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Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management

Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 2000) pp. 1–17
© Imperial College Press

J. Env. Assmt. Pol. Mgmt. 2000.02:1-17. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com
by TECHNION - ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. For personal use only.

DOES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FACILITATE
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES?
TRACEY NITZ
School of Environmental Planning
Griffith University, Nathan QLD Australia 4111
E-mail: t.nitz@mailbox.gu.edu.au
IAN HOLLAND
Key Centre for Ethics Law Justice and Governance
Griffith University, Nathan QLD Australia 4111
E-mail: I.Holland@mailbox.gu.edu.au

The aim of environmental impact assessment (EIA) is to ensure effective environmental
management outcomes for development projects. Some argue it has failed to achieve this,
because environmental management activities are not properly planned in the EIA process.
The extent of this problem is largely unknown, due to a lack of empirical evidence.
This paper presents the results of research investigating environmental management
planning within EIA in the state of Queensland, Australia. The study examined environmental
management commitments within 285 environmental impact statements (EISs).
The majority of the EISs contained environmental monitoring and mitigation
commitments and more than half identified corrective actions. This suggests that EIA
facilitated environmental management within some developments. Nevertheless, many
environmental management activities were not addressed in EISs, even when specifically
requested.
Trends in environmental management planning over time revealed dramatic
improvements. These appeared to have resulted from an increase in government requirements
for, and the provision of guidelines to assist, environmental management planning. These
findings suggest improved environmental management must be facilitated by government
agencies, rather than relying upon industry innovation.
Keywords: environmental management, environmental impact assessment, environmental
management plan, empirical analysis

Using Environmental Impact Assessment to Plan for
Environmental Management
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is one of the major tools relied upon
by governments and societies worldwide to achieve environmental management.
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ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. 1995.. 1989. Nitz & I. For personal use only. Ultimately. 1995. Buckley.J. are conducted after a development proposal is approved. McDonald & Brown. There is general agreement that EIA has led to improvements in the environmental management of development activities (EPA. Hickie & Wade.worldscientific. The absence of “follow-up” environmental management activities within most jurisdictions is often identified as the most critical weakness of EIA practice (Dipper et al. 1996. focuses on the environmental management activities within EIA. Pol. inconsistently requiring EIA procedures. EPA. Follow-up environmental management activities include tasks such as mitigation. 1996). These activities. Env. Brown & Hill. EPA. facilitating a view of EIA as a reactive planning tool and numerous other weaknesses (Leu et al. However. This paper.. 1998. 1989. 1995. EIA processes are also criticised for allowing inadequate public involvement. Fairweather. monitoring. 1997). 1989). Buckley. there is also a range of factors which may influence environmental management activities. Mgmt. Bisset & Tomlinson. 1988. 1996). 1997). 2 T. reporting and auditing of the environmental impacts of development. 1996. environmental management activities can be influenced by • Design changes in the pre-decision stage of EIA • Environmental management commitments within EISs • Environmental management conditions on project approval . Downloaded from www. 1996. James. McDonald & Brown. Bailey. Buckley. The recognition of problems within EIA practice have led to numerous studies providing suggestions for improvement. 1996. the development of EIA theory and practice has been accompanied by the accumulation of a significant body of literature identifying numerous weaknesses in EIA processes and practice. Assmt.com by TECHNION . These include criticisms of the timing of the EIA process relative to project planning and design and the poor scientific quality of many EIA studies (James. 1995. 1998. 1995.. undertaken by both project proponents and government agencies. 1996. therefore. Buckley. Sadler. it is particularly instructive to examine the environmental management outcomes of EIA. 2000. including an international study of the effectiveness of environmental assessment (Sadler. As perhaps the most widely adopted and accepted environmental management tool. In particular. That study identified strengthening follow-up environmental management activities as one of the major priorities for improving EIA effectiveness. Within EIA.02:1-17. 1995. 1989. prediction and mitigation of the environmental impacts of their activities (Dipper et al. 1996). 1989). Sadler. Holland It is primarily used to assist them in the identification. improving environmental management within EIA will help ensure more environmentally acceptable development outcomes (Sadler. Ortolano & Shepherd.

