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scattering in layered medium

Advisor(s)

Author(s)

Chen, Yongpin.; .

Citation

Issued Date

URL

Rights

2011

http://hdl.handle.net/10722/174463

and the right to use in future works.

Electromagnetic Scattering in Layered Medium

by

Yongpin CHEN ()

Doctor of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong

October 2011

Electromagnetic Scattering in Layered Medium

Submitted by

Yongpin CHEN

for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

at The University of Hong Kong

in October 2011

Surface integral equation (SIE) method with the kernel of layered medium Green's

function (LMGF) is investigated in details from several fundamental aspects. A

novel implementation of discrete complex image method (DCIM) is developed to

accelerate the evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals and especially improve the far

field accuracy of the conventional one. To achieve a broadband simulation of thin

layered structure such as microstrip antennas, the mixed-form thin-stratified

medium fast-multipole algorithm (MF-TSM-FMA) is developed by applying

contour deformation and combining the multipole expansion and plane wave

expansion into a single multilevel tree. The low frequency breakdown of the

integral operator is further studied and remedied by using the loop-tree

decomposition and the augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE), both

in the context of layered medium integration kernel. All these methods are based

on the EFIE for the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and hence can be applied in

antenna and circuit applications. To model general dielectric or magnetic objects,

the layered medium Green's function based on pilot vector potential approach is

generalized for both electric and magnetic current sources. The matrix

representation is further derived and the corresponding general SIE is setup.

Finally, this SIE is accelerated with the DCIM and applied in quantum optics,

such as the calculation of spontaneous emission enhancement of a quantum

emitter embedded in a layered structure and in the presence of nano scatterers.

Declaration

I declare that the thesis and the research work thereof represents my own work,

except where due acknowledgement is made, and that it has not been previously

included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this University or to any

other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualifications.

Signed

Yongpin CHEN

ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING IN LAYERED MEDIUM

BY

YONGPIN CHEN

DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical and Electronic Engineering

in the Graduate School of the

University of Hong Kong, 2011

Hong Kong

ABSTRACT

Surface integral equation (SIE) method with the kernel of layered medium

Greens function (LMGF) is investigated in details from several fundamental

aspects. A novel implementation of discrete complex image method (DCIM)

is developed to accelerate the evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals and especially improve the far field accuracy of the conventional one. To achieve a

broadband simulation of thin layered structure such as microstrip antennas,

the mixed-form thin-stratified medium fast-multipole algorithm (MF-TSMFMA) is developed by applying contour deformation and combining the multipole expansion and plane wave expansion into a single multilevel tree. The

low frequency breakdown of the integral operator is further studied and remedied by using the loop-tree decomposition and the augmented electric field

integral equation (A-EFIE), both in the context of layered medium integration kernel. All these methods are based on the EFIE for the perfect electric

conductor (PEC) and hence can be applied in antenna and circuit applications. To model general dielectric or magnetic objects, the layered medium

Greens function based on pilot vector potential approach is generalized for

both electric and magnetic current sources. The matrix representation is

further derived and the corresponding general SIE is setup. Finally, this

SIE is accelerated with the DCIM and applied in quantum optics, such as

the calculation of spontaneous emission enhancement of a quantum emitter

embedded in a layered structure and in the presence of nano scatterers.

ii

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank my mentor and thesis adviser,

Professor Weng Cho CHEW, for providing me this opportunity to study

with him. His patient and careful guidance during the last four years has

totally changed my way of thinking, re-shaped my knowledge structure, and

finally built my self-confidence. His enthusiasm, persistence, and diligent

work ethic has inspired me much and will continue to affect my career and

life.

I would also like to thank my co-adviser, Dr. Lijun JIANG, who always

encouraged me when I was frustrated, shared with me his working experience

in industry, and helped me a lot in technical details.

I feel grateful to my former supervisors Professor Zaiping NIE and Professor Jun HU at UESTC, who opened me the door of the fascinating CEM

world, encouraged and supported me to pursue study at HKU, and always

pay kind attention to my recent status.

Many thanks to my friends and colleagues with the Electromagnetics and

Optics Laboratory, to Dr. Wallace C. H. CHOY for providing me TA opportunities and inviting me to audit his course on organic devices, to Dr.

Sheng SUN for giving me suggestions on possible directions about circuit

simulation, to Dr. Wei SHA for sharing his knowledge on modern physics,

to Dr. Yang LIU for teaching me lots of mathematics, to Dr. Yat Hei LO for

sharing his expertise on computer and optics, to Dr. Shaoying HUANG, Dr.

Min TANG, Dr. Osman GONI, Dr. Bo ZHU, Phillip ATKINS, Peng YANG,

Qi DAI, Jun HUANG, Zuhui MA, Shiquan HE, Yumao WU, Yan LI, Nick

HUANG, Ping LI for their help and friendship.

I also wish to thank alumni from both UIUC and UESTC. A special thanks

to Dr. Yuan LIU for helping me a lot when I first came to HKU, though we

have never met with each other, to Dr. Liming XU for sharing his code and

teaching me the transmission line method, to Dr. Jie XIONG for sharing her

iv

Su YAN for working together to develop the MLFMA code, to Dr. Zhiguo

QIAN for his help on A-EFIE.

I thank my parents and my little sister for their love and support. Though

I cannot go back to my hometown every year, their encouragement through

the telephone line always warms my heart.

Finally, I thank my wife, Min MENG, for her love, her sharing of joy

and sadness, and her shouldering of so much responsibility alone when I was

pursuing my study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 2 A NOVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF

COMPLEX IMAGE METHOD (DCIM) . . . . .

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Layered Medium Greens Function (LMGF)

2.3 Discrete Complex Image Method (DCIM) .

2.4 Numerical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DISCRETE

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3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Review of Thin-Stratified Medium Fast-Multipole Algorithm (TSM-FMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 Mixed-Form Thin-Stratified Medium Fast-Multipole Algorithm (MF-TSM-FMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 Numerical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CHAPTER 4 REMEDIES FOR LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN OF INTEGRAL OPERATOR IN LAYERED MEDIUM

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 Loop-Tree Decomposition and Frequency Normalization . .

4.3 Basis Rearrangement via Connection Matrix . . . . . . . .

4.4 Numerical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.5 Augmented Electric Field Integral Equation (A-EFIE) . .

37

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vi

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4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

Electrostatic Limit . . .

Numerical Results . . . .

Summary . . . . . . . .

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59

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CHAPTER 5 A NEW LAYERED MEDIUM GREENS FUNCTION (LMGF) FORMULATION FOR GENERAL OBJECTS .

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2 Dyadic Form of LMGF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.3 Matrix Representation of LMGF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.4 Duality Principle of LMGF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.5 Surface Integral Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.6 Numerical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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EQUATION (SIE) METHOD FOR NANO-OPTICAL APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 SIE with DCIM Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3 Greens Function Approach in Spontaneous Emission (SE)

6.4 Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) and Localized Surface

Plasmons (LSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5 Quantum Emitter Coupled to Surface Plasmon Resonance

6.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 98

. . 101

. . 105

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

vii

LIST OF TABLES

3.1 Layout of radiation and receiving patterns . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.1 Matrix element of KE : no line integral (103 ) . . . . . . . . . 79

5.2 Matrix element of KE : testing line integral (103 ) . . . . . . . 79

5.3 Matrix element of KE : testing & basis line integrals (104 ) . . 81

6.1 CPU time for single frequency calculation . . . . . . . . . . . 102

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

2.2 A typical microstrip structure (unit: mm). . . . . . . . . .

2.3 One branch-cut case: Sommerfeld integration path (SIP),

Sommerfeld branch cut (SBC) and poles in the complex k

plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Two branch-cut case: Sommerfeld integration path (SIP),

Sommerfeld branch cuts (SBC) and poles in the complex

k plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5 The magnitude of gss versus k0 for the microstrip structure. The asymptotic behavior is 1/2 , which agrees with

the theoretical prediction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6 The magnitude of g versus k0 for the microstrip structure. The far field is dominated by the pole contribution,

2.7 A 3-layer model (unit: mm). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.8 The magnitude of gss versus k0 for the 3-layer model. The

asymptotic behavior is 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9 The magnitude of g versus k0 for the 3-layer model. The

asymptotic behavior is 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

. . 6

. . 11

. . 11

. . 13

. . 15

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Relative error by using plane wave expansion. . . . . . . . . .

Relative error by using multipole expansion. . . . . . . . . . .

The MF-TSM-FMA structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The geometrical structure of the 8 4 microstrip array. . . . .

The radiation patterns of the microstrip array in E plane

( = 0 ) and H plane ( = 90 ) at 9.42 GHz. . . . . . . . . . .

The bistatic RCS of the microstrip array at f = 2.5 GHz

and (i , i ) = (60 , 0 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A dipole on an EBG structure, top and side view. . . . . . . .

Radiation pattern of the dipole in E plane, due to the layered medium assumption, the ground plane is infinitely large. .

The geometrical model of a 30 30 microstrip array. . . . . .

Bistatic RCS of the 30 30 microstrip array. . . . . . . . . . .

ix

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3.12 Memory requirement (solid line) and CPU time per iteration (dash line) versus number of unknowns. . . . . . . . . . 35

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

RCS of a sphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Geometrical model of the capacitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Negative input reactance of the capacitor, r2 = 6.0. . . . . . .

The geometrical structure of the loop inductor embedded

in a seven-layer medium, unit: mm. The central layer is

a magnetic material. A delta gap excitation is applied at

the center of the top arm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The condition number versus frequency for the rectangular

loop. The condition number is unbounded when decreasing the frequency. Charge neutrality enforcement (CNE)

makes the condition number constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The eigenvalue distribution for the rectangular loop at 1

Hz. The smallest eigenvalue is removed away from the

origin after the charge neutrality enforcement (CNE). . . . . .

