You are on page 1of 28

INTRODUCTION TO

POWER SYSTEM PROTECTON

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 2 of 28

OVERVIEW OF PROTECTION FUNDAMENTALS


1.0

INTRODUCTION

Relays are compact devices that are connected throughout the power system to
detect intolerable or unwanted conditions within an assigned area. They are in
effect, a form of active insurance designed to maintain a high degree of service
continuity and limit equipment damage. They are Silent Sentinels. While
protective relays will be the main emphasis of this chapter, other types of relays,
applied on a more limited basis or used as part of a total protective relays system
will also be covered.
2.0

CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS

Relays can be divided into five functional categories:


a. Protective Relays, which detect defective lines, defective apparatus, or other
dangerous or intolerable conditions. These relays can either initiate or permit
switching or simply provide an alarm.
b. Monitoring Relays, which verify conditions on the power system or in the
protection system. These relays include fault detectors, alarm units, channelmonitoring relays, synchronism verification, and network phasing. Power
system conditions that do not involve opening circuit breakers during faults can
be monitored by these relays.
c. Programming Relays, which establish or detect electrical
Programming relays are used for reclosing and synchronising.

sequences.

d. Regulating Relays, which are activated when an operating parameter deviates


from predetermined limits. Regulating relays function through supplementary
equipment to restore the quantity to the prescribed limits.
e. Auxiliary Relays, which operate in response to the opening or closing of the
operating circuit to supplement another relay or device. These include timers,

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 3 of 28

contact-multiplier relays, sealing units, receiver relays, lock-out relays, closing


relays and trip relays.
In addition to these functional categories, relays may be classified by input,
operating principle or structure and performance characteristic:
(i)

Input
Current
Voltage
Power
Pressure
Frequency
Temperature
Flow
Vibration

Operating Principle of Structure


Percentage
Multi-restraint
Product
Solid state
Electromechanical
Thermal.

(ii)

The above classification and definitions are based on the ANSI Standard 37.90
(IEEE 313).
3.0

PROTECTIVE RELAYING SYSTEMS AND THEIR DESIGN

Technically, most relays are small systems within themselves. Throughout this
chapter, however, the term systems will be used to indicate a combination of
relays of the same or different types. Properly speaking, the protective relaying
system includes circuit breakers as well as relays. Relays and circuit breakers must
function together; there is little or no value in applying one without the other.
Protective relays or systems are not required to function during normal power
system operation, but must be immediately available to handle intolerable system
conditions and avoid serious outages and damage. Thus, the true operating life

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 4 of 28

of these relays can be on the order of a few seconds, even though they are
connected in a system for many years. In practice, the relays operate far more
during testing and maintenance than in response to adverse service conditions.
In theory, a relay system should be able to respond to the infinity of abnormalities
that can possibly occur within the power system. In practice, the relay engineer
must arrive at a compromise based on the four factors that influence any relay
application:
a. Economics - Initial, operating and maintenance.
b. Available measure of fault or trouble - Fault magnitudes and location of current
transformers and voltage transformers.
c. Operating practices - Conformity to standard and accepted practices; ensuring
efficient system operation.
d. Previous experience - History and anticipation perhaps better expressed of
trouble likely to be encountered within the system.
The third and fourth considerations are perhaps better expressed as the
personality of the system and the relay engineer.
Since it is simply not feasible to design a protective relaying system capable of
handling any potential problem, compromises must be made. In general, only
those problems, which according to past experience are likely to occur, receive
primary consideration. Naturally, this makes relaying somewhat of an art. Different
relay engineers will, using sound logic, design significantly different protective
systems for essentially the same power system. As a result there is little
standardisation in protective relaying. Not only may the type of relaying system
vary, but also will the extent of the protective coverage. Too much protection is
almost as bad as little.
Nonetheless, protective relaying is a highly specialised technology requiring an indepth understanding of the power system as a whole. The relay engineer must
know, not only the technology of the abnormal, but have a basic understanding of
all the system components and their operation in the system. Relaying, then, is a
Vertical specialty requiring a horizontal viewpoint. This horizontal, or total
system, concept of relaying includes fault protection and the performance of the
protection system during abnormal system operation such as severe overloads,
generation deficiency, out-of-step conditions, and so forth. Although these areas

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 5 of 28

are vitally important to the relay engineer, his concern has not always been fully
appreciated or shared by his colleagues. For this reason, close and continued
communication between the planning, relay design, and operation systems should
be mandatory, since power systems grow and operating conditions change.
A complex relaying system may result from poor system design or the economic
need to use fewer circuit breakers. Considerable savings can be realized by using
fewer circuit breakers and a more complex relay system. Such systems usually
involve design compromises requiring careful evaluation, if acceptable protection
is to be maintained.
4.0

