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P2002 Sierra

Flight Manual

FLIGHT MANUAL
US-LSA

P2002 Sierra
Manufacturer
COSTRUZIONI AERONAUTICHE TECNAM S.r.l.
Type Certificate:
ASTM SLSA
Serial number: ________________
Build year: ___________________
Registration: __________________
Introduction
This manual contains information to be furnished to the pilot as required by the FAA in addition to further information
supplied by the manufacturer.
This manual must always be present on board the aircraft.
The aircraft is to be operated in compliance with information and limitations contained herein. All sections follow the
ASTM guidelines as finalized 1 April 2005.

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Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

P2002 Sierra
Flight Manual

Record of Revisions
Any revisions to the present manual, except actual weighing data, must be recorded in the following table.
New or amended text in the revised pages will be indicated by a black vertical line in the left-hand margin; Revision No.
and date will be shown on the left-hand side of the amended page.
Log of Revisions
Revision No.
1.0
2.0
2.01
2.02
2.02a
2.03
2.04
3.00
4.00

Date released
03-30-2005
12-30-2006
01-22-2007
03-01-2007
05-24-2007
08-12-2007
10-09-2007
10-29-2007
11-10-2008

Chapters
All
All
1
6
6
All
All
All
All

Approved By
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam
Tecnam

NOTE
Revision 4.00 updates all sections. Many corrections were grammatical. It is requested that all sections are reviewed for
content change as well.

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Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

P2002 Sierra
Flight Manual

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Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

............................................................................................................ 14 1.............4............................................... 14 1...........1 Introduction .......................................................................7.............................9 Electrical System ................ 15 1.......................................................................... 19 1.............................3 Fuel System.......................................................................................................7......................................... 19 1..................................00 .......................7....................................11 Baggage Compartment .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16 1....................................3 Oil System ................................................................. 19 1..........1.. 20 1.........................................................................................................................................................................................6 Carburetor Heat (optional) ......................................................................................................................................4 Landing Gear .........................3...................................5........................................................3............................................................................... 17 1.................................................................... 17 1.......................1.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8............................. 17 1......... 15 1........................... Seatbelts.............................................3 Descriptive Data ...............................................................................................8..............2 Propeller ....... 17 1.. 18 1........................................................................................................................ 15 1....................................................................................................................................................................5................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 1........................... 11 1........3.................7....4 Powerplant .......................................................................8 Throttle Friction Lock .................................................................... 14 1......................................... 18 1...........................................................................................7.......... 19 1................... 15 1.......................... 16 Engine instruments .......................7.1 Generator light .....................1 Maximum Certified Weights ......................... 16 Warning Lights and Indicators ......................................................1.......................................4................................................1 Airframe .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................7....................................... 16 Controls ............................................................................10 Canopy ........................1 Wing................... 16 Interior................................................................. 14 1...............................................................................................................................................................................................5 Weights.......7..........................4 Cooling ....... 18 1....................................2 Certification Basis .....9...7 Airframe ................................ 18 1................................................4......... 18 1...........................................2 Fuselage ............................................................... 22 4 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4................................................................................ and Shoulder Harnesses ..........................................................9 Seats...................................................................................... 19 1.........................................................................1 Engine .........................................5.......................................................................................................................................................1 Engine ..................................8...3................7..........................................................2 Fuselage .......... 17 1.................................................................................................................................................... 12 1........................2 Standard Weights ............................................................................... 16 Flight Instruments ................ 16 Exterior .......................4..........................................................................8 Powerplant ...........................................................................7 Cabin Heat / Defrost .......................................................................................................................6 Standard Equipment ..3 Empennage .....................................................................................................1....................................................................................... 15 1.............................................................................................................................1 Wing .......2 Propeller ......... 14 1....................................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Table of Contents Unit Conversion Chart ......................................4......... 14 1............... 22 1.......................................................5 Instrument Panel ................................................................................................................................................. 14 1...................................................................... 14 1............................................................................................................. 16 Powerplant and Accessories..............................................................................................................5 Fuel ....................3................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 1...................... 15 1..............................................................................3 Specific Loadings................. 12 1..........................7....................3 Empennage ................................................................................7................................4 Flight Controls ..................................................................................................

...........................3 Oil temperature gauge ...2 Voltmeter ..........1....................................................................................................................................................................................1........................................................ 30 Powerplant Instrument Markings.................................................................................... 23 1..... 31 Night .... 26 2 Introduction ................................................................................ 32 Demonstrated Crosswind Safe Operations ..........9.........9....................................00 ........................................ location .......................................................................................................7 2...........................................................................................17 2......1.........12 2..........................1..........10...............................................................................................................................................................10 2.................................................................................1.....9 Avionics (optional) ..................................1..............................9......................................................................................................................... 29 Fuel ...........................................................22 2..........................................9............11 Landing Gear ..............................................................9.....................................................1 Navigation Lights (Optional) . 23 1........ 28 Operating & starting temperature range ...............1.............................................................................................. 32 IFR ............. 31 Flight Crew .................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Service Ceiling ................................................9.....................1................................................................1.................................................................................... 31 Day VFR......................1..........................................................................................................5 2..................................................................................................................1...............................T.......1.............................. 32 Limitation Placards ....................... 28 Fuel Pressure ................................................................ 28 Lubricant ...........................................1.... 23 1........................................................................1....................................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1...................................................................4 2................................ 31 Kinds of Operation ............................................................................................................................9. 30 Approved Maneuvers .............................. 27 2......................................................................... Indicator (optional) ....18 2......... 30 Weights .................................................................................................................................................................................. 23 1.......................2 2............ 27 Powerplant Limitations .............25 2..............................1 2.............. 23 1.......................................................1....................11......................................8 2................ 28 Temperatures .............................................................................................................................................................1............................. 24 1.........................................8 Stall Warning System (optional) ..........................................................................................................................1.................................. 33 3..............G........A...................................................1...................................26 3 Airspeed Limitations ........................................................................................ 23 1...........................................................................................9 2......................................................................16 2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 2..........5 Oil Pressure..................................................... 27 Airspeed Indicator Markings ................................................................1 Brake System ................ 30 Other Instrument Markings .3 Tail Strobe Light ...................20 2.................................................................................................10 Exterior Lighting................................................................................................................................................................19 2................................ 33 5 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4...................9..................................................... 32 Introduction ...................1.................................. 24 1.................................................................................2 Landing Light........... 29 Propeller .................9................1............................1... 31 Maneuvering Load Factor Limits .....................................................................1............. 23 1.................1.....................10...................................1.....................................10.................................. 30 Center of Gravity Range ............6 2... 29 Coolant ............6 Fuel Pressure .......24 2...................9..........................1 Preparation .3 Determination of C...................................2 Weighing .................................... 33 3...................11 2..........................23 2........1.............................................1 Aircraft weighing procedures ..............................................................................7 O..................................................................................................................... 25 1............. 28 Oil Pressure.. 33 3...............................3 2................................1...........................15 2......1....................................... 23 1.. 29 Approved Fuel ..........1...................................4 Cylinder head temperature ............. 23 1....................................................................................1..................................21 2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 2................................................................................................................9... 23 1...............10 Pitot and Static Pressure Systems ....................... 33 3...........................................................9.............................................................................. 24 1.....................................................................................................

.. 35 3........................................1 Engine Failures on Ground ...........................................................................................2 Weighing Report .............................................1.............................................................................................................. 49 4...........3.............................................. 55 5...................................................................................................1.........................................2.......................................................................... 57 6 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.....................................................1........................................................................................................................................... 39 3......................................10 Balked Landing ....................4 Cabin Fire during Flight .............................4 Stall Speeds ..............6 ENGINE OUT GLIDE ..................3.....3.....................................................................................................................................................................00 ..............................................................................................................................................2 Engine Fire during Takeoff .......... 56 5............................................7 Landing Distance ......... 46 4.........................................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 3......................3 Weight and Balance .......................... 53 5........................1..........................1 Center of Gravity Limits .......................................... 39 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 44 4........................................................3 LOW FUEL PRESSURE ................. 54 5..........................3 Engine Fire in-Flight .........................................................................................................................2...............2..........................................................1..........................................................................................................................2.......1.......................................................3 Landing Emergency ............................2....................1 Use of Performance Charts .....1... 50 4.................................................................................................. 55 5....... 37 3..8 Climb Performance .. 55 5........... 56 5...................2................ 45 4......................................... 56 5................. 52 Introduction ...............................4 Recovery from Unintentional Spin .......... 51 4............................................................................9 Cruise ................................................................................................................3 ICAO Chart ....................... 54 5....................................... 55 5............................................2............................................... 54 5.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 IN-FLIGHT ENGINE RESTART .......................... 56 5...........................5 Crosswind ........................................................................ 57 5.........1 Engine Failures......................2.........................................................................................................................1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1..................... 54 5............1...... 36 3.............1 Engine Fire while Parked ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Airspeed Indicator System Calibration ........................................................................................................................... 48 4..........................1...........................................................................................1...2............................................................ 47 4..............................................................................................................................................................2 POWER-ON FORCED LANDING .............. 56 5...................................................................12 Noise Data ............................................................ 42 4........................... 42 4.................................................................................2................1 Loading ...................................................................................................................3 LANDING WITH A FLAT NOSE TIRE .................................................................................2 Engine Failure during Flight ................................................................ 35 3...............1..........3..................... 43 4............................................................................1 ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF .....3...........................4 4 5 Equipment List .......................................................................... 52 4................2 IRREGULAR ENGINE RPM ................ 54 5................ 54 5........................................................................................................................................................2.................1.........................4 LOW OIL PRESSURE... 56 5..................1 ENGINE FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF RUN ............................. 55 5........................6 Takeoff Performance ...................................1 FORCED LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER ......................2 Distances from the datum ................................2 Smoke and Fire .............................4 LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE ............. 55 5.......11 Effects of Rain and Insects ...................................................................................2................. 54 5.....