The geometrical model of the half loop embedded in a fivelayer medium (including the PEC layer), unit: mm. A

delta gap excitation is applied at the center of the top arm. . .

The condition number versus frequency for the half loop.

Since it is connected to the ground plane, charge neutrality

cannot be guaranteed. The condition number is bounded

when decreasing the frequency without any special treatment.

The geometrical model of the circular parallel plate capacitor, with a dielectric layer (r = 2.65) inserted in between.

A delta gap is applied at the edge. The mesh is refined to

capture the fringing effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The input reactance of the rectangular loop. A-EFIE agrees

well with the loop-tree (LT) decomposition, while the traditional EFIE breaks down quickly when decreasing the

frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The input reactance of the half loop. A-EFIE maintains

the scale invariance very well while the traditional EFIE

breaks down quickly when decreasing the frequency. Since

the non-magnetic dielectric is transparent to the inductor,

a PEC half space model is applied to validate the results. . . .

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61

4.13 The capacitance of the circular parallel plate capacitor. AEFIE I represents the capacitance extracted from current,

while A-EFIE Q means the capacitance extracted from

charge. The A-EFIE current suffers from an inaccuracy

problem while the A-EFIE charge is stable. The result

agrees with the static solver. Both are further validated

by the analytic solution. When the frequency is below 1

MHz, the relative error of A-EFIE Q is around 0.1%. . . . . . 61

5.1 A homogeneous dielectric object is embedded in a layered

medium. The external excitation is either a plane wave or

a Hertzian dipole. Equivalent electric and magnetic currents are induced on the boundary which then generate the

scattered field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2 An electric or magnetic dipole is radiating in a seven-layer

medium (unit: m). The layered medium is both dielectric

and magnetic, and the layer constants are shown in the

figure. The source point is in Layer 2 and the observation

line is in Layer 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.3 The magnitude of electric field generated by an electric

dipole. The dipole polarization is ( = 20o , = 30o ) and

is working at f = 300 MHz. The result is validated by the

transmission line method (solid line). . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.4 The magnitude of electric field generated by a magnetic

dipole. The dipole polarization is ( = 20o , = 30o ) and

is working at f = 300 MHz. The result is validated by the

transmission line method (solid line). . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.5 Cases where testing line integral exists. The testing function is straddling the interface, all radiation from the RWG

or half-RWG basis functions (triangles) in color needs invoking testing line integral, while radiation from others

does not need this line integral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.6 Line integral test. The testing function is at the top interface. Radiation from: basis function 1: no line integral

activated; basis function 2: testing line integral activated;

basis function 3: both testing and basis line integrals activated. (unit: m). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.7 A homogeneous capsule structure embedded in a 5-layer

medium, where h = 0.6, r = 0.15 (unit: m). . . . . . . . .

5.8 The scattered field inside the object with = 2 and = 2.

Since there is no contrast, the scattered field recovers the

incident field (solid line). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi

. . 65

. . 73

. . 74

. . 74

. . 80

. . 80

. . 86

. . 86

The tangential components of the E field are continuous at

5 , solid line: field at d5 . .

5.10 The scattered field outside the object with = 4 and = 1.

The normal component of the E field differs by a factor of

3 (4 /5 ) at the interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.11 A homogeneous cuboid embedded in a 4-layer medium

(unit: m). It is penetrating different layers. . . . . . . . . .

5.12 The scattered field of the PEC object, calculated from

EFIE and MFIE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.13 The scattered field of the dielectric object. . . . . . . . . .

6.1 Transition of a two-level atomic system. . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 SPPs can be sustained in the interface of dielectric-metal

half space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3 LSP can be excited by a metallic nano sphere under an EM

field excitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.4 A gold nano sphere with radius 20 nm is located above a

gold slab with thickness 30 nm. A z-polarized emitter is

located at the middle of the sphere and slab. . . . . . . . .

6.5 Normalized SER for the three cases: (a) only slab (SPPs

enhanced SE); (b) only nano sphere (LSP enhanced SE);

(c) both (both effects). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.6 A gold nano bowl is located in a layered medium with two

gold layers. A z-polarized emitter is located at the center

of the aperture. The dimensions are shown in the figure. .

6.7 Mesh of the gold nano bowl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.8 Normalized SER. The first peak corresponds to the peak

from SPPs of the layered medium at 520 nm, the second

peak is from the nano bowl effect around 590 nm. . . . . .

xii

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. . 87

. . 88

. . 88

. . 89

. . 96

. . 99

. . 100

. . 103

. . 103

. . 104

. . 104

. . 105

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

SIE

LMGF

PEC

CEM

Computational Electromagnetics

FDM

FEM

MoM

Method of Moments

GPR

Ground-Penetrating Radar

LED

Light-Emitting Diode

GMRES

DCIM

PML

RFFM

SBC

SIP

TE

Transverse Electric

TM

Transverse Magnetic

FMM

MLFMA

xiii

AIM

CG-FFT

MLMDA

ACA

RCS

EBG

CPU

PC

Personal Computer

A-EFIE

CAD

Computer-Aided Design

RWG

Rao-Wilton-Glisson

CCIE

SPIE

MPIE

CNE

LT

Loop-Tree

2D

Two-Dimensional

3D

Three-Dimensional

VIE

BOR

Body of Revolution

TL

Transmission Line

PMCHWT

Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu-Tsai

EFIE

MFIE

SE

Spontaneous Emission

SPPs

LSP

xiv

LDOS

EM

Electromagnetics

QED

Quantum Electrodynamics

PC

Photonic Crystal

SER

DOS

Density of States

OLED

MEMS

Microelectromechanical Systems

GIBC

xv

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Motivation

With the development of computer technology and scientific computation,

numerical simulation becomes as important as theoretical study and experimental verification in understanding the nature of our world. Computational

electromagnetics (CEM) is one branch of numerical techniques to model all

electromagnetic phenomena governed by the Maxwells equations, covering

from circuit engineering, microwave and antenna engineering, to optical engineering.

The methods in CEM can be classified into different categories according to

different criteria, such as different computation domains (time or frequency),

or different equation forms (differential or integral) [1]. The time domain

methods solve the time domain EM fields directly, while the frequency domain methods solve the harmonic fields based on Fourier transform. On the

other hand, the differential equation methods solve the Maxwells equations

in differential form, such as finite difference method (FDM) [2], finite element method (FEM) [3], while the integral equation methods first extract

the point response (Greens function) of a differential equation, and solve the

integral equation formulated from equivalence principle (surface or volume),

such as the method of moments (MoM) [4].

Integral equation method in the frequency domain is one of the most powerful methods in analyzing electromagnetic radiation and scattering. The key

of this method is the Greens function, which describes the EM response of

a point source in a specific environment. It satisfies the boundary condition

automatically and hence does not require any domain truncation or absorption boundary condition in the computation. Also, if the surface equivalence

principle is applied, the surface integral equation (SIE) can be obtained,

1

where the unknowns are only associated with the boundary of the scatterers

and thus can be made minimum.

Although the SIE can always be derived mathematically, the Greens functions for arbitrary inhomogeneous medium is not trivial and can only be

obtained numerically, which may be as complex as solving the original problem. For this reason, most research on surface integral equation methods are

focused on homogeneous environment, such as aerospace applications. However, if the inhomogeneity is one dimensional piecewise, or so called layered

medium, the Greens function can be determined analytically in the spectral (Fourier) domain, and the spatial domain counterpart can be obtained

by simply inverse Fourier transforming it [5]. In fact, this scenario consists of a broad class of applications in both microwave and optical regimes,

such as microstrip antennas and microwave circuits, geophysical exploration,

ground-penetrating radar (GPR), solar cell, light-emitting diode (LED), and

lithography, etc.

This thesis is focused on the SIE method with layered medium Greens

function (LMGF), and addresses several fundamental problems of this method.

First, the spatial domain LMGF can only be obtained by numerically integrating the spectral domain counterpart, expressed as a Sommerfeld integral [6]. This integral is oscillatory and slowly convergent, which makes

the repeated evaluation in MoM extremely time expensive. An acceleration

technique at the Greens function level is necessary.

Second, the SIE leads to a full matrix, which requires an O(N 2 ) memory

and an O(N 3 ) or O(N 2 ) computational time if a direct inverse such as LU

decomposition or an iterative method such as the GMRES is applied [7] [8]. A

fast algorithm is indispensable for large scale computation, such as radiation

of an antenna array. The fast algorithm developed shall also cover a broad

frequency range to achieve a broadband simulation.

Third, when the structure under investigation is much smaller then the

wavelengthwhich is common in circuit simulationthe integral operator

may suffer from a low frequency breakdown. Remedies shall be proposed to

overcome this difficulty for the specific integration kernel of LMGF.

Fourth, though the commonly used metal is a good conductor at the radio

or microwave frequencies and the electric field integral equation (EFIE) [9]

for a perfect electric conductor (PEC) can be implemented in most applications, the ability of dielectric modeling is important in other situations such

2

penetrable to the order of wavelength at the optical frequency band, and

hence becomes dielectric. A full sets of LMGFs shall be developed to obtain

a general SIE.

Finally, the power of CEM should not be restricted to classical electrodynamics [10], but shall also be highlighted in quantum electrodynamics such

as quantum optics [11]. Such attempt will be made by applying the tools

developed in this thesis.