DESIGN CRITERIA

The application logic of protective relays divides the power system into several
zones, each requiring its own group of relays. In all cases, the five design criteria
listed below are common to any well-designed and efficient protective system or
system segment:
a. Reliability the ability of the relay or relay system to perform correctly when
needed (dependability) and to avoid unnecessary operation (security).
b. Speed minimum fault time and equipment damage.
c. Selectivity maximum service continuity with minimum system disconnection.
d. Economics maximum protection at minimum cost.
e. Simplicity minimum equipment and circuitry.
Since it is impractical to fully satisfy all these design criteria simultaneously the
necessary compromises must be evaluated on the basis of comparative risks.
4.1
Reliability
System reliability consists of two elements dependability and security.
Dependability is the certainty of correct operation in response to system trouble,
while security is the ability of the system to avoid mis-operation between faults.
Unfortunately, these aspects of reliability tend to counter one another: increasing
security tends to decrease dependability and vice versa. In general, however,
modern relaying systems are highly reliable and provide practical compromise
between security and dependability.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 6 of 28

Protective relay system must perform correctly under adverse system and
environmental conditions. Regardless of whether other systems are momentarily
blinded during this period, the relays must perform accurately and dependably.
They must either operate in response to trouble in their assigned area or block
correctly if the trouble is outside their designated area.
Dependability can be checked relatively easily in the laboratory or during
installation by simulated tests or staged faults. Security on the other hand is much
more difficult to check. A true test of system security would have to measure
response to an almost infinite variety of potential transients and counterfeit trouble
indications in the power system and its environment. A secure system is usually the
result of a good background in design combined with extensive miniature power
system testing and can only be confirmed in the power system itself and its
environment.
4.2
Speed
Relays that could anticipate a fault would be utopian. But, even if available, they
would doubtlessly raise the question of whether or not the fault or trouble really
required a trip-out. The development of faster relays must always be measured
against the increased probability of more unwanted or unexplained operations.
Time, no matter how short, is still the best method of distinguishing between real
and counterfeit trouble.
Applied to a relay, high speed indicates that the operating time usually does not
exceed 50 ms (3 cycles on a 60-hertz base). The term instantaneous indicates that
no delay is purposely introduced in the operation. In practice, the terms high
speed and instantaneous are frequently used interchangeably.
4.3
Selectivity versus Economics
High speed relays provide greater service continuity by reducing fault damage
and hazards to personnel. These relays generally have a higher initial cost,
which, however, cannot always be justified. Consequently, both low and highspeed relays are used to protect power systems. Both types have high reliability
records. Records on protective relay operations consistently show 99.5% and
better relay performance.
4.4

Simplicity

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 7 of 28

As in any other engineering discipline, simplicity in a protective relay system is


always the hallmark of a good design. The simplest relay system, however, is not
always the most economical. As previously indicated, major economies are
possible with a complex relay system that uses a minimum number of circuit
breakers. Other factors being equal, simplicity of design improves system
reliability if only because there are fewer elements that can malfunction.
5.0

FACTORS INFLUENCING RELAY PERFORMANCE

Relay performance is generally classed as:


(1) Correct
(2) No conclusion
(3) Incorrect
Incorrect operation may be either failure to trip or false tripping. The cause of
incorrect operation may be, a) Wrong application, b) Incorrect settings, c) A
personnel error or 4) Equipment mal-function. Equipment that can cause an
incorrect operation includes current transformers, voltage transformers, circuit
breakers, cable and wiring, relays, channels or station batteries.
Incorrect tripping of circuit breakers not associated with the trouble area is often as
disastrous as a failure to trip. Hence, special care must be taken in both
application and installation to ensure against the possibility of incorrect tripping.
No conclusion is the last resort when no evidence is available for a correct or
incorrect operation. Quite often this is a personnel involvement.
6.0 Zones of Protection
The general philosophy of relay application is to divide the power system into
protective zones that can be protected adequately with the minimum amount of the
system disconnected. The power system is divided into protective zones for:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Generators
Transformers
Buses
Transmission and distribution circuits
Motors

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 8 of 28

A typical power system and its zones of protection are shown in Fig1. The
purpose of the protective system is to provide the first line of protection, within the
guide-lines outlined above. Since failures do occur, however some form of backup
protection is provided to trip out the adjacent breakers or zones surrounding the
trouble area. Protection in each zone is overlapped to avoid the possibility of
unprotected areas
7.0

PPLYING PROTECTIVE RELAYS

The first step in applying protective relays is to state the protection problem
accurately. Although developing a clear, accurate statement of the problem can
often be the most difficult part, the time spent will pay dividends particularly
when assistance from others is desired. Information on the following associated or
supporting areas in necessary.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

System configuration
Existing systems protection and its difficulties
Existing operating procedures and practices; possible future expansions
Degree of protection required
Fault study
Maximum load and current transformer ratios
Voltage transformer locations, connections and ratios
Impedance of the lines and transformers.