................................................................. 62 6.....................................1.............................. 65 6....................1.................. 65 6.........................................................................1.....................3................3 BEFORE START .................1 Upper Cowling .....................................................................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 5..3 Jacking ........1 Cabin Inspection ........................1 LOCKED CONTROL ......................................10 BEFORE LANDING .....1.... 63 6..............5 BEFORE TAXI ........................................................................................1....................................................... 68 7 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.......................................1 Towing ....................3 Pre-Flight Inspection ................. 57 5.............................3................5 Road Transport ........... 57 5......2 IN FLIGHT ...................................................3................................................1...................................7 Trim System Failure ........................................................ 66 7.1 GENERATOR LIGHT ILLUMINATES........5................. 59 6........................................... 64 6...3..................................5.....................1........................3...3..........................4 STARTING ENGINE ......................... 58 6 Introduction ..........................................................................................................2 External Inspection ................................................................................ 63 6..................................1 Removing and Reinstalling the Engine Cowling.......................3....................................................................................................... 61 6...................... 60 6........1 AT TAKEOFF ..........................7 BEFORE TAKE-OFF ... 66 7..........................................................3........................ 64 6...................................1.........3................................................................................................................................................................5.............................2 Carburetor Ice...................................2 Aircraft Alterations or Repairs ......................................................................................................................................3...................11 BALKED LANDING ........... 60 6......................................................6................................................... 64 6................................................................................................................................................3.........1............................................1 UNINTENTIONAL FLIGHT INTO ICING CONDITIONS ............................................................................5.................................................................3...............................3.........................................................................3....................12 AFTER LANDING ............................................................1........................................................1.........................1....................................................................... 59 6......................................... 62 6.................................................. 66 7.......13 ENGINE SHUT DOWN ......8 TAKEOFF AND CLIMB ........................................................................................................................................... 65 7 Introduction ...... 66 7.................................................. 66 7........................................................................................................................................................................ 67 8 Required Placards and Markings ........................................................ 57 5.....3......... 58 5................ 63 6......................5 Other Emergencies ..................... 60 6........................................1....3..................1 Aircraft Inspection Periods....... 57 5................................................. 58 5.........................................1...........................1............................................ 66 7................................................................................................................ 66 7.................................................................................................................. 59 Checklist Procedures .................... 57 5...........................................6 TAXI .............................3.......................... 64 6.......................................................6 Electric Power System Malfunction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 58 5..................................................2 Parking and Tiedown ...2..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Cleaning and Care ...........1......................................3......................................................................00 ......................................4 Leveling .............................................2...................... 66 7..........14 POSTFLIGHT CHECK ......................................................... 59 6...............................................3 Ground Handling ............................... 66 7....................1....................................................3......3................9 CRUISE .........................................................................................................................................................2 Lower Cowling ...........................................................................................................................

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual WARNINGS .CAUTIONS .NOTES The following definitions apply to warnings. 8 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 . WARNING Means that the non-observation of the corresponding procedure leads to an immediate or important degradation of the flight safety CAUTION Means that the non-observation of the corresponding procedure leads to a minor or to a more or less long-term degradation of the flight safety NOTE Draws the attention to any special item not directly related to safety but which is important or unusual. cautions and notes used in the Flight Manual.

VH Max Speed in level flight with Max continuous power VLO Lift off speed: is the speed at which the aircraft generally lifts off from the ground.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Abbreviations & Terminology Airspeed Terminology KCAS Calibrated Airspeed is the indicated airspeed corrected for position and instrument error and expressed in knots. VY Best Rate-of-Climb Speed is the speed. VS Stalling Speed or minimum steady flight speed flaps retracted VS0 Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in landing configuration VS1 Stalling speed in clean configuration (flap 0°) VX Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the speed.4286 yields engine RPM. which is KCAS.92” Engine Power Terminology RPM Revolutions Per Minute: is the number of revolutions per minute of the propeller. 9 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. which results in the greatest gain in altitude in a given time. Meteorology Terminology OAT Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature expressed in degrees Celsius (°C). KIAS Indicated Airspeed is the speed shown on the airspeed indicator and expressed in knots. VR Rotation speed: is the speed at which the aircraft rotates about the pitch axis during takeoff. which results in the greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance. HP Pressure Altitude is the altitude read from an altimeter when the barometric subscale has been set to 29. VA Design maneuvering speed VC Design cruising speed VFE Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended position. then only with caution. KTAS True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots relative to undisturbed air. corrected for altitude and temperature. VNE Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be exceeded at any time. VNO Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that should not be exceeded except in smooth air.00 . multiplied by 2. TS Standard Temperature is 15°C (59F) at sea level pressure altitude and decreased by 2°C for each 1000 ft of altitude.

blocks.G.) of an item Moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm C. or equipment. that is.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Airplane Performance and Flight Planning Terminology Crosswind is the velocity of the crosswind component for which adequate control of the airplane Velocity during takeoff and landing is guaranteed Usable fuel is the fuel available for flight planning Unusable fuel is the quantity of fuel that cannot be safely used in flight g is the acceleration of gravity TOR is the takeoff distance measured from actual start to wheel lift off point TOD is total takeoff distance measured from start to clearing a 50’ obstacle GR is the distance measured during landing from actual touchdown to stop point LD is the distance measured during landing. etc. from clearing a 50’ obstacle to actual stop S/R is specific range.G. the distance (in nautical miles) which can be expected at a specific power setting and/or flight configuration per gallon of fuel used Weight and Balance Terminology Datum “Reference datum” is an imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center of gravity (C. and is included in the scale readings. Center of Gravity is the point at which the airplane. tare is then deducted from the scale reading to obtain the actual (net) airplane weight 10 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Its distance from the reference datum is found by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the airplane Empty Weight Empty Weight is the weight of the airplane with engine fluids and oil at operating levels Useful Load is the difference between takeoff weight and the empty weight Maximum Takeoff Weight is the maximum weight approved for the start of the takeoff run Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum weight approved for the landing touch down Tare is the weight of chocks. would balance if suspended. used when weighing an airplane. stands.

00508 1. in Length Kilometers Nautical miles Meters Feet Centimeters Inches Volume Liters U.853 3.7 0.8067 0.5396 Feet per minute Meters per second.2642 3.1383 12.7376 8.5396 1.281 0.1020 Newton-meters kilogram-meters inch-pounds kilogram-meters Newton-meters foot-pounds foot-pounds inch-pounds Newton-meters foot-pounds inch-pounds kilogram-meter Multiplying Temperature Fahrenheit [°F] Celsius [°C] Forces Kilograms Pounds Speed Meters per second Feet per minute Knots Kilometers / hour Pressure Atmosphere Pounds / sq.7964 9.8508 0.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Unit Conversion Chart by  yields 5   F  32 9 9    C   32 5  Celsius [°C] Fahrenheit [°F] [kg] [lbs] 2.S.853 0.00 .068 Pounds / sq. Gallons Area Square meters Square feet Torque foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds inch-pounds inch-pounds inch-pounds kilogram-meters kilogram-meters kilogram-meters Newton-meters Newton-meters Newton-meters 11 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.3558 0. in Atmosphere [psi] [atm] [km] [nm] [m] [ft] [cm] [in] 0.0115 0.S.0 0.76 0. Kilometers / hour Knots [ft/min] [m/s] [km/h] [kts] [atm] [psi] 14.233 86.86 0.3937 2.4536 Pounds Kilograms [lbs] [kg] [m/s] [ft/min] [kts] [km/h] 196.0833 7.1130 0.0929 Square feet Square meters [sq ft] [m2] 1.785 U.540 Nautical miles Kilometers Feet Meters Inches Centimeters [nm] [km] [ft] [m] [in] [cm] [l] [US Gal] 0.3048 0. Gallons Liters [US Gal] [l] [m2] [sq ft] 10.205 0.

190 and complies with all applicable ASTM standards. Therefore. This Flight Manual has been prepared to ASTM standards to provide pilots and instructors with information for the safe and efficient operation of this aircraft. and steerable nosewheel. 12 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. was built using the metric system. Aircraft Ground Handling and Servicing 8. the primary numbers are in metric and the US conversion is in parenthesis for your information. This aircraft is designed and built in Italy and as such. Emergency Procedures 6.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 1 GENERAL 1. fixed main landing gear. Normal Procedures 7. Weight & Balance 4. low wing. Required Placards and Markings 1. Operating Limitations 3.2 Certification Basis This aircraft is certificated as a Special Light Sport Aircraft under FAR part 21. single engine aircraft with a tapered. General Information 2. Performance 5.1 Introduction The P2002 Sierra is a twin seat.00 . This Flight Manual contains the following sections: 1. It is an ASTM compliant airplane designed to be flown by sport pilot rated pilots as well as higher rated pilots.

2’) 6.6 m 6.7’) 2.61 m 2.6”) 5.00 .6 m (28.5 m (18’) NOTE  Dimensions shown refer to aircraft weight of 600 kg (1320 lbs) and normal operating tire pressure 13 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.43 m Figure 1-1 General Views Wing Span Length Tail height Propeller ground clearance Minimum ground steering radius 8.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual THREE-VIEW DRAWING 8.61 m (21.43 m (8’) 320 mm (12.

5 m2 (124 Sq Ft 2) 52 kg/m2 (10.0 kW (92.0’) 1.4.2’) 11.6 5° Fuselage Overall length Overall width Overall height 6.85m (6.2 1.5 kW (98.1 Airframe 1.7’) 1.0’) Empennage Stabilator span Vertical tail span 2.00-5 Sava 4.3.3.4 8. 5 minutes) 69.3 1.6’) Landing Gear Wheel track Wheel base Main gear tires Nose gear tire Wheel brakes 1.1 Engine Manufacturer Model Certification basis Type Maximum power 1.3.00-6 Marc Ingegno 199-102 1.90m (9.4 0.3’) Air Trac 5.) GT Tonini GT-2/173/VRR.3.43 m (8.3.1.1.11 m (43”) 2.62m (5.4 Powerplant 1.FW101 SRTC 2 1730 mm (68”) (no reduction permitted) Fixed pitch – wood / composite 14 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.1.3 Descriptive Data 1.5 hp) @ 5800 rpm (max.5’) 1.6 m (28.6 lb/Ft) 6.1 Wing Wing span Wing surface Wing loading Aspect ratio Taper ratio Dihedral 1.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1.5 hp) @ 5500 rpm (cont.10m (3.1.61 m (21.2 Propeller Manufacturer: Model: Number of blades: Diameter: Type: Bombardier-Rotax GmbH 912 ULS or 912 S2 ASTM F2239 or FAR Part 33 4 stroke carburetor engine 73.4.00 .

4.1 kg/hp (13.3 Oil System Oil system: Oil: Oil Capacity: Forced. RON 95 (AKI 91 Premium USA) 100LL 2 integral wing tanks 50 liters (13.15 gal) 1.00 .4.5 lbs/hp) NOTE Standard weights are estimates based on standard equipment. 3.5 Weights 1.5.6 lbs/ft2) 6.1 Maximum Certified Weights Maximum Takeoff weight 600 kg (1320 lbs) Maximum Landing weight 600 kg (1320 lbs) Maximum baggage weight 20 kg (44 lbs) 1.0 liters (2. 2.3 Specific Loadings Wing loading Power loading 52 kg/m2 (10.2 gal) 100 liters (26. with external oil reservoir See Rotax operator’s manual Max.2 Standard Weights Standard empty weight Maximum payload weight 331 kg (730 lbs) 269 kg (590 lbs) 1.4 gal) 99 liters (26. 15 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1.5 Fuel Fuel grade: Auto fuel Avgas Fuel tanks: Capacity of each wing tank Total capacity: Total usable fuel Min.2 qt) – min.4.5.4 Cooling Cooling system: Coolant: Combination air and liquid cooled system See Rotax operator’s manual 1.0 liters (3.5.1 qt) 1.