The organization of the thesis is as follows: Chapter 2 first reviews one popular acceleration technique, the discrete complex image method (DCIM), for

fast evaluation of LMGF. The cause of far field inaccuracy of the conventional DCIM is explained and a novel implementation based on Sommerfeld

branch cut is proposed. In Chapter 3, a fast algorithm suitable for microstrip structuresthe quasi-3D thin-stratified medium fast-multipole algorithm (TSM-FMA)is first introduced, followed by the discussion of low frequency breakdown of it. A mixed-form TSM-FMA (MF-TSM-FMA) combing the multipole expansion and plane wave expansion is proposed to achieve

a fast and broadband simulation. Next, in Chapter 4, the low frequency

breakdown of the integral operator is further investigated. The loop-tree

decomposition based on quasi-Helmholtz decomposition and the augmented

electric field integral equation (A-EFIE) based on the augmentation technique in the context of layered medium are both studied. After that, in

Chapter 5, a new LMGF formulation is developed to obtain a general SIE

for dielectric modeling. The matrix representation is derived to reduce the

singularity of LMGF and the line integral issue associated with it is discussed in details. On top of the SIE solver, in Chapter 6, the DCIM is

incorporated and is applied to study the matter-field interaction in a complex environmentspontaneous emission enhancement of a quantum emitter

embedded in a layered medium and in the presence of nano scatterers. Finally, in Chapter 7, the conclusion is made and several possible research

topics are discussed.

CHAPTER 2

A NOVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF

DISCRETE COMPLEX IMAGE METHOD

(DCIM)

A novel implementation of discrete complex image method (DCIM) based

on the Sommerfeld branch cut is proposed to accurately capture the far-field

behavior of the layered medium Greens function (LMGF) as a complement

to the traditional DCIM. By contour deformation, the Greens function can

be naturally decomposed into branch-cut integration (radiation modes) and

pole contributions (guided modes). For branch-cut integration, matrix pencil

method is applied, and the alternative Sommerfeld identity in terms of kz

integration is utilized to get a closed-form solution. The guided modes are

accounted for with a pole-searching algorithm. Both one-branch-cut and

two-branch-cut cases are studied. Several numerical results are presented to

validate this method. For the sake of completeness, the LMGF formulation

will also be briefly summarized in this chapter.

2.1 Introduction

Sommerfeld first investigated a dipole radiating above a half space using

Hertzian potential [6]. This problem was further studied and extended to

general multilayered medium by various researchers [12][15], [5]. There are

several approaches to derive the layered medium Greens function (LMGF),

such as the popular transmission line analog [16], [17], Hertzian potential

approach [6], [18], Ez Hz formulation [19], [20], and pilot vector potential

approach [5], [21], etc. No matter which method is applied, however, the

LMGF can only be expressed as an infinite, oscillatory and slowly-convergent

integral, Sommerfeld integral, making the numerical evaluation process very

inefficient. Several methods have been developed to expedite the evaluation of the LMGF, such as the function approximation approach [22], [23],

the path deformation technique [5], [24], the tabulation and interpolation

4

method [25], [26], the perfectly matched layers (PML) method [27], [28], the

singularity subtraction method [29], and the fast all-modes combined with

numerical modified steepest descent path method [30], [31] etc.

Function approximation in the spectral domain is one of the most popular

methods. In this method, the integration kernel is first approximated by

certain simple functions, and the integral is then evaluated in a closed

form by applying relevant integration identities. Though lots of function

approximation techniques are available from a numerical analysis point of

view, those candidates with closed-form identities of the infinite integrals

in our context can finally be utilized. This leads to the following methods:

the complex discrete complex image method (DCIM) [22], [32] (based on the

complex exponential functions), the rational function fitting method (RFFM)

[23], [33] (based on the rational fraction functions), or their combination [34].

The popular DCIM has unpredictable errors when the interaction is in

the far field region ( 0). The original sampling path cannot effectively

waves and lateral waves physically. Several efforts have been made to remedy

this problem. A two-level approximation [35] was proposed to separate the

sharp-transition region from the smooth-varying region, with higher sampling

rate in the former part to capture the singularities. In [36], the surfacewave poles are extracted explicitly for a general multilayer medium before

applying the DCIM, which is also suggested in [22]. Other attempts are made

to deform the sampling path to carry more pole singularities. For instance,

in [37], a direct DCIM was developed to push the sampling path closer to

the poles and rely on the matrix pencil method [38] itself to take care of the

singularities. Meanwhile, spatial error control is another big issue in DCIM

and a recent progress can be found in [39].

Though the pole singularities can be captured successfully by the above

methods, the branch-point singularities are still not considered. These singularities contribute to the lateral wave when the source and observation points

are at the interface of the layers [5]. Recently, a three-level DCIM [40] was

proposed to bring the sampling path closer to the branch point to capture

more information of this singularity. In the RFFM, the continuous spectrum

in the far field is also considered based on a vertical path and asymptotic

analysis [41]. In this chapter, we propose an alternative implementation

of the DCIM to capture these singularities. Other than introducing extra

5

segments of the sampling path to approach the singularities, we simply deform the sampling path to the Sommerfeld branch cut (SBC) [5] when is

relatively large. The matrix pencil method is applied to approximate the

function along the SBC, which can be mapped into the real axis in the kz

plane [42]. The pole contributions are accounted for by applying a robust

pole-searching algorithm [43].

For the sake of completeness, the basic formulation of the LMGF such

as the propagation factor and the matrix-friendly formulation will be briefly

reviewed. It can also be found in Chapter 3, Chapter 4 and will be generalized

in Chapter 5.

The LMGF is the impulse response of a dipole in this medium. The configuration is shown in Figure 2.1, where each layer is characterized by the

permittivity and permeability (losses are included). The dipole is assumed to be at r in layer m and the observation point is at r in layer n.

The LMGF (in dyadic form) can be expressed as [21],

r) = ( z)( z)g TE (r, r )

G(r,

+

1

2

knm

( z)( z)g

(2.1)

TM

(r, r )

2

where knm

= 2n m . The g TE/TM (r, r ) is expressed as a Sommerfeld inte-

gral,

dk

(1)

H0 (k )F (k, z, z )

(2.2)

kmz k

p 2

(1)

where F (k, z, z ) is the propagation factor [5], kmz = km

k2 , and H0 (k )

is the first kind Hankel function of order 0 (the time convention is assumed

to be eit ).

i

g(r, r ) =

8

The expression of propagation factor depends on the relative positions of the

source point and the observation point. In the following expressions, the

argument k is neglected for simplicity.

A. n = m

The source point and the observation point are in the same layer. There

are primary field as well as secondary field. Then

mR

m,m1 eikmz (2dm +z +z)

+ M

mR

m,m+1 eikmz (2dm+1 z z)

+ M

(2.3)

mR

m,m+1 R

m,m1 eikmz (2dm+1 2dm +z z)

+ M

mR

m,m1 R

m,m+1 eikmz (2dm+1 2dm z +z)

+ M

where the generalized reflection coefficients and Fresnel reflection coefficients

[5] are

iki+1,z (2di+2 2di+1 )

R

(2.4)

i+1,i+2 eiki+1,z (2di+2 2di+1 )

1 + Ri,i+1 R

iki1,z (2di 2di1 )

R

i1,i2 eiki1,z (2di 2di1 )

1 + Ri,i1 R

Rij =

p=

(2.5)

pj kiz pi kjz

pj kiz + pi kjz

(2.6)

,

,

(2.7)

TE

TM

and

B. n > m

h

i1

m = 1 R

m,m1 R

m,m+1 e2ikmz (dm+1 dm )

M

(2.8)

The observation layer is above the source layer. There is only secondary

field. Then

h

i

ikmz (dm+1 z )

ikmz (dm+1 2dm +z )

F (z, z ) = e

+ Rm,m1 e

(2.9)

h

i

iknz (zdn )

iknz (2dn+1 dn z)

e

+ Rn,n+1 e

Mm Tmn

where

n1

Y

Tmn =

j=m+1

ik (d d )

e jz j+1 j Sj1,j Sn1,n

Tj1,j

.

Sj1,j =

(2.10)

(2.11)

C. n < m

The observation layer is below the source layer. There is also only secondary field. Then

h

i

eikmz (z dm ) + R

h

i

iknz (dn+1 z)

iknz (z+dn+1 2dn )

m Tmn

e

+ Rn,n1e

M

F (z, z ) =

where

Tmn =

m1

Y

j=n+1

Sj+1,j =

ik (d d )

e jz j+1 j Sj+1,j Sn+1,n

Tj+1,j

(2.12)

(2.13)

(2.14)

The matrix-friendly formulation can be derived in the implementation of

method of moments (MoM), where the spatial derivatives can be moved from

the Greens function to either testing or basis functions. In this manner,

the singularity of the LMGF can be reduced and the Sommerfeld integral

converges more rapidly. Here we only summarize the basic expressions and

the detailed derivation can be found in [21]. In the electric field integral

equation (EFIE) formulation, there are five scalar Greens functions in the

matrix-friendly formulation.

gss (r, r ) = k2 g TE (r, r)

(2.15)

2

gzz (r, r ) = kmn

g TM (r, r ) z z g TE (r, r)

n

gz1 (r, r) =

z g TM (r, r ) + z g TE (r, r)

m

m

gz2 (r, r ) =

z g TM (r, r ) + z g TE (r, r)

n

(2.16)

g (r, r) =

z z TM

g (r, r ) g TE (r, r)

2

knm

(2.17)

(2.18)

(2.19)

where the partial derivative with respect to z and z can be easily implemented in the spectral domain, namely, z = iknz and z = ikmz where

the signs are determined by the relative positions of the source and observation points.

2.3.1 Traditional DCIM

The Greens functions in (2.15)(2.19) can be expressed as an infinite integral

of the following type

i

g() =

8

dk

k (1)

H (k )

g (k ).

kz 0

(2.20)

g(k ) =

M

X

ai eikz bi

(2.21)

i=1

i

eikr

=

r

2

dk

p

k (1)

H0 (k )eikz z , r = 2 + z 2

kz

9

(2.22)

g() =

M

X

i=1

ai

eikri

, ri =

4ri

2 + b2i .

(2.23)

The complex exponential series can be obtained by, for example, the matrix

pencil method [38], which approximates a function with real argument by

y(t) =

M

X

Ri eSi t .

(2.24)

i=1

t

kz = k it + 1

, 0 t T0

T0

(2.25)

bi =

iSi T0

, ai = Ri eikbi

k(1 iT0 )

(2.26)

The far field prediction of the traditional DCIM is poor, and various remedies

have been proposed [35][37], [40].

