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Word classes

All words belong to categories called word classes (or parts of speech) according
to the part they play in a sentence. The main word classes in English are listed


A noun is a word that identifies:
a person (man, girl, engineer, friend)
a thing (horse, wall, flower, country)
an idea, quality, or state (anger, courage, life,luckiness)
Read more about nouns.

A verb describes what a person or thing does or what happens. For example, verbs
an action – jump, stop, explore
an event – snow, happen

) Read more about adverbs. have a change – evolve. you. Something will have to change. This is often done in order to avoid repeating the noun. and often appear between the subject and its verb (She nearly lost everything. seem. or other adverb stronger or weaker. as follows: subjective pronouns objective pronouns possessive pronouns . her. giving extrainformation about it. Pronoun Pronouns are used in place of a noun that is already known or has already been mentioned. For example: Laura left early because she was tired. Adverb An adverb is a word that’s used to give information about a verb. That is the only option left. yours. or them. we. For example: an exciting adventure a green apple a tidy room Read more about adjectives. widen Read more about verbs. me. adjective. Adjective An adjective is a word that describes a noun.a situation – be. or other adverb. They can be divided into various different categories according to their role in a sentence.his. They can make the meaning of a verb. they. Personal pronouns are used in place of nouns referring to specific people or things. for example I. adjective. mine. hers. Anthony brought the avocados with him. shrink.

the time when something happens. Exclamation An exclamation (also called an interjection) is a word or phrase that expresses strong emotion. or the way in which something is done. or anger. those dogs. and sentences. . and in writing they are usually followed by an exclamation mark rather than a full stop. on. those. clauses. pleasure. Preposition A preposition is a word such as after. They describe. for. the. Read more about prepositions. this. Conjunction A conjunction (also called a connective) is a word such as and. many dogs). every. such as a/an. The determiner the is sometimes known as the definite article and the determiner a (or an) as the indefinite article. Prepositions are usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. Exclamations often stand on their own. or many (as in a dog. but. in. Read more about conjunctions. or. Conjunctions are used to connect phrases. every dog. and with. Read more about determiners. thisdog. because. and when. to.The two main kinds are known as coordinating conjunctionsand subordinating conjunctions. if.reflexive pronouns Read more about pronouns. the position of something. such as surprise. Determiner A determiner is a word that introduces a noun. the dog. for example.

Examples: Begin with the sentence: The cloud is floating. Silverstein) The tree was happy because the boy returned. The cloud is floating. The first team gets a point. getting a point each time something is added successfully or until teams run out of expansions. The fluffy white cloud is floating.) For example. The Giving Tree was happy because the boy returned. The fluffy white cloud that looks like a boat is floating in the sky. The Giving Tree was happy because the boy returned to sit in the shade and rest. (Make the starter sentence as short as possible. The Giving Tree was happy because the boy returned to sit in the shade. Other teams take turns expanding the sentence. Proficient 3 Procedure: One team begins by making a sentence orally that contains the language or content focus of the lesson. the first team might say. The fluffy white cloud is floating in the sky. in a lesson focusing on weather and on adjectives.(from lesson on The Giving Tree. Etc. Begin with the sentence: The tree was happy. by S. The Giving Tree was happy because the boy returned to sit in the shade and rest quietly. The white cloud is floating. The cloud is floating. .Sentence Stretchers Purpose: Syntactic Development Focus: Expand grammatically correct sentences by adding new words in appropriate order ELDC (Continuum) Level(s): Proficient 2.

Our holiday starts on the 26th March With future constructions She'll see you before she leaves. You take the No. then you turn left.10 to Bedford. Be careful! The simple present is not used to express actions happening now. The Earth revolves around the Sun. present or future: Your exam starts at 09. They watch television regularly. . We'll give it to her when she arrives. To express fixed arrangements. until: He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday. For repeated actions or events We catch the bus every morning. as soon as. For instructions or directions Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. general truths. repeated actions or unchanging situations. emotions and wishes: I smoke (habit). EXAMPLES       For habits He drinks tea at breakfast. London is a large city (general truth) To give instructions or directions: You walk for two hundred meters. They drive to Monaco every summer. I work in London (unchanging situation).6 bus to Watney and then the No. before. It rains every afternoon in the hot season. For general truths Water freezes at zero degrees.00 To express future time. Her mother is Peruvian. For fixed arrangements His mother arrives tomorrow.SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE IS USED:     To express habits. She only eats fish. when. after some conjunctions: after.

