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THE INFINITIVE

To express purpose:
He reduced his working hours to look after the children.
After adjectives:
We know we are unlikely to have a house with all mod cons.
Women are freer to express their emotions.
Also with too + adjective, and adjective + enough
This tea is too hot ( for me ) to drink.
Are you strong enough to lift that by yourself?
1.- Complete the following sentences, using an infinitive with "to".
a) He´s got to go on a diet...................................................................................................
b) We´ve decided to employ an architect............................................................................
c) They telephoned the police..............................................................................................
d) There´s a plumber coming tomorrow..............................................................................
e) I went to the doctor´s ......................................................................................................
f) We had to call the Fire Brigade.......................................................................................
g) He joined the army..........................................................................................................
h) ......................................the team will have to play extremely well.

2.- To complete the following sentences, choose an adjective from List A and a verb
from List B. Don´t forget to use " to " with the infinitive
List A: delighted, certain, simple, important, hard, amazed, anxious, disappointed.
List B: meet, check, know, use, believe, be, hear, see.
a) They told me in the shop that this camera was.........................................but I can´t
get used to it at all!
b) I was.......................................................from his mother that he didn´t get the job he
wanted so much.
c) I´m sure you´re all very...........................................what your exam results are.
d) You can wait for him if you like - He´s...................................................home before
6 o´clock.
e) It´s ....................................................it´s June when you see all this rain!
f) I´ve learned so much about you and I´m..................................................you at last.
g) We were all ...........................................your picture in the paper. How on earth did
that come about?
h) It´s very .......................................................that the electricity is switched off before
you start.
3.-Complete the following sentences:
a) This case is too heavy for me.............................................................................
b) There aren´t enough eggs....................................................................................
c) Is the runway long enough for the plane.............................................................
d) The weather is too bad for the ship.....................................................................
e) He´s too short-sighted .........................................................................................
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..... I.. though I wanted to......................... Would you.. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) We did everything we could to ..... but you ignored me. Now I don´t know how we´ll get you down... please give him my regards........f) Have you had enough practice....... it will..............get a job in a television studio............... ? It would be terrible if I overslept..... Fill in an object where necessary... After main verbs: Pam has learnt not to be too concerned about the standard of housework.................. If you take on an assistant....... After some auxiliary verbs: He has to make an effort You need to take more care............. When I leave school.....to buy a new car? Wouldn´t a second hand one be wiser....... Other common verbs which take a infinitive with " to " are: Afford Agree Pretend Intend Decide Mean ask begin prepare promise appear expect fail arrange prefer seem help hope choose refuse learn manage offer happen plan need After the object of a verb: He taught me to play the piano................... my parents...... I .............. They seem to have it all taped.. play in the street...........climb the tree............................... ought.......... but he refused...........................set the alarm for 6 a............ Other verbs in this group are: be................ Other common verbs which take an object followed by an infinitive with " to " are: Advise Allow Ask Tell Wish encourage expect forbid recommend force get help remind intend invite leave want order persuade prefer warn 4......................... used 2 ................come with us... He..........take a course in typing and said it would be very useful for me... When I was a child.have tea or coffee? If you.get through your work more quickly............see him....-Complete the following sentences with suitable verbs from the two lists above.......................... Are you sure you can............ Could you ............m...............................

.......... they met a young man. would.. must.. b)The horseman rode for over a mile.. Choose the correct preposition from the list below to complete the sentences......cycling through a small village on the road...?" I´d rather take a train (than fly) You´d better stay in bed Why not come with us? THE GERUND The Gerund or -ing form is a verbal noun.......... "had better" and "why not..... While after before without by a)They decided to warm up...cycling on....-GERUNDS AFTER PREPOSITIONS 1...... e)Mat rode straight over......... c) Follow prepositions: I like the idea of camping. Gerunds can: a) Stand on their own as nouns: Camping´s fine for a couple of weeks..stopping at a large camp in the mountains.. shall. 3 ...... There. Other verbs in this group are: will........... c)By about 10 am we were back on the road...thanking the man for everything he had done......... can.......THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT " TO " IS USED: -After modal verbs... -After " make " and " let ": You can´t make me do anything! Let the next patient come in now -After "would rather"... should...... 1..-There have been several examples of gerunds following prepositions in the texts so far... b) Follow certain verbs: I enjoy camping very much.... You should come and see us more often.... d)(The two cyclists reached India). might.... could....... may.....even slowing down.

