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Geophysical Prospecting for shallow geothermal fluids in volcanic rock

environments: the case of low enthalpy geothermal potential of Kimolos
Island, Greece 1
Ioannis F. Louis2, Filippos I. Louis2 and Alexia Grambas3
2

Department of Geophysics & Geothermic, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Ilissia, Athens 15784, Greece.
jlouis@geol.uoa.gr; flouis@geol.uoa.gr
3
Department of Geoinformatics, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. alexia@central.ntua.gr

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Abstract: Resistivity modeling techniques and a case study example were used to detect fractured rock
geothermal aquifers in hardrock volcanic environments. Synthetic modeling investigations indicated that
fractures, covered by overburden and having high vertical penetration and thickness comparable to their
depth of burial, produce considerable responses capable to provide relatively high-resolution resistivity
images. Lower resolution images are obtained, as the thickness of the overburden increases and the
vertical extent of fractures is reduced. Conclusions from synthetic modeling investigations were
confirmed by demonstrating a case study example where field geophysical experiments were conducted in
the context of investigating the low enthalpy geothermal field at Prassa site of Kimolos Island, Aegean
Sea Greece. Favorable areas were located where the intense fracturing of the basement volcanic rocks
has produced extensive or local thickening of overburden material. A production well drilled to a depth of
186m produced 100 m3/h of geothermal water with a well-head temperature of 60 to 650 C providing a
low-cost, renewable energy alternative for the necessary heating medium for the proposed sea-water
desalination unit.
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Key Words: 2D Resistivity Imaging, Geophysical Applications in Geothermy

INTRODUCTION
During the summer of 1995, in the context of increasing demands for fresh water supply
for all the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, a shallow electrical resistivity survey
at Prassa geothermal area of Kimolos Island, Aegean Sea, Greece, was undertaken for
the Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CRES). The primary objective of this survey
was to evaluate the low enthalpy geothermal energy potential of Prassa area and to
determine the feasibility of a low-cost renewable energy alternative as the necessary
heating medium for a proposed sea-water desalination unit in the area.
The planning of the resistivity survey called for a flexible approach for both method and
site selection. The types of the structures that the survey was designed to target
included: synthetic lateral and vertical resistivity variations - to asses fractures in the
volcanic basement rock influencing its hydrogeological characteristics and drill-hole
planning; and two-dimensional (or pseudo 3D) structures – to assist in locating fault
zones. Fractures in a geologic medium can greatly influence its hydrogeological
characteristics. They can increase the hydraulic conductivity of an otherwise
impermeable rock or soil by orders of magnitude in the dominant fracture directions.
Therefore knowledge of the presence, extent, intensity, and direction of fractures is
desirable for any hydraulic engineering project. In fact, the amount of groundwater
available in fractures is generally limited, at least in arid and semi-arid regions.
Resistivity imaging method can detect vertical and lateral resistivity variations related to
fracture presence and intensity. The purpose of this study is to explore the capabilities
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Accepted for presentation at the International Conference of Earth Sciences and Electronics (ICESE 2003) to be held in Istanbul (October 2003)

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up welling of warm water with temperature 0 of 35 C was encountered now charging a small paid. served as guide levels in the correlation with Milos volcanic activity. 1). simplified from Fytikas and Vugiukalakis (1993). Figure 1. Rectangle shows the investigated area ( Fytikas and Vugiukalakis. GEOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL ACTIVITY OF KIMOLOS The geological environment of Kimolos. In the same area. The volcanic activity of the island was manifested during the Upper Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene. Hot springs with temperatures up to 46 C also exist in the NE coastal area at Prassa. consists of volcanic rocks most of which are pyroclastic (Fig. 1993). The tectonic regime of the island is dominated by faults striking N-S and NE-SW but also faulting exists in the NW-SE and E-W directions. The deposits of two big explosive events. Geological map of Kimolos Island. during quarrying operations for the exploitation of a bentonite deposit. upwelling hot waters during quarry operations and rich mineralization created by the hydrothermal alteration or deposition. In at least 4 locations of the NW coast of the island there exist hot springs with significant flow rates 0 0 and temperatures reaching as high as 56 C.of the dipole-dipole resistivity imaging method in detecting fractures and or fractured zones buried below an overburden by using synthetic simulation methods. Kastro and Prassa ignimbrites. There are several significant surface manifestations of geothermal phenomena in Kimolos such as hot springs. In the vicinity of the same area 2 . The hot springs of Kimolos are also aligned in a NE-SW trending direction. and demonstrating the results from experiments for low-enthalpy geothermal waters in volcanic rock environments.