-x. it pushes EXAMPLES  He goes to school every morning. pray --> prays Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss. -ch: he passes. she catches. . she needs. he gives. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies: fly --> flies. THIRD PERSON SINGULAR     In the third person singular the verb always ends in -s: he wants. she thinks. They think Do they think? They do not think. He wants ice cream. NOTES ON THE SIMPLE PRESENT. Negative and question forms use DOES (= the third person of the auxiliary 'DO') + the infinitive of the verb. he fixes. -sh.FORMING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: TO THINK Affirmative Interrogative Negative I think Do I think? I do not think You think Do you think? You do not think He thinks Does he think? He does not think She thinks Does she think? She does not think It thinks Does it think? It does not think We think Do we think? We do not think. Does he want strawberry? He does not want vanilla. cry --> cries Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y: play --> plays.

things which are true at the moment but not always I'm looking for a new job. present plans for the future I'm taking my husband to New York for his birthday. thoughts and feelings about the time of speaking I don't understand. Notice how in all these examples we use the present continuous to talk about events which are temporary/limited in time and the present simple to talk about events which are habits/permanent. Look at these sentences: o o o o I usually don't drink coffee but I'm having one this morning because there is nothing else. He tries very hard. She enjoys playing the piano. We use the Present Continuous o o o at the time of speaking ('now') I'm watching a movie on TV.    She understands English. Present Simple or Continuous We use the Present Simple o o o o for regular actions or events I watch TV most evenings. facts The sun rises in the east facts know about the future The plane leaves at 5. My parents live in New York but I'm just visiting.00 in the morning. I often drive to work but I'm taking the train this morning because my car is in for repair. I'm thinking about dying my hair blonde but I don't think my wife will be very happy about it. It mixes the sand and the water. .

For example: The past tense of the verb want is wanted. (The exception is the Past tense of To Be. is easy to use in English. In general. . where you change the verb ending for every subject. then the Past Tense will be easy. which has two forms: was and were) This is totally different from other languages such as Spanish. How to form the Past Tense in English The main rule is that for every verb in English. we normally add –ED to the end of the verb. Italian etc. often just called the Past Tense. play – played cook – cooked rain – rained wait – waited There are some exceptions with a slight change in spelling which you can see here: Spelling of words ending in ED. the Past Tense is used to talk about something that started and finished at a definite time in the past. there is only one form of it in the past tense. Wanted is used as the past tense for all subjects/pronouns.PAST TENSE The Simple Past Tense. I wanted You wanted He wanted She wanted It wanted We wanted They wanted So you just have to learn one word to be able to use it in the past tense. French. In this case we just needed to learn the one word wanted which can be used for all subjects (or people). Past Tense Regular Verbs To change a regular verb into its past tense form. If you already know how to use the Present Tense.

Examples of sentences using regular verbs in the past tense Last night I played my guitar loudly and the neighbors complained. Past: They didn't live in Canada. Past: He didn't speak Japanese. She kissed me on the cheek. John wanted to go to the museum. Past: You didn't walk to work. The main verb (live in the example above) is in its base form (of the infinitive). It rained yesterday. Past: You didn't need a mechanic. NOTICE: The only difference between a negative sentence in the present tense and a negative sentence in the past tense is the change in the auxiliary verb. We recommend reading our guide about the pronunciation of –ED at the end of words. Present: You don't walk to work. Note: There are three different ways of pronouncing the –ed at the end of a verb in the past tense. Compare the negative sentences in the examples below: Present: You don't need a mechanic. Present: He doesn't speak Japanese. . (Exception is To Be and Modal Verbs such as Can) Compare the following: Present: They don't live in Canada. The auxiliary DIDN'T shows that the sentence is negative AND in the past tense. Examples of negative sentences in the Past Tense I didn't want to go to the dentist. Negative sentences in the Past Tense We use didn't (did not) to make a negative sentence in the past tense. Both don't and doesn't in the present tense become didn't in the past tense. Angela watched TV all night. This is for regular AND irregular verbs in English.