Vertical Speed Indicator.00 . Volt Meter Warning Lights and Indicators Trim Indicator. Throttle Friction Control.6 Standard Equipment Flight Instruments Airspeed Indicator. Fixed Landing Gear. Acoustic Cabin Soundproofing. Metal Instrument Panel Exterior All Aluminum structure. 18 Amp Alternator. Fuel Pressure. Gascolator with Quick Drain. Electric Starter. Steel Roll Cage. Strobe Light. Nose Gear Strut Fairing. Landing Light. Hour Meter. Composite Covered Wood Propeller with Spinner. Electric Flaps. Oil Temperature. Left and Right Fuel Quantity. Generator Warning Light Controls Dual Stick Flight Controls and Rudder Pedals. All Electric Circuits Fuse Protected 16 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Oil Pressure.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. Adjustable Cabin Air Ventilators. Flap Indicator. Altimeter. Integral Wing Fuel Tanks. Compass Engine instruments Tachometer. Engine Exhaust Muffler. Hydraulic Disc Brakes with Parking Brake. Engine Driven Fuel Pump. 12Volt 18 Ah Battery. Dual Throttles (left seat pilot can fly left or right handed). Nose and Main Wheel Fairings Powerplant and Accessories Rotax 912 ULS Engine (100 hp). 12V Power Outlet. Direct Nose Wheel Steering Interior Adjustable Pilot and Copilot Seats. Left and Right Fuel Selector Valves. Cabin Heat and Windshield Defrost. Cylinder Head Temperature. Electric Aux Fuel Pump. Engine Choke.

the cable control circuit is confined within the cabin and is connected to a pair of push-rods positioned in the wings that control ailerons differentially. wrap-around aluminum skin panels cover the structure. 1. 17 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Flaps act in continuous mode.7.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. The aft part of the fuselage is constructed of an aluminum alloy semi-monocoque structure. Aileron trimming is carried out on ground through a small tab positioned on left aileron. its structure consists of an aluminum tubular spar connected to ribs and leading edge covered by an aluminum skin.7. Fig. the indicator displays the two positions relative to takeoff (15°) and landing (38°). 1-1 Right wing exploded view 1. the steel stringers engine mount is attached to the cabin's truss structure in four points. Aileron control is of mixed type with push-rods and cables. A fuse positioned on the right side of the instrument panel protects the electrical circuit.1 Wing The wing is constructed of a central light alloy torque box. an aluminum leading edge with integrated fuel tank is attached to the front spar while flap and aileron are hinged to rear spar. The horizontal tail is an all-moving type (stabilator).3 Empennage The vertical tail is entirely metal: the vertical fin is made up of a twin spar with stressed skin while the rudder consists of an aluminum torque box made of light alloy ribs and skin. Flaps are extended via an electric servo actuator controlled by a switch on the instrument panel.2 Fuselage The front part of the fuselage is made up of a mixed structure: a truss structure with special steel members for cabin survival cell. Longitudinal control acts through a system of push-rods and is equipped with a trim tab. The engine housing is isolated from the cabin by a firewall.7.7. Flaps and ailerons are constructed of a center spar to which front and rear ribs are joined. and a light-alloy semi-monocoque structure for the cabin's bottom section.4 Flight Controls Aircraft flight controls are operated through conventional stick and rudder pedals.00 .7 Airframe 1. 1.

7. and Shoulder Harnesses The P2002 usually comes with three point safety belts with waist and diagonal straps adjustable via a sliding metal buckle. cabin receives maximum hot air. outside fresh air can be circulated inside cabin by opening the vents on the dashboard. counterclockwise loosens. When the knob is pulled fully outward from the instrument panel. 1. when knob is pulled fully outward. for this optional installation a shunt switch placed on the instrument panel enables control of either left or right stick.9 Seats. 1-2 Instrument Panel 1.7.7.8 Throttle Friction Lock Adjust the engine's throttle friction lock by appropriately tightening the friction lock lever located on the instrument panel near the center throttle control. Instruments marked with an asterisk (*) are optional. Seatbelts. During normal operation. carburetors receive maximum hot air. 1.7. 1. Fig.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Longitudinal trim is performed by a small tab positioned on the stabilator and controlled via an electric servo operating a rocker switch located between the seats or (optional equipment) by pushing Up/Down the push-button on the control stick. Clockwise tightens. The position of some of the switches may be different on your airplane depending on the options you ordered. the knob is OFF. Optional four point harnesses are available. 1. If necessary. 18 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.7 Cabin Heat / Defrost The cabin heat control knob is positioned on the lower left side of the instrument panel.5 Instrument Panel The conventional type instrument panel allows placement of a broad range of equipment.6 Carburetor Heat (optional) Carburetor heat control knob is located just to the right of the center throttle control. Vents are located by the rudder pedals and above instrument panel.7.

The dual carburetors are constant depression carburetors that automatically adjust for altitude. The oil system is a dry sump. The fuel system is equipped with an engine driven mechanical pump and a back up electric pump. The tips are painted in bright yellow and red so that when the propeller is turning it is obvious to personnel on the ground.8.rotax-owner. The dual ignition system is a solid state.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Seats are built with a light alloy tube structure and synthetic material cushioning.1 Engine Rotax is an Austrian engine manufacturer.4286:1. The electrical system consists of an integrated AC generator with an external rectifier – regulator.gt-propellers.2 Propeller The GT propeller is a wood composite propeller built by GT Tonini in Italy. 19 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Pushing the lever towards the center of the aircraft will release the locking pin.2 quarts) of oil. as this will damage the seat structure. Tie down baggage by using the tie-down net. horizontally opposed. The engine uses a reduction gearbox with a gear reduction ratio of 2. Each ignition system is powered by individual and totally independent AC generators which are not dependent on the aircraft battery. The cooling system is a mixture of liquid and air cooling. WARNING Make sure that the locking pin is securely installed or the seat will not lock in position. Seats are adjustable fore and aft by using the handle located under the seat on the outboard sides. The Rotax engine is equipped with an electric starter. Baggage should be evenly distributed and weight shall not exceed 20 kg (44 pounds).7. Two throttles in the cockpit control the engine. The Tonini brothers began building propellers in 1969. The throttles are bussed together and will not move independently. 1. The 912 is a four stroke. It is rated at 5800 RPM and can be run continuously at 5500 RPM. when it started building four-stroke engines. Rotax received Type Certification for its 912 A aircraft engine. CAUTION Do not stand in the center of the seats. The owner can register and get important information from the following website: http://www.10 Canopy The cabin's canopy slides on wheel bearings along tracks located on fuselage sides.11 Baggage Compartment The baggage compartment is located behind the seats. More information on the company and the propeller can be found at http://www. The back of the propeller is painted black to prevent reflections. forced lubrications system. capacitive discharge.8.com/. Release the lever when the desired position is found making sure that the locking pin reengages in the seat track. The company constructed only two-stroke engines until 1982. Germany.com. spark ignition engine with single central camshaft with hydraulic tappets. breakerless.00 . 1. 1. The two throttles are installed to allow the pilot to fly with either hand as well as giving the pilot the option of using the left hand throttle while operating the center mounted brake handle. An optional external alternator can be installed. Check with your dealer for propeller options. The Rotax 912 ULS engine is an ASTM compliant engine.8 Powerplant 1. 1. The 912 has liquid cooled cylinder heads and ram air cooled cylinders and engine. The oil tank is located on the passenger side of the engine compartment and holds 3 liters (3.7. In 1970 Bombardier bought Rotax. In 1989. canopy is made out of composite materials. Latching system uses a central lever located overhead and two additional levers positioned on canopy's sides. interference suppression system instead of a mechanical magneto system. founded in 1920 in Dresden. The propeller is finished with a white polyurethane lacquer and an additional layer of transparent lacquer.

Fuel feed is through an engine-driven mechanical pump and through an electric pump (normally ON for takeoff and landing) that supplies adequate engine feed in case of main pump failure.2 gallons) and the total fuel capacity is 100 liters (26. A strainer cup with a drainage valve (Gascolator) is located on the engine side of the firewall on the passenger side of the airplane.00 .8. 20 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. WARNING Fuel quantity should be checked on a level surface or a false reading may result.3 Fuel System The system is equipped with two aluminum fuel tanks integrated within the wing leading edge and accessible for inspection through dedicated covers. Figure 1-3 illustrates the schematic layout of the fuel system.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. Fuel level indicators for each tank are located on the instrument panel.4 gallons). Always visually verify fuel quantity by looking in the tanks. Each fuel tank is equipped with a cabin installed shutoff valve. Capacity of individual tank is 50 liters (13.

Fuel system schematic 21 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.1-3.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Right fuel quantity indicator Left fuel quantity indicator Right wing fuel tank vent Left wing fuel tank vent Right Fuel Tank Left Fuel Tank Fuel Selector Valves Fuel Pressure gauge Balance line Firewall Mesh filter and drain Drain Electric Fuel Pump M Filter Mechanical Fuel Pump Right carb Left Carb Fig.

22 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. an accidental movement of the propeller may start the engine with possible danger for bystanders. An integrated AC generator provides electricity and a 12 Volt battery placed in the fuselage or in the engine compartment.1 Generator light Generator light (red) illuminates for the following conditions:  Generator failure  Failure of regulator/rectifier.9.1-4.00 . with consequent over voltage sensor set off.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. The generator light is located on the right side of the instrument panel.9 Electrical System The aircraft's electrical system consists of a 12 Volt DC circuit controlled by a Master switch located on the instrument panel. Electrical system schematic 1. WARNING If the Ignition Switches are ON. Fig. NOTE The battery can support energy requirements for approximately 20 minutes.

yellow caution ranges.9. The oil temperature gauge has a green normal operating range. The sensor is placed on cabin top.T.10 Exterior Lighting Typical exterior lighting consists of:  Landing light  Tail Strobe Light  Navigation lights (optional)  Wing Strobe Lights (optional) 1. NOTE The same fuse protects all temperature instruments. 1.5 Oil Pressure The oil pressure gauge is electric and is protected by a fuse. It is directly connected to the fuel system and is not electric.2 Voltmeter The voltmeter indicates voltage on the bus bar.9. 1.8 Stall Warning System (optional) The aircraft may be equipped with a stall warning system consisting of a sensor located on the right wing leading edge connected to a warning horn located on the instrument panel.4 Cylinder head temperature The cylinder head temperature gauge normally reads the number three cylinder head temperature. 1. A single switch located on instrument panel controls all navigation lights. It reads in bars and has a green normal operating range.A.9. Indicator (optional) A digital Outside Air Temperature indicator (°C) is located on the upper left side of the instrument panel. 1. 1.9. The manufacturer of each individual system furnishes features for each system. 23 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. The normal range is from 12 to 14 volts.9.9.7 pounds of pressure 1.9. and two red lines.9.1 Navigation Lights (Optional) Navigation lights are installed on the wing tips and on top of vertical stabilizer. A fuse protects the lights.3 Oil temperature gauge Temperature reads in degrees Celsius.6 Fuel Pressure Fuel pressure is calibrated in bars. NOTE One bar is equal to about 14.9. and two red lines. The cylinder head temperature reads in degrees Celsius. 1.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. 1.10. It also indirectly reflects the coolant temperature.7 O. a red light on left wing tip and a white lamp is on vertical stabilizer. yellow caution ranges.9.9 Avionics (optional) The central part of the instrument panel holds room for avionics equipment. A green light is located on right wing tip. There is a red radial line at 10 volts.00 .