7.1
System Configuration
System configuration is represented by a single line diagram showing the area of
the system involved in the protection problem. This diagram should show in some
detail the location of the breakers, the bus arrangements, the taps on lines & their
capacity, the location & size of the generation, the location, size & connections of
the power transformers and the system frequency.
Transformer connections are particularly important.
location of the ground sources must also be known.

For ground relaying, the

7.2
Existing systems Protection and Procedures
The existing protective equipment and the reasons for the desired changes should
be outlined. Difficulties with the present relaying system are a valuable guide to
improvements. New installations should be so specified. As new relay system

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 9 of 28

will often be required to operate with or utilize parts of the existing relaying,
details on these existing systems are important.
Wherever possible, changes in system protection should conform to existing
operating procedures and practices. Exceptions to standard procedures tend to
increase the risk of personnel error and may disrupt the efficient operation of the
system. Anticipated system expansions can also greatly influence the choice of
protection.
7.3
Degree of Protection Required
To determine the degree of protection required, the general type of protection
being considered should be outlined, together with the system conditions or
operating procedures and practices that will influence the final choice. These data
will provide answer to the following types of questions. Is pilot, high-speed,
medium, or slow-speed relaying required? Is simultaneous tripping of all breakers
of a transmission line desired? Is instantaneous reclosing needed?
7.4
Fault Study
An adequate fault study is necessary in almost all relay applications. Three-phase
faults, line-to-ground faults and line-end faults should all be included in the study.
Line-end fault data are important in cases where one breaker may operate ahead
of another. For ground relaying, the fault study should include zero sequence
voltage and negative sequence currents and voltages. These quantities are easily
obtained during the course of a fault study and are often extremely useful in
solving a difficult relaying problem.
7.5
Maximum Loads, Transformer Data and Impedance
Maximum load current, potential transformer connections, its ratios and locations
are required for proper relay application. Maximum loads should be consistent
with the fault data and should be based on the same system conditions. Line and
transformer impedance should also be known. Phase sequence should be
specified if three-line connection drawings are involved.
Obviously, not all the above data are necessary in every application. It is
desirable, however, to at least review the system with respect to the above points
and wherever applicable, to compile necessary data.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 10 of 28

In any event, no amounts of data can ensure a successful relay application unless
the protection problems are first defined. In fact, the application problem is
essentially solved when the available measures (handles) for distinguishing
between tolerable and intolerable conditions can be identified and specified.

8.0

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DEVICE NUMBERS AND FUNCTIONS

The device switching equipment are referred to by numbers, with appropriate


suffix letters when necessary, according to the functions they perform.
These numbers are based on a system adopted as standard for automatic
switchgear by IEEE and incorporated in American Standard C37.2 1970. This
system is used in connection diagrams, in instruction books and in specifications.

8.1
Device Numbering
Device Number
Definition
1
Master Element

Function
It is an initiating device, such as a
control switch, voltage relay, float
switch, etc., which serves either directly
or through such permissive devices as
protective and time delay relays.
to place an equipment in or out of
operation.
Time
Delay It is a device which functions to give a
Starting
or desired amount of time delay before or
Closing Relay
after any point of operation in a
switching
sequence
or
protective
relaying system, except as specifically
provided by device function 48, 62 and
79 described later.
Checking
or It is a device which operates in response
Interlocking Relay to the position of a number of other

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 11 of 28

Definition

Function
devices
(or
to
a
number
of
predetermined
conditions),
in
an
equipment, to allow an operating
sequence to proceed, to stop, or to
provide a check of the position of these
devices or of these conditions for any
purpose.
Master Contactor It is a device, generally controlled by the
device No.1 or equivalent, and the
required permissive and protective
devices, that serve to make and break
the necessary control circuits to place an
equipment into operation under the
desired conditions and to take it out of
operation under other or abnormal
conditions.
Stopping Device
It is a control device used primarily to
shut down an equipment and hold it out
of operation. This device may be
manually or Electrically actuated, but
excludes the function of electrical lockout
(see device function 86) on abnormal
conditions.
Starting
Circuit It is a device whose principal function is
Breaker
to connect a machine to its source of
starting voltage.
Anode
Circuit It is one used in the anode circuits of a
Breaker
power rectifier for the primary purpose
of interrupting the rectifier circuit if an
arc back should occur.
Control
Power It is a disconnecting device such as a
Disconnecting
knife switch, circuit breaker or pullout
Device
fuse block, used for the purpose of
connecting and disconnecting the source
of control power to and from the control
bus or equipment.
Note: Control power is considered to