cannot normally be located by geophysics once they are buried below a few meters of overburden. ground magnetic and gravity surveys (Tsokas. the shallow geophysical investigations aimed at detecting fracture zones in the volcanic basement rock as favorable sites for drilling production wells to provide geothermal water as the necessary heating medium for the proposed sea-water desalination unit. which heated up and drove intense circulation of subterranean fluids in a hydrothermal system. 2002b). The bedrock. on the other hand. fractured basement has a low porosity. apart from helping to delineate the maximum thickness of the weathered overburden. GEOPHYSICAL SETTING Early reconnaissance type geophysical studies on Kimolos Island included DC resistivity soundings. which penetrates a large thickness of weathered overburden. has high porosity and contains a significant amount of water. 3 . Resistivity imaging methods. It can easily be demonstrated that. 1995) and deep resistivity investigations (Louis. 2001). at the same time. 2D shallow resistivity imaging survey (Louis. The geothermal gradient measurements did not provide significant results other than a small but observable upward trend. the weathered material. The important feature is that. is one. The above line of evidence indicates the existence of a very significant geothermal anomaly in the past. and. the geological structure normally encountered is characterized by the existence of a hardrock basement overlain by a weathered overburden of variable thickness. which may be very important hydrogeologically. presenting high permeability. 1984). it is possible to use geophysics to increase the chances of intersecting fractures while drilling. There is no supporting evidence that the fluids discharged from the hot springs of Kimolos originate in or at least mix with fluids from reservoirs. where the fractures provide the rapid transport mechanism (Louis et al. In any route there appears to exist some geothermal anomaly in Kimolos most probably generating intermediate enthalpy reservoirs.. it presents low permeability due to its relatively high clay content (Barker. which acts as a reservoir. 1996). This however does not exclude the existence of deep high enthalpy geothermal reservoirs. locating in this way the appropriate site for borehole siting. For this reason a good borehole. Hydrogeologically. can also help to define the lateral extent of these aquifers. However. but as fractures do not constitute a significant volume of the rock. which constitutes the overburden. is fresh but frequently fractured. At present it is not absolutely clear whether the high temperature of this hydrothermal system persists still. not communicating with the shallow geothermal manifestations. 2002a. the fractures are notoriously difficult to find and geophysics provides no direct solution to the problem. THE EFFECT OF FRACTURES IN THE AQUIFERS DEVELOPMENT In hardrock areas. although fractures of a few centimeters thickness.0 exploration drilling found fluids with temperatures of 52 C at 50 m depth. 1996) as part of a geothermal resources exploration program have been carried out in recent years to complement earlier investigations. More specifically. It should be noted however that the shape of isogradient contours in the neighbouring island of Milos indicate an increase of the geothermal gradient towards SW Kimolos. and one which additionally intersects fractures in the underlying bedrock. once the bedrock is covered by any thickness of weathering. providing long term high yields. A number of geophysical studies including deep Audio Magneto Telluric investigations (Lagios.