When the transverse distance is large, we deform the integration path to the

Sommerfeld branch cut.

If the layered medium is backed by a PEC ground plane, there is only one

branch cut associated with the top layer [5]. A typical microstrip structure

falls into this case, as is shown in Figure 2.2. Due to the Cauchys theorem

and Jordans lemma, the integral defined along the Sommerfeld integration

path (SIP) is equivalent to the path integral along the Sommerfeld branch

cut (SBC) and some pole contributions, as shown in Figure 2.3.

Based on the deformed path, the Greens function can be expressed as a

10

Sommerfeld branch cut (SBC) and poles in the complex k plane.

11

g = gbranch + gpole

where

Z

k (1)

i

gbranch =

dk

H (k )

g (k )

8 SBC

kN z 0

1 X k,q (1)

gpole =

H (k,q )Res [

g (k,q )]

4 q kN z,q 0

(2.27)

(2.28)

(2.29)

g (k,q )] is the residue of the kernel.

The locations of the poles and relevant residues can be obtained by a robust pole-searching algorithm [43]. Pole contributions are represented by the

Hankel function, which has the following asymptotic behavior,

(1)

H0 (k )

2 i(k 4 )

e

(k )

k

(2.30)

If k is real, we have

gpole

p

1/

(2.31)

The gbranch represents the radiation modes from the branch cut integration,

which can be obtained in closed form by the new DCIM. By transforming

the variable from k to kN z , (2.28) becomes

gbranch

i

=

8

(1)

dkN z H0 (k )

g (k )

with

dkN z =

k

dk

kN z

(2.32)

(2.33)

kN z = t

T0

, 0 t T0 .

2

(2.34)

bi =

Si

, ai = Ri eibi T0 /2

i

(2.35)

Sommerfeld branch cuts (SBC) and poles in the complex k plane.

tive Sommerfeld identity in terms of kz integration [5] to get a closed-form

solution of gbranch ,

i

eikr

=

r

2

(1)

dkz H0 (k )eikz z , r =

p

2 + z 2

(2.36)

The radiation modes include spatial wave and the lateral wave, which have

the following asymptotic behavior respectively

gspatial 1/

(2.37)

glateral 1/2

(2.38)

From (2.31), (2.37), and (2.38), we can see that usually the surface wave

dominates in the far field. However, at the interface, the spatial waves of the

primary term and the secondary term cancel each other and the lateral wave

can be observed, if there are no pole contribution for certain cases. This

cancelation in DCIM was first analyzed in details in [40].

For a general layered medium, there are two branch cuts associated with the

top and bottom layers, where radiation modes can be supported. In this

case, the path and possible poles are shown in Figure 2.4.

13

g = gbranch,N + gbranch,1 + gpole

(2.39)

where gbranch,N and gpole are similar to those in (2.32) and (2.29), while

gbranch,1 has the form of

gbranch,1

i

=

8

(1)

dk1z H0 (k )

k1z

g(k ).

kN z

(2.40)

Several numerical results are presented in this section. Only gss and g are

used as illustrative examples here. The microstrip shown in Figure 2.2 is

first studied. The working frequency is f = 3 GHz, and the source point

and observation point are at the interface between the air and dielectric

substrate. We apply the traditional DCIM for small , and switch it to the

new implementation when is large. The transition region can be set in

100 < k0 < 101 . In the following examples, we set the transition point at

k0 = 100.5 . For this microstrip problem, only one real TM pole is found. The

gss and g are calculated in Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6; both agree well with

those from numerical integration. In Figure 2.6, since there is no TE pole,

we can observe that the asymptotic behavior of gss is 1/2 , which represents

the lateral wave. It agrees with the results by the three-level DCIM in [40]

except for a constant due to the definition of the Greens function. It is also

reported in [40] that the popular two-level DCIM cannot correctly capture

the branch point contribution in this case. In Figure 2.6, since g contains

both TE and TM waves, the pole contribution dominates in the far field,

which is of 1/ .

The acceleration of DCIM lies in the fact that multiple sourceobservation

points can share the same image coefficients. For the numerical examples

shown in Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6, we compare the computational time

for calculating 5,000 k0 samples. The central processing unit (CPU) time

is listed in Table 2.1. We can observe that the computation can be much

accelerated by using DCIM.

To validate the two-branch cut case, a 3-layer model with lossy material

14

4

Numerical

DCIM

log10|gss|

0

2

4

6

8

3

0

1

log10(k0)

Figure 2.5: The magnitude of gss versus k0 for the microstrip structure.

The asymptotic behavior is 1/2 , which agrees with the theoretical

prediction.

Table 2.1: CPU time comparison (seconds)

LMGF

Numerical

DCIM

gss

56.82

0.59

74.69

2.44

Both gss and g are calculated and compared with the numerical integration

results, as are shown in Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9. Again, good agreement

can be observed. In this case, the poles are general complex numbers away

from the real axis, so their contributions decay quickly when is large. The

lateral wave dominates in the far field with the asymptotic behavior of 1/2 ,

as are shown in Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9.

2.5 Summary

A novel implementation of the DCIM based on Sommerfeld branch cut is

proposed to improve the far field prediction of the LMGF. By contour deformation, the Greens function can be naturally decomposed into the radiation

modes and guided modes. The guided modes can be obtained by a robust

pole-searching algorithm and the radiation modes can be calculated in a

15

0

Numerical

DCIM

log10|g|

2

3

4

5

6

3

0

1

log10(k0)

The far field is dominated by the pole contribution, which has the

asymptotic behavior of 1/ .

16

4

Numerical

DCIM

log10|gss|

0

2

4

6

8

3

0

1

log10(k0)

Figure 2.8: The magnitude of gss versus k0 for the 3-layer model. The

asymptotic behavior is 1/2 .

2

0

Numerical

DCIM

log10|g|

2

4

6

8

10

12

3

0

1

log10(k0)

Figure 2.9: The magnitude of g versus k0 for the 3-layer model. The

asymptotic behavior is 1/2 .

17

closed form, so that the evaluation can be made efficient compared to the

direct numerical integration. For small interaction, we simply switch back

to the traditional DCIM to capture the near field. One should note that

in this new implementation, when becomes small, the length of sampling

path in spectral domain increases, and it becomes harder to approximate the

kernel. Efforts can be made to improve this DCIM in the near field, such

as extracting the asymptotic behavior analytically. At the same time, for

cases when poles are very close to the branch cut, the accuracy of function

approximation may be affected and more careful treatment of the poles is

necessary. Such efforts shall also be carried out in the future to improve this

DCIM.

18

CHAPTER 3

MIXED-FORM THIN-STRATIFIED

MEDIUM FAST-MULTIPOLE

ALGORITHM (MF-TSM-FMA)

A mixed-form thin-stratified medium fast-multipole algorithm (MF-TSMFMA) is proposed for fast simulation of general microstrip structures at both

low and mid-frequencies. The newly developed matrix-friendly formulation

of layered medium Greens function (LMGF) is applied in this algorithm.

For well-separated interactions, the contour deformation technique is implemented to achieve a smoother and exponentially convergent integral. The

two-dimensional addition theorem is then incorporated into the integrand to

expedite the matrix-vector product. In our approach, multipole expansion

(low-frequency fast-multipole algorithm) as well as the plane wave expansion

(mid-frequency fast-multipole algorithm) of the translational addition theorem are combined into a single multilevel tree to capture quasi-static physics

and wave physics simultaneously. The outgoing wave is represented first in

terms of multipole expansion at leafy levels, and then switched to plane wave

expansion automatically at higher levels. This seamless connection makes the

algorithm applicable in simulations, where subwavelength interaction (circuit

physics) and wave physics both exist.

3.1 Introduction

The simulation of microstrip structures has attracted intensive study for

many years. Since this kind of structure usually involves a thin layered

medium, the LMGF can be applied to reduce the number of unknowns. All

the acceleration techniques introduced at the beginning in Chapter 2 can be

implemented to expedite the process during the matrix filling stage in the integral equation method. However, since the integral equation method leads

to a full matrix, the memory consumption is large and the matrix-vector

product is still time-consuming in iterative solvers. Fast algorithms are in19

fast algorithms were proposed, first based on the free space Greens function,

and then extended to other kernels. The incomplete list includes the fast

multipole method (FMM) [44], [45] and the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) [46][48], the adaptive integral method (AIM) [49], [50],

the conjugate gradient fast Fourier transform (CG-FFT) [51], [52] and the

precorrected FFT method [53][55], the multilevel Greens function interpolation method [56], the kernel-independent or black-box FMM [57], [58],

the multilevel matrix decomposition algorithm (MLMDA) [59], the adaptive

cross approximation (ACA) algorithm [60], [61], the IES3 [62], and the IEQR algorithm [63] etc. These algorithms can roughly be categorized into two

classes, the algebraic algorithms, which are kernel independent and are thus

more flexible, and the physics-based algorithms, which utilize the physical

property of the concrete kernel and are thus usually more efficient, especially

for dynamic field. In this chapter, we only focus on one of the physical algorithms and the applications in microstrip structures. A detailed survey of

the algebraic algorithms can be found in [60].

For the physical algorithm, both MLFMA- and FFT-based methods have

been extended to layered medium problems, for instance, in the parasitic

extraction and simulation of microstrip antennas and arrays. The former one

factorizes the Greens function by using the translational addition theorem

in a multilevel manner [47], [48], [64][67] and the latter one takes advantage

of the transverse translational invariance property of the interactions and

applies FFT to accelerate the computation in the Fourier domain [50], [52],

[55], [68], [84]. Both these methods can achieve an O(N log N) computational

complexity in the dynamic regime.