This is for regular AND irregular verbs in English. (Exception is To Be and Modal Verbs such as Can) Compare the following: Present: Do they live in France? Past: Did they live in France? The main verb (live in the example above) is in its base form (of the infinitive). Did you study? – Yes. NOTICE: The only difference between a question in the present tense and a question in the past tense is the change in the auxiliary verb. Both Do and Does in present tense questions become Didn't in past tense questions. Why etc. Questions in the Past Tense We use did to make a question in the past tense. We didn't sleep well last night. You didn't close the door. What. Examples of Questions in the Past Tense . Where did you study? – I studied at the library. When did you study? – I studied last night.She didn't have time. I did.) before DID to ask for more information. They didn't study so they didn't pass the test. The auxiliary DID shows that the question is in the past tense. He didn't come to my party. Read more about short answers in the past tense. Compare the questions in the examples below: Present: Do you need a doctor? Past: Did you need a doctor? Present: Do you ride your bike to work? Past: Did you ride your bike to work? Present: Does he live in Italy? Past: Did he live in Italy? We can also use a question word (Who.

Compare the following using GO in the past tense. they. Did they go to the beach? --.Didn't shows that we are talking in the past tense. it is only in its irregular form (went) in sentences that are affirmative/positive. You didn't eat my cake. she. They went to the library. The word went is used for all subjects – I. Did you eat my cake? Present vs Past Tense Summary Chart . as we mentioned before. The past of EAT is ATE. he. For example: The past tense of GO is WENT. (An exception to this is with the verb TO BE in the Past Tense).I didn't say anything. They went to the beach They didn't go to the beach --. Why did we have to come? Irregular Verbs in the Past Tense Irregular verbs are ONLY irregular in affirmative/positive sentences.Did shows that we are talking in the past tense. Another example with an irregular verb. It does not end in –ED so it is considered irregular. you. BUT. it. I went to the beach He went to the park.Did you go to work yesterday? Did they arrive on time? Did she like the surprise? Where did she go? What did you do yesterday? What did you say? . She went to the zoo. we. You ate my cake.

never or several times before the moment of speaking Example: I have never been to Australia. never. up to now . ever.  action that is still going on Example: School has not started yet.  action that stopped recently Example: She has cooked dinner.. not yet. till now.  action that has taken place once. just. so far. PRESENT PREFECT Use of Present Perfect  puts emphasis on the result Example: She has written five letters.  finished action that has an influence on the present Example: I have lost my key. Signal Words of Present Perfect  already.

six years. We often use for and since when talking about time. 1st January. since + point: a "point" is a precise moment in time .Exercises on Present Perfect  Exceptions in Spelling when adding ‘ed’  have or has  Positive Sentences in Present Perfect Simple  Negative Sentences in Present Perfect Simple  Sentences with ‘never’ in Present Perfect Simple  Questions in Present Perfect Simple  Questions with Interrogative Particles in Present Perfect Simple  Mixed Exercise on Present Perfect Simple  Exercise on the text “Loch Ness”  Irregular Verbs For and Since for Time We lived there for five years. For means "from the beginning of the period to the end of the period". He has been away since Tuesday. Monday. Look at these examples: for a period from start to end since a point from then to now >===< x===>| for 20 minutes since 9am . Since means "from a point in the past until now". two weeks.9 o'clock.five minutes. for + period: a "period" is a duration of time .

I worked at that bank for five years. He has been working since he arrived. (not for all day) since Since is normally used with perfect tenses: He has been here since 9am.for a period from start to end since a point from then to now for for for for for for since since since since since since three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever all tenses Monday January 1997 1500 I left school the beginning of time perfect tenses for For can be used with all tenses. . Here are a few examples: They study for two hours every day. They are studying for three hours today. Will the universe continue for ever? We do not use for with "all day". He has been living in Paris for three months. He has lived in Bangkok for a long time. I had lived in New York since my childhood. "all the time": I was there all day.

Here are some examples: This is for you. Since he didn't study. he didn't pass the exam. How long is it since you got married? Both for and since also have other meanings.We also use since in the structure "It is [period] since": It was a year since I had seen her. I'll say yes. with no reference to time. . Is this the train for London? Since you ask.