The results have shown that by increasing the size of the fracture (Fig. 2002b). 2a). when covered by an overburden it is impossible to know its exact location. Details of the method are presented by Barker (2001) and are also mentioned by Louis (2002a. 3% Gaussian noise was added both to background and fracture body to demonstrate that the inversion scheme is reasonably robust and will work even in an environment with unsystematic geologic or instrumental noise. The RES2DINV software was used for this purpose and the resulting inversion was compared with the original input model (Fig. it is best to drill at points where the bedrock reaches its greater depth. SYNTHETIC MODELING Synthetic simulation methods were used in this investigation to model the electrical response of complex subsurface structures using finite element or finite differences modeling schemes. the bedrock is expected to be more strongly weathered to a greater depth than where it is compact. The next step was to invert the response and to get an improved resolution image of the initial model (Fig. The single fracture model of Figure 2a would probably produce a very high yield of water if intersected by a borehole. 50Ωm and 450Ωm were used to represent three different portions of the models: 50Ωm was chosen to represent the top layer of overburden material. For this reason. Single fracture models used for the synthetic simulation. However. This knowledge has led to the application of combinations of geophysical methods. followed by resistivity sounding. 30Ωm the fractures in the basement rock and 450Ωm the granite basement rock as it was obtained from the in situ measurements over outcrops. 2a) but there was no evidence of the fracture since the magnitude of the measurement errors is greater than the response. Resistivity values of 30Ωm. Resistivity sounding is attractive as it is one of the cheapest geophysical techniques to employ and the measurements can normally be interpreted with low cost manual methods. 2b) has little effect both in response and inverted resistivity images 4 . normally very low frequency electromagnetic profiling (VLF). Figure 2. Synthetic models represent single fractures and fractured zones in a volcanic basement rock underlying a conducting overburden. Software package RES2DMOD was used for this purpose. since greater depth ensures a thick reservoir of water in the overburden. more effective imaging techniques can be considered.where fractures are present. so we are looking for a way to delineate its presence by its response to a geophysical triggering in the surface of the earth. with the advent of high memory and low cost portable computers. which is a version of the original finite difference code of Dey and Morisson (1966) modified by Loke and Barker (1996). In last decade. Various synthetic models representing increasing in size single fractures have been investigated.

shown in the bordered area of Figure 3b. In general. when they are covered by overburden and their thickness is comparable to the depth of burial. 3b). produce an observed response greater than any measurement noise leading in that way to relatively high-resolution resistivity images. Concluding it became clear that geophysics is responding primarily to the increased thickness of weathered material and not to the fractures themselves. The case of Figure 2c is considered to be a model of an extensive fractured zone rather than a single fracture. The response of the model is now definite and the inverted resistivity image depicts the fracture zone very clear. 3a) the inverted model losses in resolution (Fig. produces an increased thickness of the weathered material. The resulting inversions indicated that fractures or fracture zones in the basement rock. For this reason geophysical surveys for borehole sitting in basement areas are normally aimed at locating the positions of thickest overburden. In this case the drop in the bedrock. 2c). the resistivity values of the target models at the resistivity images were recovered well enough while the background values were smaller than the actual ones. 5 .until it reaches a size comparable or greater than the depth of its top (Fig. However it is important to mention that as the thickness of the overburden increases and the vertical extent of the fracture zone is reduced to lower depths (Fig. The inverted images revealed that although the geometries of the resistivity anomalies were sufficiently reconstructed however their absolute resistivity values were not recovered in an efficient way. Figure 3. As the thickness of the overburden increases and the vertical extent of the fracture zone is reduced (a) the inverted model losses in resolution (b). A borehole drilled here it is expected to locate a thicker overburden and it could intersect some of the fractures.