MLFMA is more efficient than FFT if the objects are sparse, however,

MLFMA usually suffers from a low frequency breakdown problem [70], which

means that the plane wave expansion of the addition theorem, attractive at

mid-frequencies, is error uncontrollable due to the finite precision of the computer. The multipole expansion is usually implemented instead in the low

frequency regime. This expansion is suitable for scale-invariant interaction,

but becomes inefficient rapidly when entering the electrodynamic regime. For

many broadband large-scale simulation, both electrodynamic interaction and

sub-wavelength interaction exist in one problem. This requires a broadband

fast algorithm capable of capturing the wave physics and quasi-static physics

20

simultaneously. Motivated by the idea of mixed-form fast multipole algorithm in free space [70], a mixed-form thin-stratified medium fast-multipole

algorithm (MF-TSM-FMA), based on the newly-formulated LMGF [21], is

developed in this chapter. In this MF-TSM-FMA, the multipole expansion

and the plane wave expansion are combined into one multilevel tree, where

different scales of interaction can be separated by the multilevel nature of

the MLFMA [71]. A transition equation can be derived to connect these two

expansions.

Algorithm (TSM-FMA)

3.2.1 TSM-FMA Based on the Plane Wave Expansion

We show the LMGF again here [21],

r) = ( z)( z)g TE (r, r )

G(r,

+

1

2

knm

( z)( z)g

(3.1)

TM

(r, r )

where

g

TE/TM

i

(r, r ) =

8

dk

(1)

H0 (k )F TE/TM (k , z, z )

kmz k

(3.2)

To obtain a TSM-FMA, the path deformation technique is necessary to improve the convergence of the Sommerfeld integral.

For well separated interactions, exponential convergence can be achieved by

deforming the Sommerfeld integration path into the vertical branch cut for

a thin layered medium. In this structure, the vertical dimension is tightly

confined compared to the horizontal dimension and the source-observation

dependent steepest descent path for a thick layered medium evolves to be

source-observation independent [5], letting us to implement the fast algorithm. Possible pole singularity should be included in such deformation ac21

path integration, and the choice of Riemann sheets, can be found in [67] and

will not be repeated here.

The transverse interaction of the LMGF is the Hankel function, so 2D MLFMA

can be implemented to accelerate the computation. The core equations of

the MLFMA are listed below [72],

(1)

H0 (k ji )

1

=

2

JI () =

P

X

djJ ()

JI ()Ii ()

(3.3)

Hp(1) (k JI )eip(J I 2 )

(3.4)

p=P

jJ () = eik jJ

Ii () = eik Ii

(3.5)

where J and I are box centers for the observation point j and the source

point i, respectively. Here k is in general complex. In implementing TSMFMA, the z-dependent propagation factor F (z, z ) can be easily factorized

and embedded into the radiation and receiving patterns [67].

When the operation frequency decreases, the plane wave expansion becomes

unstable due to the numerical overflow of the outgoing-to-outgoing translator

[70]. We will show that this is also the case for layered medium problems

(cylindrical harmonics) for general complex argument k . The asymptotic

expression of the Hankel function is

(1)

H0 (k ) Ceik0 eu

(3.6)

2

factor. For a fixed quadrature point u, we can show that numerical instability of the plane wave expansion exists in the low frequency regime. In

implementing the addition theorem, the worst interaction situation is shown

22

in Figure 3.1. For a given quadrature u, if we fix the frequency, then the

imaginary part of the argument may introduce different decays for different

, making the Hankel function become negligible rapidly for large . To

make a fair comparison, we may fix the transverse distance and change the

frequency. Let the box size to be b = 5 mm and u = 4. The relative errors of

the plane wave expansion with the expansion order P for different box sizes

are shown in Figure 3.2. It is shown that the expansion is unstable when

the box size is much smaller than the wavelength. Since in near region, the

evanescent wave dominates and the field is scale invariant, the plane wave

expansion based on wave physics is no longer suitable.

23

Fast-Multipole Algorithm (MF-TSM-FMA)

3.3.1 TSM-FMA Based on the Multipole Expansion

The multipole expansion, which uses the undiagonalized addition theorem,

is free of low-frequency breakdown since normalization can be made and

are well balanced. However, since the

different translators (

and )

operator cannot be calculated analytically in the multipole expansion, we

will apply the matrix-friendly formulation of the LMGF.

Matrix-Friendly LMGF

The matrix element in the MoM procedure can be expressed in the matrixfriendly LMGF as [21]

z2

z1

ss

zz

+ Zji

+ Zji

Zji = Zji

+ Zji

+ Zji

(3.7)

ss

Zji

= im hfs (rj ), gss (rj , ri ), fs (ri )i

(3.8)

zz

Zji

= im h

z f(rj ), gzz (rj , ri ), z f(ri )i

(3.9)

where

z1

Zji

= im h

z f(rj ), gz1 (rj , ri ), f(ri )i

(3.10)

z2

Zji

= im h f(rj ), gz2 (rj , ri ), z f(ri )i

(3.11)

Zji

= im h f(rj ), g (rj , ri ), f(ri )i

(3.12)

(3.13)

2

gzz (rj , ri ) = kmn

g T M (rj , ri ) z z g T E (rj , ri )

n

gz1 (rj , ri ) =

z g T M (rj , ri ) + z g T E (rj , ri )

m

m

gz2 (rj , ri ) =

z g T M (rj , ri ) + z g T E (rj , ri )

n

(3.14)

g (rj , ri ) =

z z T M

g (rj , ri ) g T E (rj , ri )

2

knm

24

(3.15)

(3.16)

(3.17)

singularity, since several spatial derivatives have been moved to the basis

function.

The factorization of the propagation factor is critical in implementing a generalized TSM-FMA, because the 2D MLFMA can only factorize the transverse interaction, and the vertical interaction should be factorized manually

to bind to the radiation and receiving patterns. The propagation factor takes

different forms if the positions of source and observation points are different.

According to the expressions shown in Chapter 2, the propagation factor can

be easily factorized as followings,

A. n = m

F (z, z ) = F1 (z, z ) + fv2 (z)I2 (m)fr2 (z )

(3.18)

where

(3.19)

(3.20)

fr2 (z ) = [eikmz (dm+1 z ) + R

(3.21)

mR

m,m+1

I2 (m) = M

(3.22)

(3.23)

fr3 (z ) = [eikmz (z dm ) + R

(3.24)

mR

m,m1

I3 (m) = M

(3.25)

(3.26)

fv (z) = [eiknz (zdn ) + R

(3.27)

fr (z ) = [eikmz (dm+1 z ) + R

(3.28)

m Tmn

I(m, n) = M

(3.29)

B. n > m

where

25

C. n < m

F (z, z ) = fv (z)I(m, n)fr (z )

(3.30)

fv (z) = [eiknz (dn+1 z) + R

(3.31)

fr (z ) = [eikmz (z dm ) + R

(3.32)

m Tmn

I(m, n) = M

(3.33)

where

sign in the direct term F1 (z, z ) = eikmz |zz | is a problem, however, we can

show that this modulus sign can be removed in the context of vertical branch

cut integration [67]. After implementing factorization of the propagation

factor, the addition theorem can be applied to accelerate the computation.

However, there are totally ten scalar components that need to be factorized

separately, hence optimization of the patterns are necessary.

For a certain source-observation-layer pair, the partial derivative z or z in

the matrix-friendly formulation (3.13)(3.17) is acting directly on the propagation factor. It can be calculated easily according to the concrete expression

of F (z, z ). For example, if n > m,

z z F (z, z )

= z f (z)z f (z )I(m, n)

h

i

ikmz (dm+1 z )

ikmz (dm+1 2dm +z )

= ikmz e

+ Rm,m1 e

h

i

iknz (zdn )

iknz (2dn+1 dn z)

m

iknz e

Rn,n+1 e

Tmn M

(3.34)

there are eight scalar components and one 2D vector component requiring

factorization separately. The memory requirement is huge if we store all

the radiation and receiving patterns directly. In our implementation, the

radiation and receiving patterns are filled on the fly in the process of matrixvector product. In order to reduce the number of MLFMA processes, we can

set two receiving patterns for one radiation pattern. For example, The TE

26

Radiation

Receiving A

Receiving B

g T E (r )

x f(r )

x f(r)g T E (r)

TE

TE

(r )

y f(r )

(r ) f(r )

z g T E (r )

z f(r )

g T M (r )

z f(r )

z g T M (r ) f(r )

y f(r)g

TE

f(r)g

(r)

TE

0

z f(r)z g T E (r)

(r)

f(r)g T E (r)

z f(r)g T M (r)

z f(r)g T M (r)

z f(r)z g T E (r)

f(r)z g T M (r)

f(r)z g T M (r)

z1

part of Zji

and Zji

can be accelerated at the same time. If we denote

g (r, r) = g (r)g (r )

(3.35)

then we can set one radiation pattern and two receiving patterns to be

Ir = f(r )g T E (r )

(3.36)

(3.37)

(3.38)

By doing this, two interactions can share the same radiation patterns,

outgoing waves and incoming waves. However, minor modification is needed

in the last stage, where incoming waves at the leafy level are disaggregated

into observation points by using different receiving patterns. The pattern

layout is listed in Table 3.1. By categorizing the patterns, one may only

need to calculate six kinds of interactions instead of ten.

In the low frequency regime, multipole expansion is applied to factorize the

Hankel function. The general core equations are listed in the following [72]

mn (ji ) =

XX

M

(3.39)

(1)

27

(3.40)

mn (ji ) = Jmn (k ji )ei(mn)ji

(3.41)

(1)

H0 (k ji ) =

XX

M

(3.42)

Though this multipole expansion is equivalent to the plane wave expansion mathematically, the former is stable in the low frequency regime since

normalization can be easily implemented to balance the and , to make

each numerical step error controllable. For the same setup as in Figure 3.1,

the relative error of the multipole expansion is shown in Figure 3.3. It is

obvious that the expansion is stable at low-frequencies. However, when the

frequency increases, the multipole expansion becomes very inefficient since

more and more expansion terms are required to capture the wave physics.