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

10

11
12

13

14

15

16
17

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 12 of 28

Definition

Function
include auxiliary power, which supplies
such apparatus as small motors and
heaters.
Reversing Device
It is used for the purpose of reversing a
machine field or for performing any
other reversing functions.
Unit
Sequence It is used to change the sequence in
Switch
which units may be placed in and out of
service in multiple unit equipment.
Reserved for future
application
OverSpeed
It is usually a direct connected speed
Device
switch which functions on machine over
speed.
Synchronised
A centrifugal speed switch, a slip
Speed Device
frequency relay, a voltage relay, an
undercurrent relay or any type of device
that
operates
at
approximately
synchronous speed of a machine.
Under
Speed It is a device, which functions when the
Device
speed of a machine falls below a
predetermined value.
Speed
or It is a device that functions to match and
Frequency
hold the speed or the frequency of a
Matching Device
machine or of a system equal to, or
approximately equal to, that of another
machine, source or system.
Reserved for future
application
Shunting
or It serves to open or to close a shunting
Discharge Switch
circuit around any piece of apparatus
(Except a resistor), such as a machine
field, a machine armature, a capacitor
or a reactor.
Note: This excludes devices which
perform such shunting operation as may
be necessary in the process of starting a

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

18

19

20

21

22

23

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 13 of 28

Definition

Function
machine by devices 6 or 42 or theyre
equivalent, and also exclude device 73
function which serves for the switching of
resistors.
Accelerating
or It is used to close or to cause the closing
Decelerating
of circuits, which are used to increase or
Device
to decrease the speed of a machine.
Starting-ToIt is a device, which operates to initiate
Running Transition or cause the automatic transfer of a
Contactor
machine from the starting to the running
power connection.
Electrically
It is an electrically operated, controlled
operated Valve
or monitored valve in a fluid line.
Note: The function of the valve may be
indicated by the use of the suffixes.
Distance Relay
It is a device, which functions when the
circuit
admittance
impedance
or
reactance increases or decreases
beyond predetermined limits.
Equaliser Circuit It is a breaker, which serves to control or
Breaker
to make and break the equaliser or the
currentbalancing connections for a
machine field, or for regulating
equipment, in a multiple-unit of the
installation.
Temperature
It is a device to raise or lower the
Control Device
temperature of a machine or other
apparatus or of any medium, when its
temperature falls below, or rises above,
a predetermined value.
Note: An example is a thermostat which
switches on a space heater in a
switchgear
assembly
when
the
temperature falls to a desired value as
distinguished from a device which is
used to provide automatic temperature
regulation between close limits and

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
24
25

26

27
28

29

30

31

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 14 of 28

Definition

Function
would be designated as 90T.

Reserved for future


application
Synchronising or It is a device that operates when two ac
Synchronism
circuits are within the desired limits of
Check Device
frequency, phase angle and voltage, to
permit or to cause the paralleling of
these two circuits.
Apparatus
It is a device, which functions when the
Thermal Device
temperature of the shunt field or the
armature winding of a machine, or that
of a load limiting or load shifting resistor
or of a liquid or other medium exceeds a
predetermined value ; or if the
temperature of the protected apparatus,
such as a power rectifier, or of any
medium
decreases
below
a
predetermined value.
Under
Voltage It is a device, which functions on a given
Relay
value of undervoltage.
Flame detector
It is a device that monitors the presence
of the pilot or main flame in such
apparatus as a gas turbine or a steam
boiler.
Isolating
It is a device used for disconnecting one
Contactor
circuit from another for the purposes of
emergency operation, maintenance, or
test.
Annunciator relay It is a non-automatically reset device that
gives a number of separate visual
indications upon the functioning of
protective devices and which may also
be arranged to perform a lockout
function.
Separate
It connects a circuit such as the shunt
Excitation Device
field of a synchronous converter, to a
source of separate excitation during the