10 Pitot and Static Pressure Systems The airspeed indicator system for the aircraft is shown below. Fig. Strobe light is activated by a switch and is protected by a fuse. Landing light switch is located on instrument panel. The static port lines also supply the altimeter and the vertical airspeed indicator. 1. Airspeed indicator system 24 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 . Switch and fuse are positioned on the instrument panel.10.1-5. Light is protected by a 10 Amp fuse. total pressure intake) and a series of static ports (3). Below the left wing’s leading edge are positioned in a single group (1) both the Pitot tube (6.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1.2 Landing Light The landing light is located on the LH wing leading edge.9. The signal reaches a strobe light trigger circuit box positioned in the tail cone just behind the baggage compartment.10. Two flexible hoses (5) feed the airspeed indicator (4) on the instrument panel.9. 1.3 Tail Strobe Light The strobe light is installed on top of the vertical stabilizer.

Fig 1-6 Main landing gear Wheels are cantilevered on gear struts and feature hydraulically actuated disc brakes (see fig. Braking is simultaneous on both wheels via a “T” shaped joint (6).11 Landing Gear The main landing gear consists of two special steel spring-leaf struts (1) positioned crossways to fuselage for elastic cushioning of landing loads. 1-7) controlled by a lever (1) located on cabin tunnel between seats. which insures that braking action is always effective even if parking brake circuit should accidentally be closed.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. Two bolts (5) and nuts secure the individual spring-leaf to the edge of the girder via a light alloy clamp (4) while a single bolt (6) and nut secures the inboard end of the leaf-spring to the girder. pulling emergency brake lever activates parking brake function. With circuit shut off. Hydraulic circuit shut-off valve (2) is positioned between seats. The two steel spring-leaf struts are attached to the fuselage underside via the main girder. Control lever (1) activates master cylinder (3) that features built-in brake-fluid reservoir (4).00-5 tires inflated at 23 psi (1. 25 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Main gear wheels mount Air-Trac type 5.6 bar). Two rawhide liners (2 3) are inserted between each spring-leaf and the girder. The brake system is equipped with a non-return valve (5).00 .

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 1. 1-7 Brake System 26 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.1 Brake System The aircraft's brake system is a single-system acting on both wheels of the main landing gear through disk brakes.11. The same circuit acts as a parking brake by setting the parking brake. Fig. then activate brake lever as necessary. Pull brake lever and set the brake shut-valve to ON to activate parking brake. The reservoir tank is located under the pilot’s seat. To activate brakes verify that the brake shut-off valve positioned on tunnel between pilots is OFF.00 . The reservoir tank is located under the pilot’s seat.

00 .1.1. 2. and basic placards necessary for safe operation of the P2002 Sierra.1VSO. instrument markings. and then only with caution Do not make full or abrupt control movements above this speed as this may cause stress in excess of limit load factor Never exceed this speed for any flap setting Maximum speed in level flight at max continuous power (MSL) The speed which results in the greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance The speed which results in the greatest gain of altitude in a given time 2.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 2 OPERATING LIMITATIONS 2 Introduction Section 3 includes operating limitations. at maximum weight and upper limit is the maximum speed permissible with full flaps) Normal Operating Range (lower limit is 1. its engine and standard systems and equipment.1V S1 at maximum weight and flaps at 0° and upper limit is maximum structural speed VNO) Operations must be conducted with caution and only in smooth air Maximum speed for all operations 27 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.2 Airspeed Indicator Markings Airspeed indicator markings and their color code are explained in the following table: MARKING White arc KIAS 26 – 67 Green arc 39 – 110 Yellow arc Red line 110 – 138 138 SIGNIFICANCE Flap Operating Range (lower limit is 1.1 Airspeed Limitations Airspeed limitations and their operational significance are shown below: SPEED VNE Never exceed speed VNO Maximum Structural Cruising Speed VA Maneuvering speed KCAS 135 106 KIAS 138 110 92 96 VFE 63 67 VH Maximum flap extended speed Maximum speed 115 120 VX Best Angle Climb 57 60 VY Best Rate Climb 64 68 REMARKS Never exceed this speed in any operation Never exceed this speed unless in smooth air.

of a column of mercury supported by the pressure of the atmosphere. rpm prop.8 PSI) 28 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.0 bar 135° C 120° C 50° C / 130° C 90° C – 110° C Below 3500 RPM Above 3500 RPM Operating & starting temperature range OAT Min -25° C OAT Max +50° C Warning Admissible pressure for cold start is 7 bar maximum for short periods.1. The word comes from the Greek word baros. 2.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 2.53 inches of mercury (in Hg) or 14. one bar equals 29.5) Max rpm. for an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure.2 PSI) Max 0.25 bar.15 bar (2.00 .1.7 Fuel Pressure Min 0. Engine model: 912 ULS or S2 Maximum power: (see table below) Max Power kW (hp) Max.0 .1.4 2.1.5 2. (min. 69 (92.5 (98.) 5 - NOTE Static engine rpm should be 5100  250 under no wind conditions. In this unit.5) Max cont. barometric pressure is also expressed as the height.1. 2.40 bar (5. For your information only Bar is a unit of measure.3 Powerplant Limitations The following table lists operating limitations for aircraft installed engine: Engine manufacturer: Bombardier Rotax GmbH.(engine) 2388 (5800) 2265 (5500) Time max. in inches. Oil Oil normal operating temperature (approx." We see the same root in our word. "weighty. / min. meteorologists generally record atmospheric pressure in millibars (mb). One bar is just a bit less than the average pressure of the Earth's atmosphere. In practice. barometer.5. which is 1013. In English-speaking countries.8 bar Normal 2.5 PSI.6 Temperatures Max cylinder heads Max coolant Max. 73.) Oil Pressure Minimum 0.

1.1. both tanks normally supply engine fuel feed Warning Compensate for uneven fuel tank levels by closing the fuel valve on the tank with more fuel making sure that one fuel valve is in the on position at all times.11 Fuel Two tanks: Total fuel capacity: Usable fuel quantity: 50 liters each (13.2 gallons) NOTE During all phases of flight.00 .9 Coolant Coolant type and specifications are detailed into the “Rotax Operator’s Manual” and in its related documents.2 gallons) 100 liters (26.4 gallons) 99 liters (26. 29 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 2.1.1.10 Propeller Manufacturer: Model: Propeller type: Diameter: GT Tonini GT-2/173/VRO-SRTC FW 101 Wood twin blade fixed pitch 1730 mm (68”) (no reduction permitted) 2.8 Lubricant Viscosity Use viscosity grade oil as specified in the following table: Warning Admissible pressure for cold start is 7 bar maximum for short periods Warning Use of Aviation Grade Oil with or without additives is not permitted 2. 2.

8 Yellow arc Caution Red line Maximum limit 5500-5800 50 .14 Volt 4.12 Approved Fuel Min.15 Weights Maximum takeoff weight: Maximum landing weight: Maximum baggage weight: Green arc Normal operating Yellow arc Caution Red line Maximum limit 12 .0% MAC) aft of datum for all weights Propeller support flange without spacer Seat track supporting trusses Warning It is the pilot's responsibility to insure that the airplane is properly loaded 30 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.13 Powerplant Instrument Markings Powerplant instrument markings and their color code significance are shown below: Red line Green arc Minimum limit Normal operating Engine Tach Rpm -------1400-5500 Oil Temp.8 2–5 Fuel Pressure PSI 2.8 – 2 5–7 7 135C 5.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 2.1.2 – 5.4”) (20.135 Bar 0.16 Center of Gravity Range Forward limit Aft limit Datum Ref.1. for leveling 1611 mm (63. 2.0% MAC) aft of datum for all weights 1789 mm (70.00 .1. Oil pressure °C -------- 50 .90 110-130 -------- 5800 130C 0.14 Other Instrument Markings Instrument Voltmeter Suction gauge (if installed) Red line Minimum limit 10 Volt 4.4”) (33.2 2. Hg ------- ------- 600 kg (1320 lbs) 600 kg (1320 lbs) 20 kg (44 lbs) 2. Hg 2.5 – 5. °C 50 90-110 Instrument Cylinder heads temp.1.0 in.8 2. RON 95 Auto Fuel (AKI 91 Premium USA) AVGAS 100LL (see Warning below) Warning Prolonged use of Aviation Fuel Avgas 100LL results in greater wear of valve seats and greater combustion deposits inside cylinders due to higher lead content. It is therefore suggested to avoid using this type of fuel unless strictly necessary.1.5 in.

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 2.1.20 Kinds of Operation 2. are not approved Recommended entry speeds for each approved maneuver are as follows: Maneuver Lazy eight Chandelle Steep turn (max 60°) Stall Speed (KIAS) Speed (KCAS) 96 92 96 92 96 92 Slow deceleration (1 Knots/sec) Warning Limit load factor could be exceeded by moving the flight controls abruptly to full control deflection at a speed above V A (96 KIAS[92 KCAS].19 Flight Crew Minimum crew for flight is one pilot seated on the left side. including spins. Maneuvering Speed).18 Maneuvering Load Factor Limits Maneuvering load factors are as follows: Flaps 0° 38° g +4 +1.1.1. Non-aerobatic operation includes:  Any maneuver pertaining to “normal” flight  Stalls (except whip stalls)  Lazy eights  Chandelles  Turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°  Acrobatic maneuvers.1. 2.00 . Indicator  Cylinder Head Temp. 2. Indicator  Tachometer Flight into expected and/or known-icing conditions is prohibited 31 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.1.9 g -2 0 2. in standard configuration. is approved only for day VFR operations under VMC:  Altimeter  Airspeed Indicator  Compass  Fuel Gauges  Oil Pressure Indicator  Oil Temp.21 Day VFR The airplane.17 Approved Maneuvers This aircraft is intended for non-aerobatic operation only.