So it should be switched back to plane wave representation to describe the

dynamic field.

28

For many applications such as broadband microstrip antennas or arrays, the

interaction may involve both quasi-static field and dynamic field. Neither of

the two expansions can be used independently to capture the two different

fields. Following the idea of [70], one can combine the two expansions into

a multilevel tree and switch between them dynamically. Based on addition

theorem and integral representation of the Bessel function, we can derive the

following mixed-form core equation

1

mn (ji ) =

2

JI ()Ii ()ei(+ 2 )n

dei(+ 2 )m jJ ()

(3.43)

This equation combines the multiple expansion and plane wave expansion.

Substituting it into (3.39), we can construct a mixed-form TSM-FMA. At

leafy levels, the box size is much smaller compared to the wavelength, where

interaction is in the sub-wavelength regime, the outgoing wave is calculated

by multipole expansion. With the process of aggregation, the box size becomes large enough, where the interaction may enter the dynamic regime, the

outgoing wave is switched into the plane wave representation to capture the

wave physics. Similar idea can be applied in the process of disaggregation.

In matrix notation, the MF-TSM-FMA for a certain k is expressed as,

H0 (k ji ) = [jJ1 ]1P1 [J1 J2 ]P1 P2 [T ]P2 K3 [J2 J3 ]K3 K3

(1)

J4 I4 ]K4 K4 [I4 I3 ]K4 K4

[I]K4 K3 [I3 I2 ]K3 K3 [T ]K3 P2 [I2 I1 ]P2 P1 [I1 i ]P1 1

(3.44)

where [I] is the interpolation matrix in the dynamic regime, and [T ] transforms the multipole outgoing wave into plane wave outgoing wave.

T = ei(+ 2 )n KP

(3.45)

where I2 in the figure resides as the switch level. From our experience, the

switch level can be chosen with box size to be around Re [k ] b = 0.2

0.4, namely 0.10 0.20 for Re [k ] = k0 , where 0 is the wavelength in

free space. If the switch box size is smaller than the box size of the leafy

29

level, all the interaction are calculated in plane wave expansion and the MFTSM-FMA goes back to the mid-frequency TSM-FMA.

For dynamic field, the computational complexity is O(N log N), while for

quasi-static field, the computational complexity is O(N). The complexity

of MF-TSM-FMA should stay in between depending on the location of the

switch level. However, the real computational time may depend on other

factors. For example, the translation matrix in multipole expansion is full,

which may take longer time even though the complexity is lower for a given

problem.

In this section, several numerical results are demonstrated to validate our

algorithm. We have first simulated an 8 4 corporate-fed microstrip array

available in the literature [48], [50], [52], [54]. The geometrical structure of

this array is shown in Figure 3.5. The detailed parameters are l = 10.08 mm,

= 11.79 mm, d1 = 1.3 mm, d2 = 3.93 mm, l1 = 12.32 mm, l2 = 18.48

mm, D1 = 23.58 mm, D2 = 22.40 mm. The thickness of the substrate is

30

d = 1.59 mm, and the relative permittivity and permeability are r = 2.2

and r = 1. The radiation patterns are calculated by feeding at the input

port at the working frequency of f = 9.42 GHz. The patterns in both Eplane ( = 0o ) and H-plane ( = 90o ) are shown in Figure 3.6. The results

agree well with the results extracted from [36]. Here, the box size at the

leafy level is 0.30 , and a five-level FMA is set up. Since the switch level is

below the leafy level, the MF-TSM-FMA applies the plane-wave expansion

for all levels. In order to activate the low-frequency FMA, we decrease the

frequency to f = 2.5 GHz, and calculate the radar cross section (RCS) of

this microstrip array. The results are shown in Figure 3.7. The leafy level

box size is 0.080 , and the switch level is 4. The number of unknown is 9,394,

and the memory consumption of the MF-TSM-FMA is 40 MB. Next, to show

the capability of modeling vertical structures, a dipole antenna mounted on

a 4 4 mushroom-type electromagnetic band gap (EBG) is simulated, with

its geometrical structure shown in Figure 3.8. The geometrical parameters

are: w = 29 mm, g = 1 mm, d = 1 mm, h = 2 mm, L = 63 mm, W = 1

mm, H = 2 mm. The FR4 is used as the substrate with = 4.4 and

tan = 0.02. The antenna is working at f = 2.2 GHz. The radiation pattern

in the E plane is calculated and shown in Figure 3.9 (in unit of dB). Due

to the layered medium assumption, there is no back lobe and side lobes in

the radiation pattern. A 30 30 microstrip array [47] shown in Figure 3.10

is then simulated at frequency of 2.2 GHz, 1.1 GHz, and 550 MHz, where

a = b = 6 cm, L = 3.66 cm, W = 2.6 cm, the thickness of the substrate is

MF-TSM-FMA is constructed. At the high frequency end (f = 2.2 GHz),

the RCS is compared with the one sampled from [47] and good agreement is

achieved. At the low frequency end (f = 550 MHz), the leafy level box size is

0.03 0 , and the switch level is 5, which corresponds to a box size of 0.12 0 .

The memory requirement is 250 MB, the central processing unit (CPU) time

for each iteration is 2.2 min. Finally, we list the memory consumption and

CPU time per iteration versus the number of unknowns in Figure 3.12, where

the proportions (the number of levels) of multipole expansion and plane wave

expansion are set to be similar. All the examples run on a personal computer

(PC) with Intel 2.66 GHz processor. It is obvious that this algorithm can

be used in the simulation of large scale microstrip structures with acceptable

computational cost.

31

10

20

30

40

E at = 90

E at = 0

MFTSMFMA

Ref.

50

60

80

60

40

20

0

( )

20

40

60

80

( = 0 ) and H plane ( = 90 ) at 9.42 GHz.

32

35

MoM

MFTSMFMA

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

50

100

150

200

()

250

300

350

Figure 3.7: The bistatic RCS of the microstrip array at f = 2.5 GHz and

(i , i ) = (60 , 0 ).

33

Figure 3.9: Radiation pattern of the dipole in E plane, due to the layered

medium assumption, the ground plane is infinitely large.

34

40

60

80

100

120

f=2.2 GHz

Ref.

f=1.1 GHz

f=0.55 GHz

140

160

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

()

300

200

100

10

0

12

4

x 10

Figure 3.12: Memory requirement (solid line) and CPU time per iteration

(dash line) versus number of unknowns.

35

3.5 Summary

A mixed-form thin-stratified medium fast multipole algorithm is developed in

this chapter. By path deformation, the LMGF can be expressed by severalterm summation of Hankel functions weighted by z-dependent propagation

factors. For each quadrature point, the Hankel function can be accelerated

by 2D MLFMA. The matrix-friendly formulation of the LMGF is applied,

and interaction is categorized into six components if we introduce two receiving patterns for one radiation pattern. Due to the numerical instability

of the TSM-FMA in the low frequency regime, a mixed-form TSM-FMA is

proposed for broadband simulation. By utilizing the multilevel nature of

the MLFMA, interactions with different scales are accelerated by different

FMA expansions, namely multipole expansion and plane wave expansion. A

transform equation is derived to embed the two expansions into one MLFMA

tree. Numerical results show the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm. It

should be noted that in the very low frequency regime, the integral equation

in layered medium may suffer from another kind of low frequency breakdown,

where the existence of the null space of the operator plagues the numerical

procedure. Before modeling large problems in extremely low frequency, one

must develop an efficient algorithm accounting for the two breakdowns at

the same time.

36

CHAPTER 4

REMEDIES FOR LOW FREQUENCY

BREAKDOWN OF INTEGRAL

OPERATOR IN LAYERED MEDIUM

When the working frequency further decreases, the low frequency breakdown

of the integral operatorthe electric field integral equation (EFIE) occurs.

Two remediesthe loop-tree decomposition and the augmented electric field

integral equation (A-EFIE)which were first developed in free space, are

extended to layered medium in this chapter. In the loop-tree decomposition,

the current is decomposed into divergence-free part and non-divergence-free

part according to quasi-Helmholtz decomposition when frequency tends to

zero, in order to capture both capacitance and inductance physics. Frequency normalization and basis rearrangement are applied to stabilize the

matrix system. In the A-EFIE, the traditional EFIE can be cast into a

generalized saddle-point system, by separating charge as extra unknown list

and enforcing the current continuity equation. Frequency scaling for the

matrix-friendly layered medium Greens function (LMGF) is analyzed when

frequency tends to zero. Rank deficiency and the charge neutrality enforcement of the A-EFIE for LMGF is discussed in detail. The electrostatic limit

of the A-EFIE is also analyzed. Without any topological loop-searching algorithm, electrically small conducting structures embedded in a general layered

medium can be simulated by using this new A-EFIE formulation.

4.1 Introduction

Computational electromagnetics becomes indispensable as a computer-aided

design (CAD) methodology in various electrical engineering applications,

such as in integrated circuit and wireless communication device. The operating frequency of the electrical systems keeps on increasing to several

gigahertz, meanwhile fabrication process has achieved nanoscale. Hence, a

broadband simulation tool is badly needed for capturing circuit physics of

37

the tiny structures as well as wave physics for the whole package. Unfortunately, however, in the sub-wavelength regime, or so-called low frequency

regime, the electric field and magnetic field decouple, and the total current

in Maxwells equations decomposes into a divergence-free part and a curlfree part, with different frequency scaling properties. In this situation, the

commonly used EFIE method solved by the method of moments (MoM)

[4] with the Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis function [73] suffers from a

low frequency breakdown problem, where vector potential gradually looses

its significance compared with the scalar potential part when the frequency

decreases, and the EFIE operator becomes singular [1]. Various approaches

have been proposed to overcome this problem in the last few years. One of the

most popular remedies is the loop-tree or loop-star decomposition [74], [75],

where the solenoidal and irrotational components of the unknown current can

be separated due to the quasi-Helmholtz decomposition (also known as Hodge

decomposition), to capture inductance physics and capacitance physics when

the frequency tends to zero. However, even after frequency normalization,

the matrix is still ill-conditioned. Preconditioning is necessary to improve

the convergence when iterative solvers are applied. Several effective preconditioners have been proposed, either based on the basis-rearrangement, where

the favorable property of electrostatic problems is utilized [76], or based on

the near-field interactions, where the incomplete factorization with a heuristic drop strategy is applied [77]. By using the Calderon identity and the dual

basis or Buffa-Christiansen basis function [78], [79], a more effective preconditioner has been constructed [80][82]. The loop-tree or loop-star method

has also been implemented with the LMGF, which is more versatile in the

simulation of printed antenna and planarly integrated circuit [83][85].

