charging.com IC Value: 13. The output current estimator reconstructs output 155 ©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved . this period does not exist. which results in sensing loss.98 Volume 3. Basic CV / CC Control Principle Fig. Basic circuit diagram of a PSR flyback D. 6.ijraset. For BCM operation. Design of flyback converter More than half of the external power supplies produced are used for portable electronics. Constant Current (CC) Regulation CC regulation is implemented internally without directly sensing the output current. output current sensing is a design challenge. The internal error amplifier for output voltage regulation (Vsah) compares the sampled voltage with internal precise reference to generate an error voltage (VEA. current sensing in the secondary side is always necessary. During the rectifier diode conduction time. 6 shows the basic circuit diagram of a PSR flyback converter with typical waveforms shown in Fig. 5. C. By sampling the winding voltage at the end of the diode conduction time. This application note presents practical design considerations for flyback battery chargers employing the FAN104W. May 2015 ISSN: 2321-9653 International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Fig.V). B. Fig. where the diode current diminishes to zero. The design procedure is verified through an experimental prototype converter. such as: smart phones. which determines the duty cycle of the MOSFET in CV mode. Basic idea for the proposed control scheme A. selecting the components.www. the sum of output voltage and diode forward-voltage drop is reflected to the auxiliary winding side as (Vo+VF) × NAux / Ns. the transformer auxiliary winding voltage (VAux) begins to oscillate by the resonance between the primary-side inductor (Lm) and the effective capacitor loaded across MOSFET. the output voltage information can be obtained. For applications requiring precise ConstantCurrent (CC) regulation. For power supply designers faced with stringent energy-efficiency regulations. Special Issue-1. 8 Generally. Since the diode forward-voltage drop decreases as current decreases. tablets. Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) or Boundary Conduction Mode (BCM) operation is preferred for primary-side regulation because it allows better output regulation. and implementing Constant Current (CC) / Constant Voltage (CV) control. the auxiliary winding voltage reflects the output voltage best at the end of diode conduction time.

I signal to determine the duty cycle. Special Issue-1.5 V) by an internal error amplifier and generates a VEA. Fig. V EA. as shown in Fig. the outputs of two comparators (PWM. During CV regulation.www.V) are combined with the OR gate and used as a reset signal of flip-flop to determine the MOSFET turn-off instant.I determines the duty cycle while VEA. 156 ©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved . VEA.98 Volume 3. DESIGN OF FLYBACK CONVERTER BASED CONTROLLER IN UPS SYSTEM The flyback converter based controller to achieve constant current and voltage control is designed using MATLAB Simulink model and it is shown in Fig. Meanwhile.V. PWM Operation for CV and CC Modes During CC regulation. VCCR is then compared with a reference voltage (2.V are compared with an internal sawtooth waveform (VSAW) by PWM comparators PWM. 7. 7.com IC Value: 13. Key Waveforms of DCM Flyback Converter.I is saturated to HIGH. as calculated by: = = (1) Fig. FAN104W internal circuits identifies the peak value of the drain current with a peak-detection circuit and calculates the output current using the inductor discharge time (tDIS) and switching period (tS). May 2015 ISSN: 2321-9653 International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) current information (VCCR) using the transformer primary-side current and diode current discharge time.I and PWM. to determine the duty cycle. The lower signal. This output information (VCCR) is compared with an internal precise reference to generate an error voltage (VEA. which determines the duty cycle of the MOSFET in CC Mode. III.V or VEA. determines the duty cycle. the output current is obtained by averaging the triangular output diode current area over a switching cycle.I).I and PWM. As seen in Figure 6.I and VEA. V EA. 9.ijraset.V is saturated to HIGH. respectively. VEA.V determines the duty cycle while VEA.I. 8.

9. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS The output values of current and voltage taken at the battery.www. It shows that the current and voltage values are constant for all the time duration. 11 respectively. IV. Special Issue-1. Constant current output waveform Fig. The constant current and voltage output waveforms taken from Simulink model are shown Fig. 10.com IC Value: 13. Fig. May 2015 ISSN: 2321-9653 International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) Fig. Constant voltage output waveform 157 ©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved .ijraset. Simulink model of proposed controller.98 Volume 3. 11. 10 and Fig.

com IC Value: 13. 158 ©IJRASET 2015: All Rights are Reserved .2 12. Experimental results show the success of the design and implementation that is the constant current and voltage is achieved all over the time duration. the charger changes the control mode to constant voltage charge. The proposed system is designed using MATLAB Simulink. Special Issue-1. May 2015 ISSN: 2321-9653 International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) The hardware model designed to implement the proposed controller in UPS system is shown in Fig. Hours of charge 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Battery voltage (V) 11.8 11.31 1. This constant current charging control can be done by limiting the duty cycle of charger. TABLE I.ijraset. Additionally.30 1.85 CONCLUSION The design and implementation of battery charger using flyback converter for constant current and voltage control without current feedback is presented in this paper. Two 6V-4.98 Volume 3. A flyback converter based charger is designed and employed for Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) system.12.85 0.1 12.2 V. when the battery voltage is improved to the preset voltage level by means of constant current charge. Average charging current (A) 1.2 12. Hardware model of proposed controller based UPS system.31 1.00 0. PERFORMANCE OF BATTERY CHARGER.5Ah batteries are used in the hardware which having the maximum charging current of 1.29 1.29 1.8 11.www.29 1.9 12 12 12 12. The charger performance is given in Table I. Fig.35A each.85 0.12.

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