The Study Methodology This study was based on empirical analysis of the EIA process leading up to the point of project approval. 2000. the first step in improving environmental management activities is to get project proponents to identify project environmental management strategies during the planning and approvals process. Pol.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. The research project examined environmental management commitments made within 285 EISs. The Research Project During the 1990s there were two main Queensland Acts requiring EIA. A total of 285 TORs and EISs were obtained for review. 1995). This study examined whether TOR for EIA in Queensland have requested follow-up environmental management activities as an integral element of EIS preparation. Brown & Hill. Under the LG (P&E) Act government prepares the terms of reference (TOR) for an EIA. Each TOR and EIS was read and the nature .02:1-17. The study examined all EISs prepared in Queensland under the LG (P&E) Act for the period 1990 to 1998 for which complete documents were available from Queensland Government Departments. the pre-decision stage (Bailey.worldscientific. • Environmental management activities implemented in the operational development • Enforcement of approval conditions by government agencies in the operational development Arguably. Env. As the majority of EIAs were conducted under the LG (P&E) Act. Downloaded from www. 1997. For personal use only.e. This paper explores this aspect of follow-up environmental management. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for the use of EIA in enhancing follow-up environmental management activities. the State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 and the Local Government (Planning and Environment) Act 1991–1998 [LG(P&E) Act]. this paper reports analysis of only those prepared under that Act. and whether proponents have responded to those requests. Trends in environmental management commitments over time are identified and explained. These requests are then compared with those follow-up commitments within the EISs. Mgmt. Assmt.Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? 3 J. This paper reports the nature of government requests for followup commitments in the TOR for the EISs. i. Through this analysis we aim to add to the currently limited research on the extent of follow-up activities within EIA systems. and proponents prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the guidance of this TOR.com by TECHNION .

legislated standards or government policy) (EPA. The resultant list of activities ranged from the development of performance indicators to the use of external reporting. 1996) Strategies for monitoring environmental conditions to identify any differences between the actual impacts of development and those predicted in the EIS (Sanvicens & Baldwin. against which the results of monitoring can be compared (e. Holland of environmental management commitments recorded using a standard data sheet. The data sheet was used to record the presence of requests for environmental management commitments in TORs. 1997). A review of the environmental assessment literature was used to define the range of activities investigated in this study (see. 1996. Brew & Lee. undertaken by proponents and regulators. 4 T. Downloaded from www. BCC.com by TECHNION .02:1-17.g. Nitz & I. For personal use only. 1996. 1994) Criteria which specify the acceptable level of impact. 1996. A total of 20 parameters were recorded for each project TOR and 14 parameters for each EIS. and are identified and defined below: • Follow-up environmental management activities • Mitigation • Objectives • Monitoring • Performance indicators • Strategies to identify unpredicted impacts • Strategies to identify differences between actual and predicted impacts • Corrective actions • Internal reporting Activities. Au & Sanvicens. Assmt. 1996) Strategies for monitoring environmental conditions to identify any impacts not predicted in the EIS (Sanvicens & Baldwin. Mgmt. 1996) Strategies to report on the effectiveness of mitigation measures and results of monitoring .J. monitoring.. 1988) Strategies to monitor important features of the environment to identify environmental impacts of the development (Wood. 2000. such as mitigation. BCC. Horberry. for example. There is a wide range of follow-up environmental management activities that can be undertaken. 1996) Measures to respond to monitoring results which show unacceptable impact levels (EPA. 1996) Aims of the monitoring and management procedures (Bisset & Tomlinson. Env. 1996).ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. Pol. 1996. and the presence and degree of detail of those provided in EISs (see also Amir & Mosseri.worldscientific. reporting and auditing of the environmental impacts of development Management measures to reduce environmental impacts to acceptable levels (BCC.