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 15 of 28

Device Number

Definition

32

Directional Power
Relay

33

Position Switch

34

Master Sequence
Device

35

BrushOperating,
or Slip-ring-shortcircuiting Device

36

Polarity
or
Polarising Voltage
Device

37

Undercurrent
or
Under
power
Relay
Bearing Protective
Device

38

Function
starting sequence ; or one which
energises the excitation and ignition
circuits of a power rectifier.
It is a device which functions on a
desired value of power flow in a given
direction, or upon reverse power, like
resulting from arc back in the anode or
cathode circuits of a power rectifier.
It makes or breaks contact when the
main device or piece of apparatus,
which has no device function number,
reaches a given position.
It is a device such as a motor-operated
multi-contact switch, or the equivalent, or
a programming device, such as a
computer, that establishes or determines
the operating sequence of the major
devices in an equipment during starting
and stopping or during other sequential
operations.
It is used for raising, lowering, or
shifting, the brushes of a machine, or for
short circuiting its slip rings, or for
engaging or disengaging the contacts of
a mechanical rectifier.
It operates or permits the operation of
another device on a predetermined
polarity only or verifies the presence of a
polarising voltage in an equipment.
It functions when the current or power
flow decreases below a predetermined
value.
It functions on excessive bearing
temperature, or on other abnormal
mechanical conditions, such as undue
wear, which may eventually result in
excessive bearing temperature.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
39

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 16 of 28

Definition
Mechanical
Condition Monitor

40

Field Relay

41

Field
Breaker

Circuit

42

Running
Breaker

Circuit

43

Manual Transfer
or Selector Device
transfers

44

Unit
Sequence
Starting Relay

45

Atmospheric
Condition Monitor

Function
It is a device that functions upon the
occurrence of abnormal mechanical
conditions, (except that associated with
bearings as covered under device
function 38), such as excessive vibration,
eccentricity, expansion, shock, tilting, or
seal failure.
It functions on a given or abnormally low
value or failure of machine field current,
or on an excessive value of the reactive
component of armature current in an ac
machine indicating abnormally low field
excitation.
It is a device, which functions to apply,
or to remove the field excitation of a
machine.
It is a device whose principal function is
to connect a machine to its source of
running or operating voltage. This
function may also be used for a device,
such as a contactor, that is used in series
with a circuit breaker or other fault
protecting means, primarily for frequent
opening and closing of the circuit.
It transfers the control circuits so as to
modify the plan of operation of the
switching equipment or of some of the
devices.
It is a device, which functions to start the
next available unit in a multiple-unit
equipment on the failure or on the nonavailability of the normally preceding
unit.
It is a device that functions upon the
occurrence of an abnormal atmospheric
condition, such as damaging fumes,
explosive mixture, smoke or fire.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
46

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 17 of 28

Definition
ReversePhase,
PhaseBalance,
Current Relay

47

Phase Sequence
Voltage Relay

48

Incomplete
Sequence Relay

49

Machine,
Transformer,
Thermal Relay

50

Instantaneous
overcurrent,
or
Rate of rise Relay

51

AC
Time
Overcurrent Relay

52

AC
Breaker

or

Circuit

Function
It is a relay which functions when the
poly-phase currents are of reverse phase
sequence, or when the poly-phase
currents are unbalanced or contain
negative phasesequence components
above a given amount.
It functions upon a predetermined value
of poly phase voltage in the desired
phase sequence.
It is a relay that generally returns the
equipment to the normal, or off, position
and locks it out if the normal starting,
operating or stopping sequence is not
properly
completed
within
a
predetermined time. If the device is used
for alarm purpose only, it should
preferably be designated as 48A
(alarm).
It is a relay that functions when the
temperature of a machine armature, or
other load carrying winding or element
of a machine, or the temperature of a
power rectifier or power transformer
(including a power rectifier transformer)
exceeds an predetermined value.
It is a relay that functions instantaneously
on an excessive value of current, or on
an excessive current rise, thus indicating
a fault in the apparatus or circuit being
protected.
It is a relay with either a definite or an
inverse time characteristic that functions
when the current in an ac circuit exceeds
a predetermined value.
It is a device that is used to close and
interrupt an ac power circuit under
normal conditions or to interrupt this