However, one big issue associated with the loop-tree or loop-star method

is the loop-search process. It is a bottleneck for complicated interconnecting geometries with increasing number of unknowns, where many entangled

global loops may exist. Situation becomes even worse when layered medium

with conducting ground plane is involved, where extra implicit global loops

are introduced because of the vias. To avoid the loop-search process, the

idea of separating current and charge to construct a stable formulation has

been studied recently. The current and charge integral equation (CCIE)

method [86] puts charges into the extra unknown list and manipulates the

equation system to be of the second kind. While in the separated potential

38

integral equation (SPIE) method [87], the scalar potential is included as the

unknowns, where resistive loss and dielectric loss are introduced to flatten

the condition number when the frequency is low. In the recently developed

augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE) method [88][90], the

similar idea of separating current and charge as independent unknowns is

applied. By enforcing the current continuity equation explicitly and implementing a proper frequency scaling, the EFIE can be cast into a generalized

saddle point system [91]. With the help of a constraint preconditioner for

the saddle point system and the mixed-form fast multipole algorithm, a real

package problem with more than one million unknowns has been successfully

solved on a personal computer [89].

In this chapter, we discuss both loop-tree decomposition and the A-EFIE

involving the LMGF.

Normalization

If traditional RWG function [73] is used to expand the current, we have

J(r) =

N

X

i=1

where

fi (r) =

fi (r)Ii = f(r) I

+

i

,

2A+

i

2Ai ,

i

0,

r Ti+

r Ti

(4.1)

(4.2)

otherwise

The RWG basis function is defined on an adjacent triangular patch pair, and

A

i is the area of the two triangles associated with the i-th basis, and the i

is the vector pointing to a point r from the two vertices. Here, the function

is normalized by its edge length for convenience.

r)(r ), J(r)i = t i

t ihG(r,

dr G(r,

where t is the unit tangential vector, G(r,

39

excitation. After applying the Galerkin procedure [4] to the EFIE, a matrix

equation can then be set up

I =V

Z

(4.4)

where the matrix elements in the matrix-friendly formulation [21] are shown

in (3.7)(3.17).

When 0, the matrix elements have different frequency scaling behaviors. The detailed analysis can be found in Section 4.5 and here we only list

the scaling for the lossless case.

Z ss O(), Z zz O(), Z z1 O(), Z z2 O(), Z O( 1)

(4.5)

when 0. It is obvious that Z will be much larger than the remaining

four terms in the low frequency regime. If they are summed up directly,

some information will be lost because of the limited numerical precision. As

a remedy, we decompose the RWG basis into loop basis which is divergencefree and tree basis which is non-divergence-free. Then the term of Z with

O( 1) can be easily extracted from the other terms with O().

J(r) =

NL

X

fLi (r)ILi +

NT

X

fT i (r)IT i

(4.6)

i=1

i=1

The loop functions can be obtained from the RWG functions [92], and the

tree functions have the same form as the RWG functions. The loop-tree basis

spans the same linear space as the RWG basis. For a general structure with

a hole, loop basis contains both local loop and global loop, as shown in

Figure 4.1.

Applying the loop-tree function as both expansion function and testing

function, the matrix equation then takes the form of

"

LL Z

LT

Z

TL Z

TT

Z

# "

IL

IT

"

VL

VT

(4.7)

where

LL = Z

ss + Z

zz

Z

LL

LL

(4.8)

LT = Z

ss + Z

zz + Z

z1

Z

LT

LT

LT

(4.9)

40

TL = Z

ss + Z

zz + Z

z2

Z

TL

TL

TL

(4.10)

TT = Z

ss + Z

zz + Z

z1 + Z

z2 + Z

Z

TT

TT

TT

TT

TT

(4.11)

"

LL (O()) Z

LT (O())

Z

T L (O()) Z

T T (O( 1))

Z

# "

IL

IT

"

VL

VT

(4.12)

frequency scaling behaviors are isolated into different blocks, enabling the

use of frequency normalization to balance the matrix system. Considering

the imbalance between im and (in )1 in MKS system, ik0 is chosen to

normalize the linear system, instead of i, to further balance the diagonal

elements so that the two blocks are almost of the same order.

"

# "

# "

#

LL (O(1)) Z

LT (O())

(ik0 )1 Z

IL

(ik0 )1 VL

=

T L (O())

T T (O(1))

Z

ik0 Z

(ik0 )1 IT

VT

(4.13)

The matrix equation behaves much better after frequency normalization

since contribution from ZLL is elevated while the contribution from ZT T is

suppressed and the diagonal elements are dominant.

41

As has been reported in [76], when applying iterative method in solving

the matrix equation, the performance is still not good because of the electroquasi-static block (right lower block). The situation is similar here, and basis

rearrangement is needed to make the matrix equation amenable to iterative

solvers. After such rearrangement, the electro-quasi-static part in terms of

operator with spatial derivatives, can be expressed in terms of a smoother

operator as that in classical electrostatic problems, where no convergence

problem occurs.

In electrostatic problems, the electric charge density can be expanded by

pulse basis. For a charge-neutral system, a particular patch is chosen as a

neutralizing patch, where a negative pulse is defined. Usually we choose the

last patch as the neutralizing patch, and the charge density is

(r) =

NX

P 1

i=1

NX

P 1

Ni (r)Qi

(4.14)

i=1

R

where Pi (r) is the normalized pulse basis satisfying s dsPi (r) = 1. Here Ni (r)

is the new expansion function to describe charge density in a charge-neutral

system. It can be written in a more compact form,

(r) = Nt (r) Q

(4.15)

Since the loop current does not produce charges, we can connect the tree

current to charge via the continuity equation

t (r) IT = iNt (r) Q

J

T

(4.16)

Taking the inner product of the above equation with P(r), we get

t (r) IT = K

IT = i Q

P(r), J

T

(4.17)

connects the current coefficient with the charge coefThe sparse matrix K

ficient. Substituting (4.17) into (4.13), a system with good convergence can

42

0

LT

RWG

RCS (dBsm)

50

100

150

200

250

0

10

10

10

10

Frequency (KHz)

10

10

be finally established as follows

"

LL

LT K

1

(ik0 )1 Z

Z

t )1 Z

T L ik0 (K

t )1 Z

TT K

1

(K

# "

IL

Q

"

(ik0 )1 VL

t )1 VT

(K

(4.18)

N N = N, g, Nt

Z

(4.19)

T T = f , g, f t

Z

(4.20)

t N = f

K

(4.21)

NN = (K

t )1 Z

TT K

1

Z

(4.22)

while the matrix in terms of the tree function or the RWG function f is

Since

we can get

(4.18) is indeed expressed in terms of basis N, as expected.

43

10

LT + Free Space

LT + Layered Medium

6

10

10

10

10

10

10

1

10

10

10

10

Frequency (KHz)

10

10

44

Some numerical results are demonstrated in this section. Figure 4.2 shows

the RCS of a unit sphere above a three-layered medium with its center 1.2

m above the first interface, the thickness of layer 2 is 0.3 m. The relative

permittivities are r3 = 1.0, r2 = 2.56 and r1 = 6.5. The plane wave is

incident from i = 60 , i = 0 , and the RCS is evaluated at the observation angle of s = 60 , s = 90 . Both loop-tree and RWG functions are

applied for comparison. It can be shown that the two results agree very well

at midfrequencies, but with the decrease of operating frequencies, the RWG

result becomes unstable, while the loop-tree result maintains the scale invariance property well. A rectangular parallel capacitor embedded in a layered

medium is shown in Figure 4.3. Both layer 1 and layer 3 are air, while layer 2

is dielectric. The negative input reactance is plotted in Figure 4.4, compared

with the one from free space. It is demonstrated again that loop-tree basis

maintains the low-frequency scale invariance property very well.

(A-EFIE)

As has been mentioned, the loop-searching process is a big challenge for

complex interconnecting geometries. The global loop shown in Figure 4.1

is especially difficult to find. This section extends the recently developed

A-EFIE [89], which is absent of loop searching, to layered medium.

Compared with the LMGF, the free space Greens function has the closedform expression,

r ) = I +

G(r,

g(r, r)

(4.23)

2

k0

where k0 is the wave number in free space and g(r, r) is the solution to the

scalar Helmholtz wave equation with a point source,

g(r, r) =

eik0 |rr |

4|r r |

45

(4.24)

Again we first use the RWG basis function [73] shown in (4.2) to expand the

induced current. In free space, the mixed potential integral equation (MPIE)

is favorable since the scalar vector potential and scalar potential are well

defined under the Lorentz gauge, and the operator in the Greens function

can be easily moved to the RWG basis function. The surface divergence of

the RWG basis is analytical.

s fi (r) =

1

A+

i

A1

i

0,

r Ti+

r Ti

(4.25)

otherwise

After applying the Galerkin procedure [4], a matrix system shown in (4.4)

can be obtained and the matrix can be expressed as

= ik0 0 A

+ 0 S

Z

ik0

(4.26)

where 0 is the free space wave impedance. The A and S correspond to the

magnetic vector potential and electric scalar potential

ji = hfj (r), g(r, r), fi (r )i

[A]

(4.27)

[S]

(4.28)

From (4.26)(4.28), we can see that the vector potential block and the scalar

potential one are imbalanced when the frequency is low, namely k0 0,

since they are in different frequency order. The EFIE operator becomes

singular because any divergence-free current is a solution to the EFIE in the

quasi-static limit,

I0

S

(4.29)

To balance the system, the charge can be separated and added into the

unknown list to make the system stable in an augmented fashion [88], [89].