which provides a measure of the strength of association between contingency table variables. using the SAS statistical package. BCC. 1998). For personal use only. Bisset & Tomlinson. 1988) Allocate responsibility for implementation of environmental management activities (Au & Sanvicens. Assmt. Figure 1 shows the frequency of requests for each follow-up activity in the TOR. The content of EISs in Queensland is also closely related to their terms of reference (TOR). 1996) Strategies to report on the effectiveness of mitigation measures and results of monitoring outside the proponent’s organisation (Wood.1 Study Results This section of the paper identifies the follow-up environmental management commitments that were included in the EISs assessed in this study. 1996). as well as over time. Pol. to identify how frequently each follow-up activity was requested. This statistic was used because it is more powerful for detecting positive or negative trends in variables than the chi-square statistic. because it is more accurate where there are small expected cell frequencies. Downloaded from www. • Identify responsible persons • Management review 5 within the proponent’s organisation (Au & Sanvicens.com by TECHNION . 1997). follow-up environmental management commitments in the TORs and EISs overall. hence the frequencies of requests for each of the environmental management activities in the TOR are also presented (Moon. Env. as is the case in this study (Zar. the log-likelihood ratio (G2) was used to test whether an association exists between the contingency table variables. 1996) Strategies for reviewing environmental management activities in the light of monitoring and other results (Au & Sanvicens. This ratio was used in preference to the traditionally favoured chi-square test of goodness of fit.Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? • External reporting J.worldscientific. 1994. which ignores the ordering of variables (Agresti and Finlay. 1996. and adoption of. Mgmt. we then examined patterns in the requests for. For the categorical and nominal variables. Did the Terms of Reference request EIA follow-up activities? The TOR for the EISs examined in this study were assessed.02:1-17. The analysis of ordinal variables used the gamma value. 2000. 1996) Having gathered this data. 1Contingency table analysis was performed to identify relationships between the variables of interest. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to identify significant trends and differences.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. .

02:1-17. Nevertheless. it is a concern that mitigation strategies were not requested in all of the TOR. Figure 1 reveals that mitigation and monitoring strategies were requested in 90 per cent of the TOR. Bisset & Tomlinson. 1. For personal use only. Given that past studies (Horberry. Monitoring strategies. only 32 per cent of the TOR requested the proponent to identify the standards according to which the acceptability of impacts would be determined. TOR requests for follow-up commitments. Identification of unpredicted impacts. and Identification of differences between actual and predicted impacts. Figure 1 indicates that the following environmental management activities were requested in more than half of the TORs: 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ti Mi ga tio n M i on to rin ce an rm rfo Pe g rs i tiv tio c ea ec bj O iv ct re or es ns to ca i nd C Id en tif e yr sp on sib ilit t In ies er na lr o ep rti ng al ng rti o ep Re R E w if nt e Id Fig. Internal reporting strategies. Downloaded from www. Identification of responsible persons. 2000. Mgmt. the absence of requests for these follow-up activities is likely to weaken the effectiveness of project environmental management. Corrective actions.worldscientific. given that the primary aim of undertaking an EIA is to ensure effective environmental management. Pol. Even fewer TOR (84 per cent) required the proponent to identify corrective actions for any unacceptable impacts identified. 100 90 80 % TOR requested J. Au & Sanvicens.6 T. s ed ict d re np yu rn e xt vie ify ce en r ffe di Id t en n = 285 . 1988) have identified the need for performance indicators and corrective actions to ensure effective environmental management. This suggests that the Queensland government agencies considered these follow-up activities important. 1996. Env. Assmt. Furthermore.com by TECHNION .ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. Nitz & I. 1996. Holland (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Mitigation strategies.