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

53

54
55

56

57

58

59
60

61
62

63

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 18 of 28

Definition

Function
circuit under fault or emergency
conditions.
Exciter
or It is a relay that forces the dc machine
Generator Relay
field excitation to build up during
starting or which functions when the
machine voltage has build up to a given
value.
Reserved for future
application.
Power
Factor It is a relay that operates when the
Relay
power factors in an ac circuit rises
above or below a predetermined value.
Field Application It is a relay that automatically controls
Relay
the application of the field excitation to
an ac motor at some predetermined
point in the slip cycle.
Short Circuiting It is a primary circuit switching device
or
Grounding that functions to short-circuit or to ground
Device
a circuit in response to automatic or
manual means.
Rectification
It is a device that functions if one or
Failure Relay
more anodes of a power rectifier fail to
fire, or to detect an arc-break or failure
of a diode to conduct or block properly.
Overvoltage Relay It is a relay that functions on a given
value of overvoltage.
Voltage or Current It is a relay that operates on a given
Balance Relay
difference in voltage, or current input or
output of two circuits.
Reserved for future
application
Time

Delay It is a time delay relay that serves in


Stopping
or conjunction with the device that initiates
opening Relay
the shutdown, stopping, or opening
operation in an automatic sequence.
Pressure Switch
It is a switch, which operates on given
values or on a given rate of change of

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
64

65

66

67

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 19 of 28

Definition

Function

pressure.
Ground Protective It is a relay that functions on failure of
Relay
the insulation of a machine, transformer
or of other apparatus to ground, or on
flashover of a dc machine to ground.
Note: This functions is assigned only to a
relay which detects the flow of current
from the frame of a machine or
enclosing case or structure of a piece of
apparatus to ground, or detects a
ground on a normally ungrounded
winding or circuit. It is not applied to
device connected in the secondary
circuit or secondary neutral of a current
transformer, or in the secondary neutral
of current transformer, connected in the
power circuit of a normally grounded
system.
Governor
It is the assembly of fluid, electrical, or
mechanical control, equipment used for
regulating the flow of water, steam, or
other medium to the prime mover for
such purpose as starting, holding or
stopping speed load.
Notching
or It functions to allow only a specified
Jogging Device
number of operations of a given device,
or equipment, or a specified number of
successive operations within a given time
of each other. It also functions to
energise a circuit periodically or for
fractions of specified time intervals, or
that is used to permit intermittent
acceleration or jogging of a machine at
low speeds for mechanical positioning.
AC
directional It is a relay that functions on a desired
Overcurrent Relay value of ac overcurrent flowing in a
predetermined direction.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
68

69

70

71

72

73

74

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 20 of 28

Definition
Blocking Relay

Function
It is a relay that initiates a pilot signal for
blocking of tripping on external faults in
a transmission line or in other apparatus
under predetermined conditions, or coordinates with other devices to block
tripping or to block re-closing on an outof-step condition or on power swings.
Permissive Control It is generally a two position, manually
Device
operated switch that in one position
permits the closing of a circuit breaker,
or the placing of an equipment into
operation, and in the other position
prevents the circuit breaker or the
equipment from being operated.
Rheostat
It is a variable resistance device used in
an electric circuit, which is electrically
operated or has other electrical
accessories, such as auxiliary position or
limit switches.
Level Switch
It is a switch which operates on given
values, or on a given rate of change, of
level.
DC circuit Breaker It is used to close and interrupt a dc
power circuit under normal conditions or
to interrupt this circuit under fault or
emergency conditions.
Load Resistor It is used to shunt or insert a step of load
Contactor
limiting, shifting, or indicating resistance
in a power circuit, or to switch a space
heater in circuit, or to switch a light, or
regenerative load resistor of a power
rectifier or other machine in and out of
circuit.
Alarm Relay
It is a device other than the annunciator,
as covered under device No.30, which
is used to operate in connection with a
visual or audible alarm.

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number
75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 21 of 28

Definition
Function
Position Changing It is a mechanism that is used for moving
Mechanism
a main device from one position to
another in an equipment ;as for
example, shifting a removable circuit
breaker unit to and from the connected,
disconnected, and test positions.
DC
Overcurrent It is a relay that functions when the
Relay
current in a dc circuit exceeds a given
value.
Pulse Transmitter
It is used to generate and transmit pulses
over a telemetering or pilot-wire circuit to
the remote indicating or receiving
device.
Phase
Angle It is a relay that functions at a
Measuring, or out- predetermined phase angle between two
of-step Protective voltages or between two currents or
Relay
between voltage and current.
AC
Re-closing It is a relay that controls the automatic
Relay
reclosing and locking out of an ac circuit
interrupter.
Flow Switch
It is a switch, which operates on given
values, or on a given rate of change, of
flow.
Frequency Relay
It is a relay that functions on a
predetermined value of frequency, either
under/over on normal system frequency
or rate of change of frequency.
DC
Re-closing It is a relay that controls the automatic
Relay
closing and reclosing of a dc circuit
interrupter, generally in response to load
circuit conditions.
Automatic
It is a relay that operates to select
Selective Control automatically between certain sources or
or Transfer Relay
conditions in an equipment, or performs
a transfer operation automatically.
Operating
It is the complete electrical mechanism or
Mechanism
servo-mechanism,
including
the