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 2.1. NOTE The FAA requires that the pilot possesses a minimum of a Private Pilot certificate and a current medical to fly at night.LIGHT AIRCRAFT TO BE FLOWN AT NIGHT as well as any pertinent FAR.24 Demonstrated Crosswind Safe Operations Demonstrated crosswind component is 22 knots.22 Night Night flight is approved if the aircraft is equipped as per the ASTM standard F2245-06 A2 .1.1.1. 2.26 Limitation Placards See Section 8 32 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. 2.1.25 Service Ceiling 13. See the FARs for more information.00 .23 IFR TBA 2.110’ 2.

location Drop a plumb bob tangent to the leading edge (at 15mm inboard respect the rib # 7 riveting line) and trace reference mark on the floor Repeat operation for other wing Stretch a taught line between the two marks Measure the distance between the reference line and main wheel axis Using recorded data it is possible to determine the aircraft's C. hydraulic fluid and coolant to operating levels Move sliding seats to most forward position Raise flaps to fully retracted position (0°) Place control surfaces in neutral position Place scales (min.G. location and moment (see following table) 33 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.2    3.G. capacity 200 kg 440 pounds) under each wheel Level the aircraft using cabin floor as datum Center bubble on level by deflating nose tire Record weight shown on each scale Repeat weighing procedure three times Calculate empty weight Weighing Record weight shown on each scale Repeat weighing procedure three times Calculate empty weight Determination of C.1.1 Aircraft weighing procedures 3.00 .3      Preparation Carry out weighing procedure inside closed hangar Remove from cabin any objects left unintentionally Insure on board presence of the Flight Manual Align nose wheel Drain fuel via the gascolator drain valve Fill oil.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 3 WEIGHT & BALANCE 3 Introduction This section describes the procedures for determining the weight and balance of the aircraft.1                3.1. 3.1.

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual MAC 1370 7 6 15 mm inboard from rib n°7 5 4 3 2 1 1337 from the propeller's flange (without sapacer) D Reference line W2 * A .00 .3-1 34 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.W1 * B D= W1 + W2 D B * 100 D% = W2=WL+WR W1 1370 A Fig.

00 .4”) (20.4”) (33.337) .We 3. Center of Gravity Limits Forward limit Aft limit Datum Ref. m (1) To determine the Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) and the plumb line see FIG.We] = Maximum takeoff weight Empty weight Maximum payload WT .1 WT = We = Wu = 600 Kg. Nose wheel weight LH wheel weight RH wheel weight W2 = WL+WR = Kg W1 = WL = WR = Plumb bob distance(1) LH wheel Plumb bob distance(1) RH wheel Average distance (AL+ AR)/2 Bob distance from nose wheel(1) Meters AL = AR = A = B = Empty weight We = W1 + W2 = D W2  A  W1  B  We m D%  D  100  1. for leveling 1611 mm (63.0% MAC) aft of datum for all weights Propeller support flange without spacer Seat track supporting trusses 35 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 3.0% MAC) aft of datum for all weights 1789 mm (70. Kg.W1 * B W1 B D= W1 + W2 D * 100 D% = W2=WL+WR 1370 A Datum: Propeller support flange without spacer.370 Empty weight moment: M = [(D+1.2. 4-1.2 Weighing Report Model P2002 Sierra S/N:________ Weighing n°____ Date:_________ 1337 D Datum Reference line Plumb Line W2 * A .

00 .2 Distances from the datum The mean distances of the occupants.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 3.2. baggage and fuel from the datum are: Figure 3-4 36 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.

66 8504.87 5669.17 2168.00 .80 Fuel Gallons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Weight 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 Moment 361.74 3811.09 2834.83 6867.74 1807.62 15591.84 29056.10 19134.36 25513.26 7086.57 6378.2 Inches 60.04 2891.27 23386.22 14173.55 3031.39 6505.39 2126.44 9035.06 26221.53 13465.31 16300.54 29765.45 27639.23 30473.86 86.64 3464.87 1084.48 4252.74 10630.78 3543.62 31891.00 8674.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 3.57 8313.48 3252.26 7228.75 26930.97 24095. To compute weight and balance we use the formula below: Weight * Arm = Moment Pilot & Passenger Weight 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 Moment 708.05 9921.18 1299. This will reduce the amount of math you need.35 9213.28 1732.37 2165.41 34726.22 4698.32 32600.61 2530.66 24804.58 22678.49 20552.14 28347.96 6144.65 5060.14 12047.8 2.87 9397.02 33308.61 Fuel Pax Baggage Moment 18426.91 3614.88 21969.44 11339.09 5421.93 31182.10 35434.35 3975.70 1417.70 7590.13 7951.46 2598.43 722.92 14882.96 7795.52 5782.53 1.78 4337.40 Weight 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 Meters 1.30 1445.09 866.21 37 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.3 Weight and Balance In order to compute the weight and balance of this aircraft.31 Baggage Weight 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 44 Moment 433.01 17008.83 12756.23 70.18 4960.79 19843.70 17717. we have provided the following loading charts.18 21260.71 34017.

G.86 86. Divide the total moment by the total weight to get the arm 6.92 Moment 50767.63 In this example.61 1. Get moments from loading charts 2.61 67. 38 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.0 20.50 21258.00 Example Problem Empty Weight Fuel Pilot & Passenger Baggage Totals Weight (lbs) 748.16 Kilograms 600.9 Arm (inches) 67. range Computation Chart Weight (lbs) Empty Weight Fuel Pilot & Passenger Baggage Totals C. range listed above.0 1218.93 9034. Check that the total weight does not exceed maximum gross weight of 1320 pounds 7.G.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual To computer weight and balance: 1.G.20 82792. is within the C.00 1732.23 70.7890 70. Insert the weights and the moments for fuel. the gross weight is under the max gross weight of 1320 pounds and the Arm or C. Check that the arm falls within the C.6110 66.00 1.9 150.23 70.79 60. occupants and baggage from the previous chart 4.0 300.00 . Total the weight and the moment columns 5. Range Meters Inches Max Weight Arm (inches) Moment 60. Obtain the empty weight and moment from the most recent weight and balance 3.G.65 Pounds 1320.86 86.

465 39 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.40 0. Equipment list Ref. 3.p/n 92-11-830 Oil Reservoir (full) .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 3.00 .500 1.13 -------- * * * * * * * 4.450 1.700 2.) Baggage must be secured using a tie-down net to prevent any baggage movement during maneuvers. .580 0.40 0.0 0.94 1.460 1.33 0.p/n 973670 Heat exchanger .050 1.71 --- * * 5.-Air Trac 5.1 Loading Baggage compartment is designed for a maximum load of 20 kg (44 lbs.07 0.00 4.60 0.p/n 33-2544 Fuel pump p/n 21-11-342-000 Landing gear and accessories Main gear spring-leafs .4 Equipment List The following is a comprehensive list of TECNAM standard and optional supplied equipment for the Sierra.697 Air filter K&N .p/n 92-8-880-1 Nose gear tire .64 0.930 0.p/n 92-8-300-1 Main gear wheel rims.94 0.94 -------- * * * * * * * 2. .55 0.0 6.p/n 995.460 0.p/n 956.00-5 AA1D4 Disk brakes – Marc Ingegno Nose gear wheel rim .55 0.32 -0.10 0. Description & p/n A/C s/n Date: s/n Inst Weight kg Datum m Engine & accessories A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 Engine Rotax 912S2 or 912ULS Propeller Tonini GT-2/173/VRR-SRTC FW101 Exhaust and manifolds .300 1.00-6 Nose gear fairing p/n 92-8-410-1/2 Main gear fairing p/n 92-8-420-1/2 Nose gear shock p/n 92-8-200-000 * * 61.500 1. Some of the equipment may not be installed in your airplane.200 1.Cleveland 4078B Main gear tires.800 1.310 0.00 0.137 Oil radiator .3.50 2. The list consists of the following groups:  Engine and accessories  Landing gear  Electrical system  Instruments  Avionics  The following information describes each listing:  Part-number to uniquely identify the item type  Item description  Serial number  Weight in kilograms  Distance in meters from datum Note Items marked with an asterisk (*) are part of basic installation.90 0.p/n 886 025 Liquid coolant radiator.Sava 4.94 1.

30 2.15 0.p/n 945. Indicator VDO 641-0117047/-7048 Oil Temp.35 * 0. Aircraft Mitchell.35 40 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.71 0.10 0.35 * 010 1.75 1.35 * 0.TSO C2b Compass .35 1.38 Altimeter United Instruments p/n 5934PM-3 or LUN 1128.Quartz Chronometer LC2 AT420100 Vertical speed indicator – VSI 2FM-3 Turn and Bank Indicator – FALCON GAUGER TC02E-3-1 Attitude Indicator .05 1.30 * * 0.56 1. .345 Battery relay .35 1.39 1.35 1.82 2.35 1.10 0.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Equipment list Ref.35 * 0. Ind.35 1.10 1. rectifier . Road GmbH XID4000800 Voltmeter Ind.20 0.TSO Clock .59 2.35 * 0.89 1.36 1. D1112-5041 Fuel Quantity Ind.10 1.00 .AS A555A-V-14V Navigation lights . Description & p/n A/C S/N s/n Inst Date: Weight kg Datum m Electrical system C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 Battery FIAMM 6H4P 12V 18Ah Regulator.40 0.VDO 644-001-7030 Trim Position Indicator -MAC S6A Engine RPM Ind. 10-25-058 * 0.AS W1285 Stall warning .10 1.35 * 010 1.29 0.05 0.30 1.AS GE 4509 Instruments * * * * 6.15 1.00 0.15 0.10B4 –TSO C10b Airspeed Ind.50 5.Airpath C2300.80 * 0.10 1.p/n 111-226-5 Flaps actuator control CALA33X150/c21A Trim actuator control MAC6A Overvoltage sensor OS75-14 or ZEFTRONICS V1510A Strobe light . – UMA T6-311-161 .AS 164R Landing light . Mitchell Aircraft Inst.35 1.20 0.35 * * * 0.73 0.GH-02V-3 Directional Gyro – FALCON GAUGER DG02V-3 OAT Indicator – VDO 397035001G Oil & head temp.35 1.35 * 0. VDO 190-037-001G or Speed Com Instruments 0203 Fuel Pressure Ind.35 0.56 1.30 5.

35 1.27 0.20 1.35 2.Amery King Ak-30 Emergency Hammer-Dmail 108126 41 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.30 0.30 Avionics E4 E5 E6 E7 E7 E8 E9 E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E15 E16 E17 E18 E19 E20 GPS/NAV Receiver and R/T COM GNS 430 R/T VHF COMM ICOM IC-A200 ELT ACK .00 .64 0.21 2.00 1.70 2.Telex TRA 100 GPS Antenna Garmin GA56 Comm Antenna Command Industries CI 291 VOR/ILS Antenna.35 1.26 5.17 1.90 1.35 1.25 0.Model E-01 Transponder-Garmin GTX320 Transponder-Garmin GTX327 Audio panel –Garmin GMA 340 VOR/LOC Indicator–Garmin GI106A Transponder Antenna-Bendix/King KA60 Transponder Antenna Garmin GTX320/327 Mic .35 1.10 1.35 1.08 3.31 1.74 1. Description & p/n A/C s/n s/n Inst Date: Weight kg Datum m 2.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Equipment list Ref.00 2.09 0.17 0.00 0. Command Industries CI 138C ELT Antenna Kit Model E-01 Fire Extinguisher Enterprises Ltd BA51015-3 First Aid Kit Altitude Encoder.28 0.32 0.30 1.20 2.34 1.09 1.50 0.35 2.17 0.80 0.