2000. Mgmt. 1996).02:1-17. Pol. Did proponents include EIA follow-up commitments in the EISs? The frequency of TOR requests for EIA follow-up commitments can be compared with the actual commitments within the EISs.worldscientific. as the continual review of environmental management activities in light of monitoring results is essential to ensuring their continued effectiveness (Horberry. which reflected the level of detail in which the commitments were provided and whether they had been requested in the TOR. Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? Provided Partly provided Not provided Fig. 2. The frequency and level of detail of commitments for each environmental management activity in the EISs examined in this study is shown in Fig. MorrisonSaunders. reporting these results to external bodies such as regulatory agencies was requested in only 12 per cent of these TOR. 100% 90% 80% % of EISs 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% n = 285 M iti ga tio n st on ra ito te rin gi Pe es g rf s or t ra m te an gi ce es In C di or ca re to ct rs iv e ac tio Id ns en O bj tif ec y re tiv sp es on si In bi te lit rn ie al s r ep Ex or te rn tin al g re po rt in g Id en R ev tif y ie un w pr Id en ed tif ic te y di d ffe re nc es 10% 0% M J. For personal use only. 2. This suggests that the focus of government agencies preparing the TOR was on ensuring environmental management occurred within the development. .7 It is also interesting to note that while strategies for reporting monitoring results within the development management structure (variable name — internal reporting) were requested in 88 per cent of the TOR.com by TECHNION .ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. Downloaded from www. 1996. rather than on ensuring compliance and providing feedback on the accuracy of EIA predictions by reporting to external agencies. Assmt. Figure 1 also indicates that follow-up review strategies were requested in 16 per cent of the TOR. Env. The EISs were assessed according to a scoring system. Nature of follow-up commitments in EISs. Sadler. The absence of requests for follow-up review strategies from the majority of the TORs is also of concern. adapted from a system used by Amir and Mosseri (1997). 1996.

Env. ensuring effective environmental management is the primary goal of EIA. Assmt. Thus this absence of commitments to undertake even the most basic and fundamental follow-up activities indicates a major weakness in the Queensland EIA process. and Internal reporting strategies. This suggests that there was little focus on ensuring the continued effective management of the environmental impacts of developments. Of the remainder of the follow-up activities. Holland Figure 2 indicates that there is considerable room for improvements in commitments to undertake environmental management activities within the Queensland EIA process. Objectives. This confirms that proponents fail to appreciate the benefits of conducting continuous EIA follow-up activities (Dipper et al. For personal use only. Identification of responsible persons. Of the 11 follow-up activities examined.com by TECHNION . result depicted in Fig.. 2000. The results also suggest other deficiencies. 2). Downloaded from www. As discussed earlier. Jones & Wood (1998). as advocated by Dipper.02:1-17.worldscientific. the following were fully provided in more than one-third of the EISs: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Monitoring strategies. and perhaps unexpected. This suggests that the effectiveness of any monitoring strategies is compromised by the potential inability of proponents to actually identify and correct unacceptable impacts. Figure 2 indicates that monitoring strategies were provided in half of the EISs. Pol. is that the disparity between requests for internal and external reporting strategies in the TOR is not mirrored in the EISs. One interesting. 8 T.J. and the actions to be taken to correct any unacceptable impacts were provided in less than 30 per cent of the EISs. seven important EIA follow-up activities examined in this study were provided in less than one-third of the EISs.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. 2. only mitigation strategies were fully provided in more than 50 per cent of the 285 EISs. The performance standards with which monitored impacts must comply. This analysis also shows that the potential for improving the predictive capacity of EIA through follow-up activities is not being utilised. This leaves little opportunity for providing feedback about the accuracy of the predictive tools used in these EIA studies by undertaking postauditing studies. Mgmt. Figure 2 also indicates that follow-up review strategies were provided in only 10 per cent of the EISs. Nitz & I. Commitments to identify differences between EIS predictions and the actual impacts of projects and to identify any unpredicted impacts were provided in less than 10 per cent of the EISs (Fig. Thus. The relatively high level of external reporting strategies in EISs may be a result of some proponents recording in EISs their . 1998).