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 22 of 28

Definition

Function
operating motor, solenoids, position
switches, etc., for a tap changer,
induction regulator or any similar piece
of apparatus which has no device
function number.
Carrier or Pilot- It is a relay that is operated or restrained
wire
Receiver by a signal used in connection with
Relay
carrier-current or dc pilot-wire fault
directional relaying.
Lockingout Relay It is an electrically operated, hand or
electrically reset, relay that functions to
shut down and hold an equipment out of
service on the occurrence of abnormal
conditions.
Differential
It is a protective relay that functions on a
Protective relay
percentage or phase angle or other
quantitative difference of two currents or
of some other electrical quantities.
Auxiliary Motor or It is one used for operating auxiliary
Motor Generator
equipment such as pumps, blowers,
exciters, rotating magnetic amplifiers,
etc.
Line Switch
It is used as a disconnecting load
interrupter, or isolating switch in an ac
or dc power circuit, when this device is
electrically operated or has electrical
accessories, such as an auxiliary switch,
magnetic lock, etc.
Regulating Device It functions to regulate a quantity, or
quantities, such as voltage, current,
power, speed, frequency, temperature,
and load, at a certain value or between
certain (generally close) limits for
machines, toe lines or other apparatus.
Voltage
It is a relay that operates when the
Directional Relay
voltage across an open circuit breaker or
contactor exceeds a given value in a

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Device Number

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 23 of 28

Definition

92

Voltage
and
power Directional
Relay

93

Field
changing
Contactor

94

Tripping or Tripfree Relay

95

Used only for


specific
applications
on
individual
Installations where
none
of
the
assigned
numbered
functions from 1 to
94 is suitable.

Function
given direction.
It is a relay that permits or causes the
connection of two circuits when the
voltage
difference
between
them
exceeds
a
given
value
in
a
predetermined direction and causes
these two circuits to be disconnected
from each other when the power flowing
between them exceeds a given value in
the opposite direction.
It functions to increase or decrease in
one-step the value of field excitation on a
machine.
It functions to trip a circuit breaker,
contactor, or equipment, or to permit
immediate tripping by other devices ; or
to prevent immediate re-closure of a
circuit interrupter, in case it should open
automatically even though its closing
circuit is maintained closed.

8.2
Devices Performing More Than One Function
If one device performs two relatively important functions in an equipment so that it
is desirable to identify both of these functions, this may be done by using a double
function number and name such as:

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 24 of 28

50/51 - Instantaneous and Time Overcurrent Relay.


8.3
Suffix Numbers
If two or more devices with the same function number and suffix letter (if used) are
present in the same equipment, they may be distinguished by numbered suffixes as
for example, 52X-1, 52X-2 and 52X-3, when necessary.
8.4
Suffix Letters
Suffix letters are used with device function numbers for various purposes. In order
to prevent possible conflict each suffix letter should have only one meaning in an
individual equipment. All other words should use the abbreviations as contained in
ANSI Y1.1 latest revision, or should use some other distinctive abbreviation, or be
written out in full each time they are used. The meaning of each single suffix letter,
or combination of letters, should be clearly designated in the legend on the
drawings or publications applying to the equipment.
Lower case (small) suffix letters are used in practically all instances on electrical
diagrams for the auxiliary, position, and limit switches. Capital letters are
generally used for all other suffix letters. The letters should generally form part of
the device function designation, are usually written directly after the device
function number, as for example, 52CS, 71W, or 49D. When it is necessary to
use two types of suffix letters in connection with one function number, it is often
desirable for clarity to separate them by a slanted line or dash, as for example,
20D/CS or 20D-CS.
The suffix letters which denote parts of the main device, and those which cannot or
need not form part of the device function designation, are generally written directly
below the device function number on drawings, as for example, 52/CC or 43/A.
8.9

Standard reference positions of some typical devices

Device
Power Circuit Breaker
Disconnecting Switch
Load-break switch
Valve
Gate
Clutch

Standard Reference Position


Main Contacts Open
Main Contacts Open
Main Contacts Open
Closed Position
Closed Position
Disengaged Position

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Turning Gear
Power Electrodes
Rheostat
Adjusting Means (1)
Relay (2)
Contactor (2)
Contactor (latched-in-type)
Temperature Relay (3)
Level Detector (3)
Flow Detector (3)
Speed Switch (3)
Vibration Detector (3)
Pressure Switch (3)
Vacuum Switch (3)