....-Finish the sentences below with a suitable gerund form... 2. 2......... 5. prefer)... Here is another example........a pop music group.. be used to 3.....In fact the gerund may be used after all prepositions... f)He gave up his job because he was fed up... hate....-Match the two halves of the sentences below so that they make sense..... 2...your permission first......the bread into thin slices... c)Now I´ve got a relly good camera.being anywhere near the scene of the crime. 4..... a)There´s a small entrance fee and so far no one has objected to...........a taxi at the station....starting his own company.... d)Don´t worry about leaving me in charge of the children..............meeting again till September.................-Complete the following sentences by adding the correct prepositions and the gerund form of a suitable verb...names.He looked so funny that I couldn´t help e... he actually prefers breeding dogs to.. I´m looking forward to.. What´s yours again? e)She insisted... h)I had some difficulty......to.......... The phrases below are the most common examples of this use and are well worth remembering! Look forward to object to prefer............. g)My parents did nothing to prevent me.........If you don´t take a map you risk 1..He had been considering b..such long hours.... (There is a list of the missing prepositions below if you need help) a)I left home as soon as I was capable....The smell of the soup put me off c..... 4 ............. It´s just a case of changing the money as you get into the new country......... b)Although he´s a champion jockey........her share of the bill.............................................-GERUNDS AFTER VERBS We have studied before that verbs showing preference are usually followed by gerunds (like....................... d)I´m afraid I´m awfully bad........ b)I would never use your telephone............wanting to taste it.enough money to live on......... At for from in of on with without The gerund also follows "to" when is is used as a preposition............................ a....getting completely lost.....In court she strongly denied d........................... 3................... c)He explained that the machine was used. I´m quite used to...... however the list is longer................ here you have other common verbs which are also followed by gerunds: Admit Appreciate Avoid Consider Delay Deny dislike enjoy finish give up can´t help imagine involve keep mention mind miss postpone practise put off resist risk suggest can´t stand 1...........

.................................. you´d better give up. e)Must you keep.......I´ll never forget flying over the Alps for the first time 5 .......... the infinitive is normally used.? g)Can I have the newspaper if you´ve finished........ It´s no use crying about It´s no good complaining to me! The exam isn´t worth worrying GERUND AND INFINITIVE 1................opening the window.. Can you imagine.... f)I´d hate to be a miner..........GERUNDS AFTER OTHER EXPRESSIONS Gerunds are also always used after the expressions in the following examples.......... hate.................saying a few phrases in Greek 2.............As everyone was away we postponed h...................... a) like......laughing out loud 8... Were you there? ....It´s so hot.... a)If you seriously want to save money.............. For example: -It´s beginning to get dark.... i)When he said he´d forgotten the phone number...... c)The puppies looked so sweet that I couldn´t resist.........f..... 7.. 2................. only the infinitive is used.......... love.......................... I suggested...... or only a small difference in meaning.... -We´d love to hear from you...... For example: Do you watch much TV? Well.. 3.............. -Would you like to go for a walk? -I´d hate to miss the chance................. j)My job as Tourist Officer for Birmingham involves. b) begin. start..... but with a difference of meaning: a) Remember / forget Past action ......... it is more common to use them followed by gerunds)..........?It´s really annoying.......... d)If you want to learn to ride a horse you won´t be able to avoid............. would you mind 6....................................................................Before our holiday we practised g.. as we studied before............-Complete the following sentences with suiltable gerunds.....................I don´t remember seeing you at the party... I like watching/ to watch the breakfast show = enjoy (no difference but the first one is more common) However..... (Anyway.............? h)The man the police caught finally admitted...................Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive with no difference..................... For example: -It´s started snowing/ to snow ( no difference although the gerund is more common ) After the continuous form of a verb...............Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive.... after would... b)I don´t mind most housework but I can´t stand....................... prefer.

...... ...Mr Brown regrets to tell you that he is unable to see you today...to say......I´ll always regret not going to university Regret ............ When try is followed by an infinitive..We regret to inform you that your flight has been delayed................. 6 .......to tell (you).. c) Stop When stop is followed by a gerund it means to finish an action......... b) Regret Past action.....He regrets stealing the money now ........ it means to interrupt one action in order to do something else....... Could you stop shouting? When stop is followed by an infinitive... I try to do my best...to inform (you). Regret............. will you? .............. Regret.. d) Try When try is followed by a gerund it means to test an effect........... it means to strive......Don´t forget to feed the cat................... Try playing the music softly and you may hear the violins in the background........Did you remember to post that letter while you were out? Remind (just remember that the meaning of this verb is “recordarle a alguien hacer algo): ...Future action......I regret to say I lost my temper with him...”Remember me to lock the door” would be incorrect......Remind me to lock the door before I leave. We had to stop to walk to look at the map..

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