for example. Were there any trends in EIA follow-up commitments? Despite this dismal picture of environmental management activities within the Queensland EIA process.worldscientific. may be a reflection of their view of EIA as a “paper chase to secure a development permit”. the absence of many follow-up commitments from a considerable proportion of EISs does not necessarily mean effective environmental management activities were not occurring within operational developments. Figures 3–5 show that. respectively. increased dramatically at one point in time. As such. 3). the willingness of some proponents to include internal and external reporting commitments in their EIS. the most significant increases over time occurred in the provision of monitoring strategies. Assmt. 1998). 5). 1996). these results suggest that comprehensive environmental management commitments were rarely evident within the Queensland EIA process. While the level of commitments for some follow-up activities increase gradually over time. the trends over time differ between the followup activities. such as performance indicators (Fig. Figures 3–5 show the trends in the provision of performance indicators. It does. . such as follow-up review strategies (Fig. however. Mgmt. 2000. consistent with the level of provision of follow-up commitments in all of the EISs. Pol.com by TECHNION . Statistical analysis was performed to identify any trends in the follow-up commitments in the EISs submitted in different years.J. Alternatively. This represents a missed opportunity within the EIA process (Dipper et al. others.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13.. performance indicators. This was the case for all 11 of the follow-up activities examined in this study. rather than a real commitment to undertake these follow-up activities (Au & Sanvicens. For personal use only. regardless of whether they were requested in the TOR. Env. external reporting and follow-up review strategies in the EISs. Downloaded from www. On the whole. indicate that the Queensland EIA process was rarely used by proponents to plan for effective environmental management within their proposed development nor to improve future EIA practice. as a condition of an environmental license issued under the Environmental Protection Act (Queensland) 1994. Of the 11 follow-up activities examined in this study. This analysis revealed that there were statistically significant increases in the number and level of detail of follow-up commitments in EISs submitted in later years. Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? 9 external reporting commitments required under other legislation. corrective actions.02:1-17. to avoid repetition. the results are depicted for these three activities only. As the trends were similar across the different follow-up activities. this study also revealed significant increases in followup commitments over time. However. internal reporting strategies and the identification of responsible persons. these results provide an indication of follow-up commitments within EISs only.

Mgmt. Provision of follow-up review strategies in EISs over time. 4. Pol. 100% % of EISs 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 Provided Partly provided Not provided Fig. 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 60% 40% 20% 0% 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 Provided Partly provided Not provided Fig. 100% 80% % of EISs J. 3. 5. Holland 100% % of EISs 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Provided Partly provided Not provided Fig.10 T. For personal use only.02:1-17. . Provision of performance indicators in EISs over time. Provision of external reporting strategies in EISs over time. Nitz & I.worldscientific.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13.com by TECHNION . 2000. Env. Assmt. Downloaded from www.

while the increase in followup commitments was significant for all of the activities. For instance. The results also reflect the willingness of proponents to commit to some follow-up activities more readily than others. Thus. Moon. Dipper et al.com by TECHNION . with the exception of . Figures 6–8 depict the trends in TOR requests for performance indicators.e. (1987) and Dipper et al. and to provide lessons for other jurisdictions. some activities enjoyed more significant increases than others. 1998). For personal use only. Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? 11 This may suggest that the increases in commitments were a result of different factors. Fig. Downloaded from www.J. A number of factors which influence the effectiveness of EIA have been identified. Env.. external reporting and follow-up review strategies. As for the trends in follow-up commitments in EISs. 1987.worldscientific. Figures 3 and 4 indicate that the provision of performance indicators in EISs increased to over 75 per cent of those submitted in 1998. (1998) argue that to encourage EIA followup “the possibility of developing mandatory requirements and/or central guidance for EIA follow-up needs further exploration”. the trends in TOR requests were relatively consistent amongst the different follow-up activities. 6 reveals an increase in TOR requests for performance indicators from no requests in 1991 to requests in over 90 per cent of TOR in 1998. 4 shows that the provision of follow-up review strategies increased to just under 30 per cent of the EISs submitted in 1997. Mgmt. 1998. consequently. Fig. the dramatic increase in provision of performance indicators from 1994 to 1995 may have been a result of similar requirements for this information in order to obtain an environmental license under the Environmental Protection Act (Queensland) 1994.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of these factors. respectively. i. (1998) both suggest that the role of governments in EIA processes. Dipper et al. such as procedural control. For example. whereas the provision of external reporting strategies increased to only 50 per cent of the EISs submitted in 1998. Pol. These figures indicate that there were considerable increases in TOR requests for these follow-up commitments between 1990 and 1998. procedural control. influences the effectiveness of EIA.02:1-17. Furthermore. Ortolano et al. the results are provided for these three activities only. professional control and the provision of government guidance (Ortolano et al. it is important to identify the factors causing these trends.. What are the causes of these trends? To capitalise on the encouraging trend of increasing environmental management commitments in EISs in Queensland. Assmt. Analysis revealed that there were statistically significant increases over time in requests for all of the environmental management activities examined. 2000.