mineral and petroleum exploration because it is an efficient means of collecting a large number of data points and these observations are sensitive to the lateral position and depth characteristics of the resistivity distribution. Qualitative interpretation by inspecting pseudo-section contours is not practical in complex environments. Perhaps the main disadvantage of the D-D array data concerns interpretation. a uniform distance apart. it is also very useful in geothermal exploration when the objective is the delineation of lateral variations of resistivity at depth. and on the vertical axis at the indicated dipole separations (Fig. 6 . This is a very important step because it allows the estimation of the true position and depth of an anomalous region. In the mining industry it is preferred mainly because of its higher sensitivity to lateral features. They are useful in the first stage of interpretation to estimate approximately the anomalous zones. The geometry and plotting scheme for this array are shown in Fig. More realistic sections of the earth can be obtained only after interpretation of the data in terms of true variations of the resistivity distribution. a greater depth of penetration as compared to other popular arrays and. Geometry of the dipole-dipole array used for detailed surveys and pseudo-section plotting convention. For the same reason it is not possible to assemble two-dimensional models by stringing together one-dimensional interpretations. To acquire the resistivity data in the field. regarding field work. Moreover. the shortest cables and least cable moving to achieve comparable depth of exploration. The observational data are presented in a standard pseudo-section format. The plotting of D-D data in pseudo-section format is intended to represent vertical sections of the earth below the survey lines. current is introduced into the ground through one pair of electrodes (current dipole). All electrodes are placed in a line. 4. The D-D array is widely used in geothermal. The apparent resistivity values are plotted on the horizontal axis at the mid-point of the symmetric array.THE METHOD The dipole-dipole (D-D) array of electrical resistivity prospecting has several advantages over other resistivity arrays when used in areas of complex geology. For the same reason. A second pair of electrodes (potential dipole) is then used to quantitatively measure the voltage pattern on the surface resulting from the current flow pattern of the first set of electrodes. because shallow resistivity anomalies propagate to larger dipole separations and mix with the signatures of deeper targets. it is possible to estimate the actual electrical resistivity of the region and relate it to its physical state. 5). Figure 4. These advantages include a very high sensitivity to lateral variations of electrical resistivity.

y. A detailed explanation of the finite element discretization of equation (2) is given by Sasaki (1981). y. A finite difference or finite element technique is usually used to calculate the 2-D forward response of the model. 7 . By applying the Fourier transform to equation (1) with respect to the y coordinate. y. z )] = I ( x. z ) is the conductivity. Since the current is injected at a point on the surface. V ( x. y. By subsequent iterations. z = I x. Figure 5. z )V x. Observed and calculated apparent resistivity pseudo-sections of traverse L1. z ) (1) where σ ( x. The 2D algorithm considers a 2D-earth model whose resistivity varies along the X-and Z-axis and doesn’t change along Y-axis. we obtain: ( ) ( ∧ ∧ ∧   − ∇. k 2 y . z )∇V (x. z )∇V ( x. The response in a 2D earth is given by Poisson’s equation as: − ∇[σ (x.σ ( x. z   ) (2) where ∧ means the Fourier transform and k y is the Fourier transform variable. z ) represents the source current intensity.A fast numerical approach can then be used to optimize the initial multi-layer model constructed usually directly from the observed apparent resitivity values. however it flows three dimensionally in the earth. the model is upgraded until a minimum an acceptable rms misfit between the observed and model pseudosection is achieved. k y . z ) + k 2 yσ ( x. Discretization over mesh yields a matrix equation. z ) is the electric potential and I (x. k 2 y .

Since we are dealing with a non-linear problem this procedure has to be iterative: In each iteration. The data acquisition was accomplished with an ABEM resistivity meter. 1998). and ∆V is the calculated potential difference between the receiving electrodes. The potential V in real 3D domain can be obtained by solving Eq. 1995. survey lines were located along existing paths avoiding physical obstacles like farmhouses and fences. Here it describes the 2D model. the subsurface is considered as a set of individual blocks that have intrinsic resistivity parameters subject to independent adjustment while the size of the blocks kept constant. M and N . an improved resistivity estimate is sought and eventually the procedure stops until certain 8 .KV = S (3) where K is a L × L spare band matrix with positive symmetric values. This is determined by the geometry and conductivity of each finite element. The aim is to calculate a subsurface resistivity estimate x for which the difference dy between the observed data y and the modeled data F (x) is minimized. A smoothness-constrained algorithm was used to reconstruct the apparent resistivity data (Tsourlos. L3 and L4 further to the south and north. z ) = (1 π )∫ V (x. L is the number of nodes. which were planted to a depth of 0. DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING TECHNIQUE Four resistivity traverses were scanned using the dipole-dipole array with a maximum N separation (ratio of maximum and minimum dipole separation) equal to seven. Electrodes were 0. V is a column vector of the unknown potential at each node. Dipole separations varied in length from 320 to 480m to give an effective maximum depth of imaging of around 100m.0. 3 and applying inverse Fourier transform. Where possible. ∞ ∧ ∆V ( x. and S is the column vector of current source intensity at each node. The minimum electrode spacing was set to 40m.5 meter lengths of stainless steel. Difficulties in passing through ownerships prevented extension of the profile lines L1.5 m. Tsourlos et al. Current inputs of 2-3 A were achieved for the majority of the current dipole layouts and resulted good signal strengths. k y . z )dk y (4) 0 The apparent resistivity for Dipole-Dipole can be calculated as: ρa = G∆V I (5) where G is the geometrical factor. Each electrode was watered to ensure good contact with the ground.. During the 2D model reconstruction procedure. which holds its block boundaries during the inversion and only the resistivity within each block changes with the iteration procedure. The locations and orientations of the resistivity traverses are shown in the location map of Figure 6.