MSL). Additional information is provided for each table or graph. 42 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Data reported in graphs and/or in tables were determined using:  “Flight Test Data” under condition prescribed by ASTM and bilateral agreements  Aircraft and engine in good condition  Average piloting techniques Each graph or table was determined according to ICAO Standard Atmosphere (ISA .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 4 PERFORMANCE 4 Introduction This section provides all necessary data for accurate and comprehensive flight planning from takeoff to landing. Given information is sufficient to plan journey with required precision and safety. temperature and weight.00 .1 Use of Performance Charts Performance data is presented in tabular or graphical form to illustrate the effect of different variables such as altitude. evaluations of the impact on performance were carried out by theoretical means for:  Airspeed  External temperature  Altitude  Weight  Type and condition of runway 4.

Indicated Airspeed 43 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.2 Airspeed Indicator System Calibration Graph shows calibrated airspeed VCAS as a function of indicated airspeed VIAS Fig. 4-1 Calibrated vs.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.

3 ICAO Chart Fig. ICAO Chart 44 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 .4-2.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.

00 .Throttle: idle .No ground effect NOTE Altitude loss during conventional stall recovery as demonstrated during test flights is approximately 100ft with banking under 30°.4 Stall Speeds Conditions: . LATERAL BANK 0 ° 30 ° 45 ° 60 ° FLAP KIAS KCAS KIAS KCAS KIAS KCAS KIAS KCAS 0° 35 41 38 43 42 45 49 49 15° 30 42 32 40 36 42 42 45 38° 24 40 26 39 29 39 34 41 45 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.Weight 600 kg (1320 lbs) .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.

5 Crosswind Maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity is 22 knots Fig.Crosswind chart 46 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.4-3.

Increase distances by 20% for each 10 Knots of tailwind For dry and paved runway operation decrease round run by 6% Fig 4-4: TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE 47 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. ISA) .00 . Head wind: 0 kts .R/C  200 ft/min  Example: Given O. compact.Runway: dry.VLO = 45 KIAS[46 KCAS] (MTOW.Vr = 43 KIAS [45 KCAS] (MTOW.Runway slope: 0°. ISA) . grass .A.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4. ISA) .Full throttle . = 15°C Pressure altitude = 2900 ft Weight = 450 kg Note    Find TOD = 253m (830ft) TOR = 117m (384ft) Decrease distances by 10% for each 10Kts of headwind.Flaps: T/O (15°) .Vx flaps 15 = 55 KIAS [53 KCAS] (MTOW.T.6 Takeoff Performance TAKEOFF DISTANCE Conditions: .

P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4. 4-7 Landing 48 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 . Distance (ft) 1200 1000 800 Distance 600 Ground Roll 400 200 0 990 1040 1090 1140 1190 1240 1290 Weight (Lb) Fig.7 Landing Distance Conditions: Flap: 38° Engine: idle Runway: dry. compact. grass Slope: 0° Wind: zero Distance over a 50’ high obstacle Landing Distance Groung Roll.

4-5 Climb 49 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.Engine: Full throttle .00 .8 Climb Performance CLIMB RATE IN CLEAN CONFIGURATION Conditions: .VY Fig.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.Flap: 0° .

5 6.9 OAT: +7°C 1 1 Endurance (hrs) Range (N.3 689 626 604 Pressure altitude HP: 6000 ft OAT: +3°C 1 Propeller Speed Consumption 1 Endurance (hrs) Range (N.5 695 60% 5200 109 4.) 702 1 Range (N.3 OAT: +15°C 1 1 Endurance (hrs) Range (N.0 Pressure altitude HP: 10000 ft OAT: -5°C Propeller Speed Consumption 1 Endurance (hrs) RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 5200 108 4 6.m.8 75% 5200 113 5.9 650 583 553 6.) 728 50 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.5 5.) Pressure altitude HP: 2000 ft Engine Speed Consumption RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 4600 102 4 65% 5000 108 4.) 6.5 Pressure altitude HP: 12000 ft OAT: -9°C Propeller Speed Consumption 1 Endurance (hrs) RPM KTAS (gal/h) 50% 5200 104 3.8 5.5 4.3 OAT: -0.m.7 7.m.8°C 1 1 Endurance (hrs) Range (N.m.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4. Pressure altitude HP: 8000 ft Propeller Speed Consumption RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 5150 108 4 58% 5200 110 4.2 gal) (less the unusable fuel) Pressure altitude HP: 0 ft Engine Speed Consumption RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 4600 100 4 65% 5000 106 4.0 663 594 570 6.5 5.m.Maximum takeoff weight = 600 kg (1320 lbs) .5 5.) 6.5 5.2 OAT: +11°C 1 1 Endurance (hrs) Range (N.9 Cruise .Fuel tanks 2x50 liters (13.) RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 5000 107 4 6.m.m.8 73% 5200 114 5.5 5.00 .) Pressure altitude HP: 4000 ft Engine Speed Consumption RPM KTAS (gal/h) 55% 4600 106 4 60% 5000 108 4.0 702 660 1 Range (N.5 70% 5200 114 4.8 632 1 Range and endurance are intended approximate and referred to a “zero” wind condition.

45 KIAS [46 KCAS] Note During balked landing maneuver.Engine: full throttle . flaps should be retracted to 15° ASAP after applying full power.Flaps: LAND (38°) .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4.4-7 Balked Landing 51 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.00 .10 Balked Landing RATE OF CLIMB: BALKED LANDING Conditions: -Weight = 1279 lbs .  Example: Given Find Pressure altitude = 7000 ft Rate of climb = 230 ft/min Conditions: ISA Fig.

with reference to ICAO/Annex 16 3rd edition dated 1993. 4.11 Effects of Rain and Insects Flight tests have demonstrated that neither rain nor insect impact build-up on leading edge has caused substantial variations on aircraft's flight qualities. I° chapter 10.00 . 52 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 4. Vol.12 Noise Data Noise level was determined according to EASA CS-36 1stedition dated 17th October 2003. and resulted equal to 62.36 db.

suggestions of the present section should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the problem.00 . Emergencies caused by a malfunction of the aircraft or engine are extremely rare if appropriate maintenance and pre-flight inspections are carried out. Further. In case of emergency the pilot should act as follows:  Keep control of the airplane  Analyze the situation  Apply the pertinent procedure  Inform the Air Traffic Control if time and conditions allow AIRSPEEDS FOR SAFE OPERATION IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS . in particular. a continued and appropriate training program should be provided. the pilot should become thoroughly familiar with the present manual and. with the present section.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 5 Introduction Section 6 includes checklists and detailed procedures to be used in the event of emergencies. Before operating the aircraft. In case of emergency.IAS CAS Engine failure after takeoff (15 degrees of flaps) 60 Knots 57 Knots Engine failure during flight 68 Knots 64 Knots Maneuvering speed 96 Knots 92 Knots Maximum glide 68 Knots 64 Knots 53 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.

....................... AS REQUIRED At touch down Ignition Switches: .......................................................1 ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF Airspeed: ..............1 Engine Failures If an emergency arises...........P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 5................... OFF 5................................. ON Electric fuel pump: ...... OFF Master switch: .................................. OFF When the airplane is under control Fuel selector valves: ............................... OFF Master switch: ..........................00 ............................2................................................................................................1................................................... ON If the engine continues to run irregularly: Fuel selector valve:.......................... the basic guidelines described in this section should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the problem..........................................................................................2 IRREGULAR ENGINE RPM Throttle: ................................................................... ASAP 5................2.......................2....................15 bar) limit: Fuel quantity indicators: .......... BOTH ON If the fuel pressure continues to be low: Land as soon as possible 54 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4...2 Engine Failure during Flight 5...1.......................................................... 5..................................................................................... 60 knots Find a suitable place on the ground to land safely...... OFF Electric fuel pump: ................................................... CHECK Fuel quantity indicators: ............................................................................1............................................................... CHECK Engine gauges: ........................1 ENGINE FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF RUN Throttle: .....................................................................................................................1..... ON If the engine continues to run irregularly: Fuel selector valves: ............................................................................................................................................................... IDLE Brakes:.................................... CHECK Electric fuel pump: ..........3 LOW FUEL PRESSURE If the fuel pressure indicator falls below the (0.............................................................. OFF 5... AS REQUIRED Throttle: ......... OFF Electric fuel pump: .... APPLY AS NEEDED Ignition Switches: .........1... CHECK Carburetor heat (optional): .......................... OFF Fuel selector valves: ........................................................................................................1.................................................... BOTH ON If the engine continues to run irregularly: Land......1 Engine Failures on Ground 5.......1...... The landing should be planned straight ahead with only small changes in directions not exceeding 45° to the left or 45° to the right Flaps: ........................................

..................................... OFF In-flight engine restart: ..................................... IDLE Brakes:...................... Preferably below 4000 ft Carburetor heat (if installed): ................2........................................................................... SET Escape rapidly from the aircraft 55 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.................................1........P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 5............................................................... try to restart several times NOTE Glide ratio is 12...................................................6 ENGINE OUT GLIDE Flaps: ... OFF Ignition Switches: ................................. LAND as soon as possible If increasing: .................................................................... AS NEEDED With the airplane is under control: Fuel selector valves: .................... OFF Master switch: ...................... MIDDLE POSITION Ignition switches: ........................................2.................................... ON Master Switch:........................................ OFF Master switch: .................................. LAND as soon as possible and be alert for impending engine failure 5.................1 Engine Fire while Parked Fuel selector valves: .................................. OFF Parking brake: .............................................................................2............... ON Fuel selector valves: ................................................. CHECK If the temperature tends to increase: If stable within the green arc: .......................................................................................2 Smoke and Fire 5....00 .......................................... SET Escape rapidly from the aircraft 5................................4 LOW OIL PRESSURE Oil temperature:............................................................................. OFF Cabin heating: ...................................................................................................................................................... 5.............................. RETRACT Speed: ......................... OFF Electric fuel pump: ..............................................................................1...............................................................2................................................................... APPLY In case of an engine restart: Land as soon as possible 5........................... If conditions permit.......... OFF Ignition Switches: .........8 therefore with 1000 ft of altitude.......................... BOTH ON Throttle: ............................................................. 68 KIAS [64 KCAS] Electric equipments: ......................................1..................................................................................................................................................................2 Engine Fire during Takeoff Throttle: ...5 IN-FLIGHT ENGINE RESTART Altitude:........ it is possible to cover ~2 nautical miles in zero wind conditions........................ OFF Electric fuel pump: ................................................................2......... OFF Parking brake: .......................... ON Electric fuel pump: .......................... START If the restart attempt fails: Procedure for a forced landing: .......................................................