12 T. % of TOR requesting external reporting strategies J. Requests for external reporting strategies in TOR over time. Requests for identification of performance indicators in TOR over time.worldscientific. Requests for follow-up review strategies in TOR over time. Nitz & I. 8. 7. 2000. Holland % of TOR requesting performance indicators 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 Fig.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. Mgmt. Assmt. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 Fig. 6.02:1-17. For personal use only. Env. Pol.com by TECHNION . 100 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 n=16 1992 n=43 1993 n=50 1994 n=35 1995 n=48 1996 n=41 1997 n=35 1998 n=17 Fig. . Downloaded from www.

or alternatively. external reporting and follow-up review strategies in EISs where the guidelines were and were not provided. Pol. Mgmt. whereas just over 50 per cent of these TOR requested follow-up review strategies. Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? 13 mitigation strategies and corrective actions. as 71 per cent of . Such guidance was developed by the Queensland Department of Environment and accompanied the TOR requests for follow-up commitments from April 1996 onwards. Figures 9–11 show the differences in provision of performance indicators. format and an example of comprehensive environmental management commitments (Queensland Department of Environment. consider some activities more important than others. Queensland government agencies began to recognise the importance and potential benefits of EIA follow-up activities. provided detailed advice regarding the purpose. This may suggest that government agencies have had more experience with some follow-up activities than others.. This document.. components. 2000. 1987). The potential for “professional control” to have influenced trends in environmental management commitments in this study appeared limited. in particular. Env. This was the case for all of the follow-up activities.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. may also be a result of the provision of the follow-up planning guidelines. As with trends in follow-up commitments in EISs.J. This suggests that over time.02:1-17. except mitigation strategies. Figs. respectively. For personal use only. with over 90 per cent of TOR in 1998 requesting performance indicators. 1998). 6–8 also indicate that the trends differed for different follow-up activities. Guidelines for the Preparation of Environmental Management Plans. These results suggest that the trend of increasing follow-up commitments over time. This provides empirical evidence to support claims that one important strategy for improving follow-up environmental management is the introduction of mandatory requirements for follow-up commitments and activities as a part of the EIA process (Dipper et al. however. and with increasing experience with environmental management activities. which were usually included in EISs irrespective of the inclusion of the guidelines. Another strategy for improving EIA follow-up identified in this study is the provision of detailed government guidance to assist proponents in planning and implementing environmental management activities. these results indicate that improvements in environmental management commitments in Queensland appear to have resulted from increasing government agency requirements. 1996).com by TECHNION .worldscientific. Assmt. Another potential strategy for improving follow-up environmental management commitments is through increased awareness of their potential benefits amongst EIA consultants and other environmental practitioners (Ortolano et al. Most importantly. Statistical analysis revealed that the inclusion of the guidelines with the TOR resulted in a significantly greater level of provision of follow-up commitments in EISs. improvements from 1996 onwards. Downloaded from www.

Assmt. 11.02:1-17.14 T. Proportion of EISs containing follow-up review commitments. Holland 100 % of EISs 80 60 40 20 No Guidelines provided n=233 Guidelines provided n=51 Fig. Env. Pol. 100 % of EISs 80 60 40 20 0 No Guidelines provided n=233 Guidelines provided n=51 Fig. Downloaded from www. 100 80 % of EISs J.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. 0 60 40 20 0 No Guidelines provided n=233 Guidelines provided n=51 Fig. . 9. Nitz & I. Proportion of EISs containing external reporting strategies. Proportion of EISs containing performance indicators.worldscientific. For personal use only. 2000. Mgmt.com by TECHNION . 10.