This source of error depends on the site and can be corrected to a certain degree if shown to be significant.convergence criteria are met. most affected by topography. We computed the topographic effect for line L4. In any case. In some observations the error due to the highly conductive formation reached 10%. Location map RESISTIVITY IMAGES AND INTERPRETATION The inversion results are constrained by the quality of the measured data. It is very important to consider the possible existence of systematic errors in the data such as the topographic effects. among four interpreted lines. The locations of the D-D profile lines 9 . Figure 8. An example of satisfactory fitting between observed and computed apparent resistivity pseudo-sections for profile line L4 is shown in Figure 5. indicating that the models reproduce most of the significant features of the observed pseudo-sections. The observed and computed apparent resistivity pseudo-sections for all the D-D lines look very much alike. An Occam’s inversion scheme is applied in order to produce a stable non-linear algorithm for the 2D inversion of earth resistivity data. which is the one. while the average error was below 5%. in all sections the main features of interest can be easily observed.

observed close to the north end of the profile. with the granitic basement rock. The basement rock underlies a conductive overburden increasing in thickness northwards. according to geological map of Figure 1. The inverted resistivity image of profile L1 (Fig. The conductive overburden is inferred to be associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. can also well explain for profile L1 the local thickenings observed in the conductive overburden. 8) known from geologic mapping. D-D profile line L3 was oriented N30oE and centered approximately close to the SE margin of the nearby pond. 9 and 10. This fault is probably the continuation of fault F1 (Fig. This is a profile of 10 sounding stations spaced 50m apart. 8 and 12) drilled fluids of 52oC at 50m depth evidence this explanation. 8. The basement rock underlies a conductive overburden which is inferred to be associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. 8 and 12) with temperatures up to 46oC and a borehole (BH in Figs. The interpreted resistivity images of profile lines are shown in figures 7. Local thickenings of the conductive overburden are observed close to the north and south ends of the profile line. with the granitic basement rock. The presence in the same area of a hot spring (HS in Figs. in correlation with the interpretation given for profile line L3 supported with drilling results and the implication of hot spring. Inverted resistivity image of profile L3 Synthetic simulation results indicate that the local thickening of the conductive overburden. 7) indicates a resistive (>200Ωm) substratum associated. according to geological map of Figure 1. The inverted 2D resistivity image for L3 (Fig. 10 . then move laterally through permeable zones in the subsurface creating linear patches of hydrothermal alteration. 8) indicates a resistive (>200Ωm) substratum associated. may be well explained by a fault in the basement rock which has produced an extensive fracture zone and a local drop in it. Synthetic simulation results. Figure 7.are shown in the location map of Figure 6. D-D profile line L1 trends roughly north centred approximately close to the NW margin of the nearby pond. The resistivity image of Figure 7 contributes to a geologic model in which geothermal fluids rise vertically along the fault and fractures within the low resistivity zone. This is a profile of 11 sounding stations spaced 40m apart.