..................................................... OFF Cabin vents: ....................... OFF Do not attempt an in-flight restart Procedure for a forced landing: .......................................................................................................... AS NECESSARY Fuel selector valves: ........................................................00 ............................................. OFF Electric fuel pump: .................3 LANDING WITH A FLAT NOSE TIRE Pre-landing checklist: .......................................... OFF Fuel selector valves: .............1 FORCED LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER Establish: .............................................................................................................................................................................. LOCKED Landing assured: Flaps: ....2....... OFF Touchdown Speed: ................................................ ESTABLISH Flaps: ....................................... OFF Throttle: ........................................ OFF Master switch: ..................... if necessary Master switch: ............................................................................................................................................. OFF Ignition Switches: ..................................................................................... 68 KIAS [64 KCAS] Select terrain area most suitable for emergency landing and flyby checking for obstacles and wind direction Safety belts: .................................................................................. AS NECESSARY Master switch: ................................................... OFF Electric fuel pump: .............................................. OFF Try to choke the fire.................................................................................................................... OFF Electric fuel pump: ........................................................................................................ 48 KIAS [48 KCAS] 5........... APPLY 5........................................3 Engine Fire in-Flight Cabin heat: ....P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 5..................................................................3........................................................... FULL Land and maintain aircraft NOSE HIGH attitude as long as possible 56 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4................................................................................................................ LOCKED Landing assured: Flaps: ................. COMPLETE Flaps: .............................................................. OFF Ignition Switches: ..................................................................................... Direct the fire extinguisher towards flame base Procedure for a forced landing: .........4 Cabin Fire during Flight Cabin heat: ........................ OPEN Canopy: ............ OFF Safety belts: ...3 Landing Emergency 5........... OPEN Ignition Switches: ...................... OFF 5..........................................................................3........................................................................................ OPEN............... AS NECESSARY Establish: ........................... TIGHTEN Canopy: .......................................................1.................................................................1.....................................2..2 POWER-ON FORCED LANDING Descent: ............................................................ 68 KIAS [64 KCAS] Locate most suitable terrain for emergency landing.... TIGHTEN Canopy: .......... upwind if possible Fuel selector valves: ................................... APPLY 5................................... FULL IN until the engine stops running Cabin vents: ....................................................1...........................3.........................................................................

Errant control inputs that may aggravate the spin are avoided in the process........... cloudy..... 5................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 5................... IDLE Ailerons: .......... which is to be expected during final rolling................................. Carburetor heat (optional): ................................ it forces you to focus on the appropriate recovery actions... COMPLETE Flaps: ......................... 5......................................5........ RECOVER Note Use elevator control to recover to straight and level or a climbing attitude Note The first letter in each of the four primary recovery inputs spells out the acronym.... Cabin heat: ...... affording the greatest response to recovery inputs.. The PARE format mimics the most docile spin configuration possible................4 LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE Pre-landing checklist: ..1 AT TAKEOFF At takeoff........00 .....3..........................1 UNINTENTIONAL FLIGHT INTO ICING CONDITIONS Get away from icing conditions by changing altitude or direction of flight in order to reach an area with warmer external temperature........................................ Calling each item out loud also tends to reinforce the physical inputs..........................................................5................... 57 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4................ THROUGH NEUTRAL HOLD THESE INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS................ hazy or foggy conditions or whenever a power loss is detected. ON Increase rpm to avoid ice formation on propeller blades..................... Touchdown with the GOOD TIRE FIRST and hold aircraft with the flat tire off the ground as long as possible.............5.............5...................................... turn carburetor heat (optional) to ON until engine power is back to normal.... NEUTRAL Elevator: .........2............. FULL Note Align the airplane on the opposite side of runway to the side with the defective tire to compensate for change in direction.........................2..............2 Carburetor Ice 5..........................5 Other Emergencies 5............ ON WARNING In case of ice formation on wing leading edge................ As a mental checklist..............................................................................2 IN FLIGHT With external temperatures below 15° C.......4 Recovery from Unintentional Spin Power: ... FULL OPPOSITE Elevator: ...... NEUTRAL (and Flaps Up) Rudder: .............. stall speed may increase...................... PARE (pronounced “pair”)..... THEN: Rudder: ...................... carburetor heat (optional) is normally OFF given the unlikely possibility of ice formation at full throttle 5........ or on rainy days or with humid.............. 5.........1.. PARE is a convenient memory aid that points the way to spin recovery...........................

P2002 Sierra
Flight Manual

5.6 Electric Power System Malfunction
Electric power supply system malfunctions may be avoided by carrying out inspections as scheduled and prescribed in the
Service Manual. Causes for malfunctions are hard to establish but, in any case, problems of this nature must be dealt with
immediately. The following may occur:

5.6.1 GENERATOR LIGHT ILLUMINATES
Generator light may illuminate for a faulty alternator. If the generator light illuminates proceed as follows:
 LAND as soon as possible
 Continue flight on battery power alone; the battery is capable of supplying the electrical system for about 20
minutes with normal flight electric loads including operation of flap and trim.

5.7 Trim System Failure
5.7.1 LOCKED CONTROL
In case the trim control should not respond, act as follows:
Fuses / breakers ......................................................................... CHECK
LH/RH switch ........................................................................... CHECK for correct position
Airspeed .................................................................................... Adjust speed to control aircraft without excessive stick force
Land aircraft as soon as possible

58
Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

P2002 Sierra
Flight Manual

SECTION 6
NORMAL PROCEDURES

6 Introduction
Section 6 contains checklists and the procedures for normal operation.

6.1 Removing and Reinstalling the Engine Cowling
6.1.1 Upper Cowling
Parking brake: .................................ON or chocks installed
Fuel selector valves: ........................OFF
Ignition Switches: ............................OFF
Master switch: .................................OFF
 Unlatch all four butterfly Cam-locks mounted on the top cowling by rotating them 90° counter clockwise while
slightly pushing inwards.
 Remove the four screws holding the top canopy to the bottom.
 Remove top engine cowling paying attention to propeller shaft passing through nose.
To reinstall:
 Rest cowling horizontal insuring proper fitting of nose base reference pins. Reinstall the four screws.
 Secure latches by applying light pressure, check for proper assembly and fasten Cam-locks.
WARNING
Butterfly Cam-locks are locked when tabs are horizontal and open when tabs are vertical. Verify tab is below latch upon
closing.

6.1.2 Lower Cowling
After disassembling upper cowling
 Move the propeller to a horizontal position
 Using a standard screwdriver, press and rotate 90° the two Cam-locks positioned on lower cowling by the firewall.
 Disconnect the ram-air duct from the NACA intake. Pull out the first hinge pin positioned on the side of the
firewall, then, while holding cowling, pull out second hinge pin; remove cowling with downward motion.
For installation follow reverse procedure

59
Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

P2002 Sierra
Flight Manual

Checklist Procedures
6.1.3 Pre-Flight Inspection
Before each flight, it is necessary to carry out a complete inspection of the aircraft starting with an external inspection
followed by an internal inspection.
6.1.3.1
Cabin Inspection
All required paperwork: ............................................................ ONBOARD
Weight and balance: .................................................................. CHECK
Safety belts used to lock controls: ............................................. RELEASE
Flight controls: .......................................................................... CHECK
Check for freedom of movement and proper direction
Parking brake: ........................................................................... SET
Friction lock: ............................................................................. CHECK
Throttle: ..................................................................................... IDLE
Ignition Switches: ...................................................................... OFF
Master switch: ........................................................................... ON
Generator light: ......................................................................... ON
Aux. Alternator switch (if installed): ......................................... ON
Alternator light: ......................................................................... ON
Fuel pump: ................................................................................ ON
Check for audible sound and operation of fuel pressure indicator
Fuel pump: ................................................................................ OFF
Flaps: ......................................................................................... EXTEND
Visually check that flaps are fully extended and instrument indication is correct
Trim: .......................................................................................... CHECK
Activate control in both directions checking for travel limits and instrument indication
Stall warning (optional): ............................................................ CHECK
Navigation lights and strobe-light (optional): ........................... CHECK
NOTE
Strobe lights won’t work without the engine running
Landing light (optional): ........................................................... CHECK
Fuel Tank levels: ....................................................................... CHECK
Master switch: ........................................................................... OFF
WARNING
Fuel level indicated by the fuel quantity indicators (on the instrument panel) is only indicative. For flight safety, pilot
should verify actual fuel quantity visually in tanks before takeoff.

60
Revision Date: 11-10-2008
Revision Number: 4.00

Visual inspection is defined as follows: check for defects. Right leading edge and wing skin: CHECK for damage M. and insure radiator honeycomb is unobstructed 61 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. For control surfaces. turn off Master switch N.3. Right side fuel filler cap: CHECK visually for desired fuel level and secure O. detachments. Left flap and hinges: CHECK security F. cracks. Right side main landing gear: CHECK inflation 23 psi (1. Right aileron: CHECK for damage.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 6.0 bar). Nose wheel strut and tire: CHECK inflation 15 psi (1. tire condition. freedom of movement: Left tank vent: CHECK for obstructions E.6 bar). turn on Master switch and check cabin acoustic warning signal is operative. Right side tank vent: check for obstructions L.1. freedom of movement. FIG.6 bar). Left main landing gear: CHECK inflation 23 psi (1. alignment. Check the right static port for obstructions P. fuselage skin condition G. freedom of movement H. Horizontal tail and tab: CHECK for damage. Stall indicator micro switch (optional): Check freedom of movement. Left fuel filler cap: CHECK visually for desired fuel level and secure B. tire condition and condition of rubber shock absorber discs. check coolant reservoir level. freedom of movement (note: do not move rudder unless nosewheel is lifted off the ground) I. 6-1. alignment. visual inspection also involves additional check for freedom of movement and security. Propeller and spinner condition: CHECK for nicks and security Q. 6-1 A. fuselage skin condition J. Right flap and hinges: CHECK security K. Do not blow inside pitot tube C. Left side leading edge and wing skin: CHECK for damage D. tire condition. Vertical tail and rudder: CHECK for damage. excessive play. and unsafe or improper installation as well as for general condition. Open both engine cowlings and perform the following checklist:  Check no foreign objects are present  Check the cooling circuit for losses. Pitot tube: Remove pitot tube cover and check that the pitot tube mounted on the left wing is unobstructed.2 External Inspection To carry out the external inspection it will be necessary to follow the checklist below with the station order outlined in fig. Left aileron: CHECK for damage.00 .