For personal use only. Indeed the trend of increasing follow-up commitments over time identified in this study suggests that there has been considerable development in follow-up environmental management activities within the Queensland EIA process. and that greater level of detail was confined to performance indicators.worldscientific. therefore. the picture is a little different. the examination of causes of increasing environmental management commitments highlighted the need for government action to encourage these trends. This provides empirical evidence to support Dipper et al. This study has also provided evidence that government action can facilitate improvements in environmental management activities through the provision of detailed guidance to assist proponents. Pol. Amongst the few consultants with extensive EIA experience (prepared > 5 EISs in the study period). Assmt. 2000. external reporting and environmental management review strategies. Mgmt. Downloaded from www.J. It seems unlikely that there is significant professional control in EIA generally when the consultants preparing EISs have so little to do with the impact assessment process.’s (1998) suggestion that developing binding requirements is an important strategy for improving EIA follow-up. Does Environmental Impact Assessment Facilitate Environmental Management Activities? 15 the EISs were prepared by consultants who prepared only that one EIS during the study period.com by TECHNION .ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. 1998). Only one consultant provided environmental management commitments in more detail than the average. This supports the suggestion that improvements in other aspects of EIA practice (such as Strategic Environmental Assessment in England and Wales) are resulting from the publication of detailed government guidance (Therivel. However. However. Env. Any improvement in providing environmental management commitments seems. and within the actual EISs. both within the TOR for EISs. While there is considerable room for improvement. Making follow-up commitments a mandatory part of EIA practice is critical to enhancing planning and implementation of environmental management activities. more likely to be a result of the consultant having an in-depth knowledge of a particular development type. this does suggest that Sadler’s (1996) argument that EIA follow-up is poorly developed may be slightly pessimistic. rather than being a product of professional control. what is worth noting is that this one consultant was preparing EISs for just one type of development: feedlots. . Conclusions The results presented in this paper have provided empirical evidence of EIA follow-up within Queensland. This suggests that EIA practitioners may have limited potential to influence follow-up environmental management activities.02:1-17.

Environmental Best Management Practice for Environmental Impact Assessment. 4–7 April 1995.C. it has not ruled out the potential contribution of other factors.com by TECHNION . Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Ms Edilyn Bajracharya from the Queensland Department of Environment and Ms Emily Thomas from the Queensland Department of Housing. (1988) Monitoring and auditing of impacts.ac. References Agresti. such as the experience of proponents and EIA practitioners with follow-up planning. 1996). Canberra: EPA Bailey. B. 12. We would also like to thank Professor Lex Brown for his comments on the paper. While this paper has demonstrated the benefits of government action in enhancing EIA follow-up commitments.ISRAEL INST OF TECHNOLOGY on 03/13/13. G.16 T. and non-governmental organisation pressure. Report of the EIA Process Strengthening Workshop. R. Env. including those identified by Ortolano et al. For personal use only. Assmt. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Amir.L. Canberra. J. & Hill. P. (1997) Environmental impact assessment and management: An underexplored relationship. Wathern. Nitz & I. London: Unwin Hyman Brew. R. Downloaded from www. 4–7 April 1995. (1987) as important influences on EIA effectiveness. Our preliminary analysis. 127–158 Au. (1995) Decision-scoping: Making EA learn how the design process works. S. Holland J. (1989) Precision in Environmental Impact Prediction: First National Environmental Audit. 317–327 Bisset. 21(3). P. Local Government and Planning for their assistance in locating the EISs. 223–232 Buckley. & Mosseri. Project Appraisal. Australia. however. environmental management plans and postproject analysis. Impact Assessment. & Lee. & Sanvicens. 1996) Report of the EIA Process Strengthening Workshop. In Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice. 2000. pp. & Tomlinson. & Finlay. 10(4). A. http://www. (1996) EIA follow up and monitoring and management. R.02:1-17. 15. Canberra: EPA Environmental Protection Authority (EPA. (1997) Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences.man. Pol. 3rd edn. E. N. Brisbane: Brisbane City Council Brown. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies/Australian National University Press . 91–103. pp. Environmental Management. Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA).uk/eia Brisbane City Council (BCC.worldscientific. (1996) Monitoring.art. ed. Mgmt. (1997) Evaluation of performance of EIS regulations: An empirical investigation of Israel’s program. D. suggests there was little potential for EIA practitioners to influence follow-up environmental management in the Queensland EIA process. 117–128. Canberra. Y. EIA Newsletter. A.

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