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 25 of 28

Disengaged Position
Maximum Gap Position
Maximum resistance Position
Low or Down Position
De-energised Position
De-energised Position
Main Contacts Open
Lowest Temperature
Lowest Level
Lowest Flow
Lowest Speed
Minimum Vibration
Lowest Pressure
Lowest Pressure i.e., Highest Vacuum

Note : If several similar auxiliary switches are present on the same device, they should be
designated numerically 1,2,3 etc, when necessary.
(1) These may be speed, voltage, current, load, or similar adjusting devices comprising rheostats,
springs, levers, or other components for the purpose.
(2) These electrically operated devices are of the non-latched-in type, whose contact position is
dependent only upon the degree of energisation of the operating or restraining or holding coil
or coils which may or may not be suitable for continuous energisation. The de-energised
position of the device is that with all coils de-energised.
(3) The energising influences for these devices are considered to be, respectively, rising
temperature, rising level, increasing flow, rising speed, increasing vibration, and increasing
pressure.

The simple designation a or b is used in all cases where there is no need to


adjust the contacts to change position at any particular point in the travel of the
main device or where the part of the travel, where the contacts change position is
of no significance in the control or operating scheme. Hence the a or b
designations usually are sufficient for circuit breaker auxiliary switches.
9.0
CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS ON TECHNOLOGY
Protective relays can be classified into two main categories on the technology of
their design,
1. Electromechanical

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 26 of 28

2. Static.
In practice these terms are used loosely and ends up being wrongly interpreted
and understood. Though the reason for these different types of relays is the
continuous change in electronic technology, each of these types have their own
distinct advantage over the other.
9.1
Electromechanical Relays
Electromechanical relays are defined as Protective relays using magneto motive
force for their operation. Their measuring elements have moving parts. Hinged
armature, Disc relays are very good examples of Electromechanical technology.
9.2
Static Relays
Static relays are defined as Protective relays without any moving parts in the
measuring element. Relays designed using electronics is a typical example for
relays under such category. It should be understood here that static relays can also
have its output elements with moving parts (like miniature relays).
The static relays, as said above are mainly relays designed using electronics, thus
due to the evolution of electronics, the static relays also used different techniques in
their design as listed below,
Static Analogue Relays
Static Digital Relays
Static Numerical Relays
9.21 Static Analogue Relays
Static relays designed using analogue electronic components fall under this
category. In such relays, the input signal after conditioning are directly fed to
analogue measuring elements, like comparators, for e.g., operational amplifiers.
These devices compare the input analogue signal with the reference signal and
generate an output signal depending on the value of the input signal.
9.22
Static Digital Relays
Static Relays designed using digital electronic components are classified under this
category. In these relays, the input analogue signals after conditioning are
converted into digital signals using Analogue to Digital (A/D) converters.. Then
these digital signals are fed to digital comparators, which compare these signals

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 27 of 28

with their reference signals and produce an output. Depending on the number of
elements and phases required, these hardware comparators are provided.
9.23
Static Numerical Relays
Numerical relays are also digital relays. In these relays the input signal after
conditioning is digitised using A/D converters. These digitised signals are then fed
into the microprocessor directly. The entire protection element in numeric relays is
realised using software programs. These software called as application software
are stored in non-volatile memory in the relay. The input signals are continuously
sampled and stored in the memory. Then these values are compared against the
set threshold values (stored in the memory). The software statements perform these
operations and generate the output. In numeric relays, the software statements do
the job done by hardware comparators or measuring elements in analogue and
digital relays.
Thus in numerical relays, multiple elements or phases of protection are realised by
appropriately writing the software statements. This does not involve any physical
addition in space. This is the reason why numerical relays are developed with
more than one protection integrated in them, as the cost involved in integration of
more funcitons is very less.
Additionally, in numerical relays since the data is stored in the memory it can give
lot of other information and features like, fault recording, event recording,
measurements, etc. The presence of microprocessors in the relay enables it to
communicate with computers and provide self diagnostics function.
One more advantage of numerical relays is its capability to adapt itself to change.
This at times is seen as a nuisance since a numerical relay undergoes lot of
addition in functions and features in its life time.
The following Chart gives a birds-eye view of the relay classifications based on
technology.
Relays

Electromechanical

Static

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation


Analogue& Information

Digital
Numerical

APPS- Combined course

Overview Of Protection Fundamentals


Page 28 of 28

AREVA T&D India Limited, Energy Automation & Information