D-D profile L4 was oriented N30oE. This is a profile of 8 sounding stations spaced 60m apart. The low resistivity overburden is inferred to be associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. the observed local thickenings may be well explained by the existence of respective faults in the basement rock which have produced extensive fracture zones followed by local drops in the bedrock. we can observe here the resistive (>200 Ωm) granitic basement rock which underlies a conductive overburden. It is the one among the four interpreted profiles most affected by the topography. and centered approximately 150m west of the NW margin of the nearby pond. parallel in line L3. two local thickenings of the conductive overburden are observed close to the north and south ends of the profile line explained by the existence of respective faults in the basement rock which have 11 . Similarly here. 8). Inverted resistivity image of profile L1 Thus.Figure 8. Figure 9. The pattern of resistivity distribution in the inverted resistivity image for profile L4 (Fig. similarly for L1. The interpreted faults close to the north and south ends of profile L1 identify with the known faults F1 and F2 (Fig. 9) is similar to that of profile L1. Inverted resistivity image of profile L4 Thus. which cross the profile line just in these locations.

which has produced an extensive fracture zone followed by a local drop in the bedrock. The occurrence of the hot spring close to the north end of the zone and the drilling results of the borehole in the same area support the aspect that the low resistivity zone is attributed to the migration of geothermal fluids mixed with seawaters in the permeable subsurface. This is a profile of 11 sounding stations spaced 40m apart. ANALYSIS OF THE RESISTIVITY IMAGES AND DISCUSSION The most likely causes of low resistivity anomalies in a volcanic environment are: intense hydrothermal clay alteration. 10) indicates a resistive (>200Ωm) substratum attributed to the granitic basement rocks. at 30m depth (Fig. 2D resistivity distribution maps of Figure 11 and the pseudo-3D resistivity model of Figure 12 present a summary of the resistivity survey results and reveal a significant low resistivity anomaly (<8 Ωm). extending from ground surface to more than 80 meters depth. 12). mineralised fluids moving vertically along faults and laterally through permeable zones. reducing to about 400m by 100m in area at 80 meters depth (Fig. Figure 10. Similarly. The conductive corridors manifest the traces of faults F1 and F4. which is inferred to be associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. The zone is respectively bounded from north and south by two NW and EW trending corridors of low resistivity about 200m by 30m in area (Fig. is probably associated with fault F2 (Fig. The conductive corridors are generally bounded by resistivities greater than 100 Ωm. Inverted resistivity image of profile L2 A local thickening of the conductive overburden observed between distances 225 and 250m. The inverted resistivity image for profile L2 (Fig. 8) in the basement rock. The bedrock underlies an eastwards thickening conductive overburden. 12 . the interpreted faults close to the north and south ends of profile L4 identify with the known faults F1 and F2. 8) known from geologic mapping. and high temperatures. 11b). which cross the profile line just in these locations. D-D profile line L2 trends EW following the existing streambed. They identify faults F1 and F4 (Fig.produced extensive fracture zones followed by local drops in it. It forms an N30oE trending zone about 400m by 150m in area. 11a).

Pseudo-3D resistivity model. Maps of true resistivity distribution at depths 30m (a) and 80m (b). 13 . Figure 12.(a) (b) Figure 11.