..................................................................................................................... and insure radiator honeycomb is unobstructed Open both fuel shutoff valves and inspect fuel lines for leaks...................................... R................................................ SECURED / CLEAR OF CONTROLS Canopy: .............................. CHECK T.................3 BEFORE START Parking brake: ..................................................................................................................................... ON Aux.......................... ON Trim control: ................................................... SET Master switch: ........................................................................ CENTERED Trim switch: ..................... OFF Seat position and safety belts: ...................................... AS NEEDED Propeller area: . REMOVE 6...........3..................................................................................................... check oil reservoir level.......................................................................... CHECK Throttle: ........................................... Alternator switch (if installed):... Tow bar and chocks: ....................................................................................... ON Aux............. ON Throttle: .............................................................................................................................. IDLE Choke: ...............4 STARTING ENGINE Brakes:. Landing Light (optional): ..... CHECK Note Compare the fuel levels read by the fuel quantity indicators with the quantity present in the tanks Master switch: ....................................................................... LEFT Landing light: ................................................................................... CLEAR 62 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.......................................................... BOTH ON Electric fuel pump: .... ON Fuel selector valves: ..................................................................... CLOSED AND LOCKED 6........................... ON Generator light: ....... CHECK Fuel quantity:.. ADJUST If flying solo: Passenger belts: ...................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual      Check lubrication circuit for losses... close shutoff fuel valves............................................... Drain gascolator using a cup to collect fuel by opening the drain valve located on the firewall..3..................... Engine cowlings ............................... Alternator light (if installed): ............................00 ...............................................1........... IDLE Friction lock: ........................... Check for water or other contaminants Silent-block suspensions: CHECK integrity Intake system: Check connection and integrity of air intake system..................1...... SET Flight controls: ................................................................... ADJUST Master switch: ................................................. visually inspect that ram air intake is unobstructed All parts: Check they are secure or safety wired WARNING Drainage operation must be carried out with aircraft parked on level surface.................................................................. CLOSE S..................

............. CLOSED & LOCKED Transponder (if installed): .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ALT 63 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.. 0...........................................................135 °C  Oil pressure: .......................................... OFF Engine rpm: ........................................................................................ OFF 6...........................00 .................... CHECK Engine instruments: ..........3......................40 bar Generator light: ...........3..................... CHECK 6....................................................... ON Engine instruments: ....................... CHECK 6................................ CHECK  Oil temperature: ..................................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual WARNING Check to insure no person or object is present in the area close to propeller Strobe light: .........15 – 0........................7 BEFORE TAKE-OFF Parking brake: ..................................................... OFF External Alternator light (if installed): ................ FASTENED Canopy: ................................. CHECK Fuel selectors: .................................................................... CHECK Throttle: ................ OFF Throttle: ..................... CHECK Trim: ................5 bar  Fuel pressure: ...............................................................................1............ BOTH ON Flaps: ........... ON Altimeter: ...................................................................... 120 rpm Carburetor Heat (optional): . SET Parking brake: ................................................................................................................................ T/O (15°) Flight controls: .................................................................................................................. 90° ... 2 ................................... 90°-110 ° C  Cylinder head temperature: ......................5 BEFORE TAXI Radio and Avionics (if installed):................................................... IDLE Fuel quantity indicators: .......................................................................................................... CHECK Choke: ................................................................................................................................................................6 TAXI Brakes:............................................................................. CHECK Flight instruments:............................................... 4000 RPM To test ignition systems:  Maximum RPM drop with only one ignition .....................1............................................................................................ START Note Activate starter for max of 10 seconds on followed by a cooling period of 2 minutes off before attempting a re-start Oil pressure: .................................................................................. 300 rpm  Maximum differential between LEFT or RIGHT ..... OFF Fuel pressure: ........................ ON Master Switch:................................ CENTER Seat belts: .........................1...........................................................................3.......... ON Ignition Switches: ................................................................................ SET Direction indicator (if installed): ................... 2000-2500 rpm Electric fuel pump: ...................

...........................3.................................3............1....................................................................................................................................................40 bar CAUTION Normal position of the fuel selectors is both on.......................... OFF Taxi to line-up: Magnetic compass and DG (optional): ...... SET Throttle: ............... CHECK Vr (Rotation speed): ............................................ CHECK................... ON Landing light (if installed): .........................15 – 0....................135 °C  Oil pressure: ...........................5 bar  Fuel pressure: ........................... FULL Airspeed: ........... ~ 48 KIAS [48 KCAS] Note Rotate to takeoff attitude and accelerate to a climb speed of 60 knots with 15° Flaps Above 300’ AGL: Flaps: ....................... 68 KIAS [64 KCAS] Trim: ............... If necessary............ AS DESIRED Optimal touchdown speed (full flaps): ......... 2 ........................... 0.................................. ADJUST Cruise climb: ...........................1................................ CHECK Flaps: .................................................................................................................................................. BE SURE THAT ONE TANK IS FEEDING THE ENGINE AT ALL TIMES! Note Check fuel gauges frequently with one tank shut off to prevent fuel starvation...................... 40 KNOTS 6....................... 6................... FULL Note Static RPM is approximately 5100  250 rpm Engine instruments: ...............3.......................................................................... etc...........................................11 BALKED LANDING Throttle: ............ 65 KIAS [62 KCAS] Trim: ............................................................................... ON On downwind leg: Speed and flaps at your discretion based on traffic.....8 TAKEOFF AND CLIMB Parking brake: ............................................................................................. OFF 6...................................................3...... shut off the higher reading tank using the appropriate fuel shutoff valve.............. Traffic:..................................................... RETRACT Establish Vy clean: .................................................................................................... Check fuel pressure again......................................... TO 15 degrees Airspeed: ...........................1............................ CHECK  Oil temperature: ..................................... Check fuel balance and fuel pressure..........................................10 BEFORE LANDING Electric fuel pump: ............................. 75 – 80 KNOTS Electric Fuel Pump: .................... OFF Carburetor heat (optional): ... ADJUST 64 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.....................................................1......... SET (5500 RPM Max) Engine instruments: ...9 CRUISE Reaching cruise altitude: Throttle: .................................00 ...............P2002 Sierra Flight Manual 6.......................... 60 KIAS [57 KCAS] Flaps position: ............. 90°-110 ° C  Cylinder head temperature: ..................... 90° ..............................

................................................................................................................................................................................. TIED DOWN Control locks (if available): ..... COMPLETE 6..........00 .................................................................................................................................................................................................1.............................................................................................................................................................................. STANDBY 6............. RETRACT Establish Vy clean: ...................................... OFF Canopy: ....................................................12 AFTER LANDING Taxi at an appropriate speed for conditions Flaps: ...................13 ENGINE SHUT DOWN Keep engine running at 2500 rpm for about one minute in order to reduce latent heat.......................P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Above 300’ AGL: Flaps: ............................................................1.................................................................. INSTALL Parking brake: .............................................................................................. ON Chocks: .......3.......... OFF Strobe light: .............................................. OFF 6..................... ADJUST After takeoff checklist: ........... OFF One or both fuel valves: .............................. INSTALL Aircraft: .. OFF Parking brake: ....... This can be accomplished during taxi...............3.................................................................. INSTALL Chocks: ....................................... INSTALL Parking brake: .. If necessary stop for one minute with parking brake on to cool...... UP Transponder:................ OFF Ignition switches: ............................................... 68 KIAS [64 KCAS] Trim: ..3......1... Electrical equipment (except the Strobe Light): ................................................................ CLOSED & LOCKED 65 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4................................................................................... Note Do not ride the brakes...........................14 POSTFLIGHT CHECK Pitot tube cover: ....... OFF Master switch: ....................................................

7.3 Ground Handling 7. It also identifies certain inspection and maintenance requirements. for steep turns.3.00 . Seatbelts may be used to latch control stick to prevent control movement. head it into the wind and set the parking brake.2 Parking and Tiedown When parking airplane outdoors.2 Aircraft Alterations or Repairs For repairs. It is recommended to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and preventive maintenance based on climatic and flying conditions encountered locally. 7. Nose gear fork can be used for front tiedown location. Tie-down ropes shall be fastened to the specific wings’ attachments and anchoring shall be provided by ramp tie-downs. Flight controls shall be secured to avoid possible damage to control surfaces. 7.1 Aircraft Inspection Periods Inspection intervals occur at 100 hours and in accordance with special inspection schedules which are added to regularly scheduled inspections.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual SECTION 7 GROUND HANDLING & SERVICE 7 Introduction This section contains factory-recommended procedures for proper ground handling and routine care and servicing. secured by specific clamps.3. 7. pulling on the propeller near the axle you can safely maneuver the aircraft.4 Leveling Aircraft leveling may become necessary to check wing incidence. But.3.1 Towing The use of a towbar is recommended. which must be followed if the aircraft is to retain its new-plane performance and dependability.5 Road Transport It is recommended to secure tightly all aircraft components onto the cart to avoid damage during transport. Aircraft may be steered by turning rudder or. 7. refer to aircraft’s Maintenance Manual. Minimum cart size is 7x2.3 Jacking Given the light empty weight of the aircraft. dihedral or the exact location of CG.3. 7. In severe weather and high wind conditions it is wise to tie the airplane down. For an acceptable procedure please refer to the Maintenance Manual. If chocks or wedges are available it is preferable to use the latter. It is suggested to place wings under the aircraft’s bottom. by pushing lightly on tailcone to lift nose wheel. lifting one of the main wheels can easily be accomplished even without the use of hydraulic jacks.5 meters. 7. over the aft part of the cabin floor (just in front of the seat). Correct maintenance procedures are described in the aircraft’s Service Manual or in the engine’s Maintenance Manual. Secondary 66 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.3. Longitudinal leveling verification is obtained placing a level longitudinally.

acetone or other solvents. upholstery and carpet. never use products such as gasoline. For correct rigging and de-rigging procedure. refer to Maintenance Manual.6 Cleaning and Care To clean painted surfaces. The plastic windshield and windows should never be dusted when dry. in any case. use a mild detergent such as shampoo normally used for car finish.3. seats. use lukewarm soapy water and dry using chamois only.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual components such as stabilator and struts shall be protected from accidental hits using plastic or other material.00 . 7. 67 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. To clean cabin interior. It is possible to use special glass detergents but. alcohol. use a soft cloth for drying. it is generally recommended to use foam-type detergents.

On the pilot’s panel a placard will state the following: NO INTENTIONAL SPINS Near baggage compartment a placard will state the following: Fasten tie-down net Maximum weight 44 lbs On the wing root there are the following placards: LIGHT SPORT NO STEP For other required placards see Maintenance Manual 68 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4. Near the airspeed indicator a placard will state the following: Maneuvering speed VA=96 KIAS On the right hand side of the panel a placard will state the following: Passenger Warning This aircraft was manufactured in accordance with Light Sport aircraft airworthiness standards and does not conform to standard category airworthiness requirements.00 .P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Section 8 REQUIRED PLACARDS AND MARKINGS 8 Required Placards and Markings The following limitation placards must be placed in plain view on the aircraft.

l.com Casoria industrial plant 1a Traversa via G. Pascoli n°1 80026 Casoria (NA) – ITALY  +39 081 7583210  +39 081 7584528 Capua industrial plant Via Maiorise 81043 Capua (CE) .net (770) 309-4155 Italian Address: COSTRUZIONI AERONAUTICHE TECNAM s. 1350 Churchill Way Marietta.00 .tecnamaircraft.tecnam.  www.ITALY  +39 0823 620134  +39 0823 622899 69 Revision Date: 11-10-2008 Revision Number: 4.P2002 Sierra Flight Manual Feedback Form Send your comments to: In the USA: Tecnam Aircraft. Inc.com Tecnam@bellsouth.r. GA 30062 www.