However. Concluding we can say that in shallow depths the thermal fluids of the area are channelled upward principally along faults. Many thanks are also expressed to the students of the Department of Geophysics. Favorable areas were located where the intense fracturing of the volcanic basement rocks has produced extensive or local thickening of overburden material. as the thickness of the overburden increases and the vertical extent of fractures are reduced. Synthetic simulation investigations and case study examples were used to explore the capabilities of the method to detect fractures and or fractured zones. when covered by overburden and their width is comparable to their depth of burial. The resistivity data and their interpretation are probably not adequate to specify the position of deep controlling structures and limited drilling indicates that the geothermal reservoir is probably too deep to directly influence the resistivity readings at this environment. 2D cross sections elucidated and gave explanation for the origin of the hot water at hot spring.) and correlated with information available from drilling. in volcanic rocks. 14 . the resistivity survey results. who helped acquire the geophysical data. and the Special Account for Research Grants of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens for granting part of this research. especially the area around fault F1 and hot spring HS. University of Athens. when used for the exploration of geothermal waters in volcanic rock environments can provide very useful information. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We wish to thank the Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) for funding the research leaded to this article. produce responses greater than any measurement noise leading in that way to relatively high-resolution resistivity imaging of fractures. appearing in Figures 11 and 12. were recommended as promising areas for exploitation. regarded as aquifers. supported by surface geological features such as the presence of nearby hydrothermal manifestations (hot spring. fumaroles etc. then move laterally through permeable zones in the subsurface to mix with seawater. A production well drilled in this area to a depth of 186m produced 100 m3/h of geothermal water with a well-head temperature of 60 to 650 C providing a low-cost renewable energy alternative as the necessary heating medium for the proposed sea-water desalination unit. the inverted resistivity images loss in resolution creating in that way local thickening of the overburden as unfeigned attestation of their existence. There is not yet supporting evidence that the shallow conductive zones are in communication with deeper conductive fluids from high enthalpy reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS The dipole-dipole resistivity imaging method. Synthetic simulation indicated that fracture zones of high vertical penetration in the volcanic basement. Synthetic outcomes were confirmed by demonstrating a case study example where field geophysical experiments were conducted in the context of investigating the low enthalpy geothermal conditions of Kimolos Island Greece. contribute to a geologic model in which geothermal fluids rise vertically along faults F1 and F4.More specifically. According to the 2D interpretation of these data set the two trending corridors.

Fytikas. A smoothness constrained algorithm for the fast 2D inversion of DC resistivity and induced polarization data. 1. F. 1966. 1993.. 1996. UK.... I. Rapid least squares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections by a quasi-Newton method. Resistivity modeling for arbitrary shaped twodimensional structures. Ph. Louis... Exploring for favourable groundwater conditions in hardrock environments by resistivity imaging methods: Synthetic simulation approach and case study example. F. Louis. Department of Geophysics. 1998. and Barker.ac. 341-350. Imaging fractures in hardrock terrain. Lagios. University of York. F. M.bham. Department of Alternative Energy Sources (in Greek). Tsourlos P. Louis. 3.D. University of Birmingham. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (in Greek). and Galanopoulos. F. A. Special Issue. Loke. Geophysical Investigations of Kimolos and Polyegos Islands. thesis. 1995. 15 . of Greek Geol.. I. Y. 1981... Szymanski J. Center of Renewable Energy Sources. (Geophys. http://www. interpretation and inversion of multielectrode resistivity survey data.REFERENCES Barker. 34. Louis.. Final report submitted to the General Secretariat of Research and Technology and Public Power Corporation. 1995. State of the art geophysical methods and software development in prospecting for geothermal resources with field application in Greece. Shallow resistivity survey at Prassa geothermal area on Kimolos Island.D. Vafidis. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Explor.. H. N. I. Geophysical Prospecting. D. A.. and Vugiukalakis. The Use of Geophysical Prospecting for Imaging the Aquifer of Lakka Carbonates. M. 3-13. 44. 2001. Greece. Of Japan (Butsuri Tanko). 28/2. 2002a.. F. Volcanic structure and evolution of Kimolos and Polyegos Islands. and Tsokas G.. Grambas. I. G. Automatic interpretation of resistivity data over two-dimensional structures (I) (in Japanese). H. Final report submitted to the General Secretariat of Research and Technology and Public Power Corporation. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society. and Tassopoulos. 221-237. Soc. R. Louis. D. Ph. 106-136. 2002b.. 27.. I. and Morrison. 97-106. G. Tsourlos P. Louis. Bull.. 1984.. Mandoudi Euboea. Tsokas. R.. 131-152. P. I. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society. F. A. F.uk/EarthSciences/research/hydro/envgeo/ Dey. Geophysical Prospecting. 1996. Department of Alternative Energy Sources (in Greek).. October 2002. Magnetotelluric soundings in the geothermal areas of Kimolos and Polyegos Islands. Thesis. E. 5.. D. Modeling. Athens (in Greek). Sasaki. 1-14. 1996.