We define the normalized pulse basis function on each triangular patch as

pi (r) =

1

Ai

0,

46

r Ti

otherwise

(4.30)

ji = hpj (r), g(r, r), pi (r )i

[P]

(4.31)

we can obtain the relationship between the patch-pair based (in terms of

divergence of RWG basis) scalar potential matrix and the patch-based one

=D

T P

D

(4.32)

where the incidence matrix D

patch basis,

[D]ji =

1, Patch j is the negative part of RWG i

0,

otherwise

(4.33)

J = ik0 c0

D

(4.34)

where c0 is the light speed in vacuum and is the charge unknowns. Substituting the above equations into the EFIE matrix equation, and enforcing the

current continuity equation explicitly, we can arrive at the following A-EFIE

system

"

# "

# "

#

D

T P

A

ik0 J

01 V

=

(4.35)

D

k02I

c0

0

This equation is the generalized saddle point system with the lower right

block nearly equals to zero and various methods can be applied to solve this

problem efficiently [91].

Again the matrix-friendly formulation of LMGF is applied. Note that the

notation of the matrices is slightly different from (3.7)(3.12) but the scalar

Greens functions are the same as (3.13)(3.17). Here, im is extracted out

47

= im {Z

ss + Z

zz + Z

z1 + Z

z2 + Z

}

Z

(4.36)

[Z

(4.37)

zz ]ji = h

[Z

z fj (r), gzz (r, r ), z fi (r )i

(4.38)

z1 ]ji = h

[Z

z fj (r), gz1 (r, r), fi (r )i

(4.39)

[Z

(4.40)

[Z

(4.41)

where

Frequency Scaling

Since the primary (direct) term can be analyzed in the similar way as in free

space, only secondary (reflected or transmitted) terms are considered in this

section. We first assume that the layered medium is lossless. For general

case, namely i 6= j and i 6= j , when 0, kiz ik , the frequency

scaling of the Fresnel reflection coefficient is

Ri,j =

pj pi

pj kiz pi kjz

=

O( 0)

pj kiz + pi kjz

pj + pi

(4.42)

where p = for TE wave and p = for TM wave. Then we can get the

frequency scaling for other quantities:

i,j O( 0), M

m O( 0), Tmn O( 0)

R

(4.43)

F (k , z, z ) O( 0)

(4.44)

ss O( 0), Z

zz O( 0), Z

z1 O( 0), Z

z2 O( 0), Z

O( 2)

Z

(4.45)

48

We can separate the matrix into two parts according to the frequency scaling

ss

= mr Z

+Z

zz + Z

z1 + Z

z2

A

(4.46)

= knm Z

S

nr

(4.47)

= ik0 0 A

+ 0 S

Z

ik0

(4.48)

O( 0), S

O( 0)

A

(4.49)

where

Equation (4.48) has the same form as Equation (4.26) in free space, which

allows us to augment the EFIE in a similar fashion as in (4.35).

Since most material is non-magnetic, namely i = j , we discuss this

situation separately. The frequency scaling of the Fresnel reflection coefficient

for TE wave is a high order term of frequency,

TE

Ri,j

=

kiz kjz

j kiz i kjz

=

O( 2)

j kiz + i kjz

kiz + kjz

(4.50)

Then we have

T E O( 2)

R

i,j

(4.51)

T E O( 0), T T E O( 0)

M

m

mn

(4.52)

Notice the fact that except for the Z

consist of TE as well as TM wave, and the TM part is still on O( 0). This

means that the frequency scaling for these four terms in (4.45) are still valid.

ss , the leading

By careful dimensional analysis, we can show that even for Z

order term is still O( 0). In a word, for non-magnetic material, (4.45)(4.49)

are also valid.

Dielectric loss and conductor loss can be introduced to alleviate the the

low frequency breakdown in free space [87]. For a structure embedded in

a layered medium, if we introduce dielectric loss to each layer, since the

equivalent permittivity is

r = r +

49

i

0

(4.53)

O( 1)

Z

(4.54)

O( 1)

S

The A-EFIE can then take the alternative form

"

# "

# "

#

(ik0 )1 D

T P

A

J

(ik0 0 )1 V

D

ik0I

c0

0

(4.55)

(4.56)

Consistency Validation

We discuss two extreme cases to analyze the consistency of the A-EFIE for

layered medium Greens function. One with homogeneous layers (free space)

and the other with perfect electrical conductor (PEC) layer (half space), both

of which have closed form Greens functions.

In free space, the EFIE can be separated into two parts, the vector potential part and the scalar potential part, both of which are scalar problems

with scalar Greens function, because of the homogeneity of the medium,

shown in (4.26)-(4.28). However, in the layered medium, the response of a

dipole is polarization dependent. A vertical electric dipole can only generate a TM wave, while a horizontal electric dipole generates TE as well as

TM waves. The polarization dependence leads to the difficulty in defining

ss

a uniform scalar potential. In the matrix friendly formula, we can see Z

zz manifest the different response of a horizontal and a vertical dipole

and Z

in a layered medium. If we asymptotically make the inhomogeneity disappear, namely, making mr 1 and mr 1 for each layer, and applying the

Sommerfeld identity

i

g(r, r ) =

4

dk

0

J0 (k )eikz |zz |

kz

(4.57)

ss and Z

zz recover the polarization independent vector potential in

the Z

, it goes back to the scalar potential

(4.27). Similar situation holds for the Z

part in (4.28) when removing the inhomogeneity. The physical meanings of

50

z1 and Z

z2 are ambiguous due to the lack of exact

the remaining two terms Z

definition of scalar potential. There is no correspondence in free space, since

the TE and TM waves cancel each other when the layered medium degrades

into a free space. By appearance, we can interpret it as the cross interaction

between charge and the vertical current. According to their same frequency

ss and Z

zz , we can group them together to obtain the layered

scaling with Z

medium A-EFIE, as is done in (4.46).

For a half space with a PEC layer, the image method can be applied and

the dyadic Greens function can be expressed in a closed form [12]

1

r ) = I [g(r, r) gi (r, r )] + 2

G(r,

z zgi (r, r )

k02

(4.58)

where g(r, r) and gi (r, r ) is the free space scalar Greens function with real

and S

defined as

source point r and image source point r , with A

ji = hfj (r), g(r, r) gi (r, r ), fi (r )i + 2h

[A]

z fj (r), gi (r, r), z fi (r )i (4.59)

ji = h fj (r), g(r, r) gi (r, r), fi (r )i

[S]

(4.60)

(x , y , z ). Notice the fact that RT E = 1 and RT M = 1 at the interface

in the propagation factor F (k , z, z ), we can reproduce (4.59) and (4.60) by

our general A-EFIE formula, with the help of Sommerfeld identity.

z1 and Z

z2 cannot be validated by these two cases, we

Although the terms Z

can show their significance by numerical examples, where vertical structure

exists in a dielectric layered medium, and the two terms are always there

with nonzero value.

Charge neutrality enforcement is very important in the A-EFIE for lowfrequency problems, as stated in [89]. The motivation of enforcing the charge

neutrality is because of the rank deficiency of the A-EFIE. For the A-EFIE

shown in (4.35), the upper block is exactly the same as the traditional EFIE

except that the scalar potential part is expressed in terms of patch basis

and charge is separated as a set of independent unknowns. The lower block

51

solvable. However, rank deficiency exists in the A-EFIE matrix, due to the

Here, k 2 is a eigenvalue of the A-EFIE

definition of the incidence matrix D.

0

and it tends to zero finally when the frequency goes to zero [89]. Usually, the

deflation method [93] can be applied to remove the smallest eigenvalue, for

example, in the CCIE Formula [86]. Motivated by the basis rearrangement

preconditioner in the loop-tree decomposition [76], as has also been discussed

in Section 4.3, we can also apply the charge neutrality enforcement to remedy

this problem [89]. This is driven by the physical observation of the problem,

and can be easily extended to different layered medium problems.

We discuss this issue in the context of layered medium. If it is backed by

a conducting ground plane, which is a common situation in the circuit problems, it acts as a charge bath and absorbs the extra charge of the structure,

so we should distinguish situations whether there is a via connected to the

ground in some parts of the structure. As will be shown in the following,

the condition number is always bounded when the frequency goes to zero, by

properly enforcing the charge neutrality condition.

If the structure is not connected to the charge bath, the total charge is always neutral. This condition shall be enforced when in low frequency domain

is

due to the rank deficiency. By definition of the RWG basis, the matrix D

linearly dependent or singular. It is evident that the lower block sub-matrix

of the A-EFIE is rank deficient when the frequency is low (k0 0). It is

necessary to enforce the charge neutrality condition to make the lower block

full rank.

Two transform matrices can be introduced to fulfill the charge neutrality

enforcement [89], and the final A-EFIE system becomes:

"

T P

B

A

D

D

F

k02Ir

# "

ik0 J

c0 r

"

01 V

0

(4.61)

,

r = F

r

=B

52

(4.62)

seven-layer medium, unit: mm. The central layer is a magnetic material. A

delta gap excitation is applied at the center of the top arm.

where r is the reduced charge unknowns and the Ir is the reduced identity

matrix.

A rectangular loop embedded in a seven-layer medium is shown in Figure

4.5, with its layer parameters specified in the figure. The condition numbers

versus frequency are demonstrated in Figure 4.6. We can see that without charge neutrality enforcement, the condition number grows unboundedly

when decreasing the frequency. It increases in the order of 1/k02 because of

the right lower block. The eigenvalue distribution of the A-EFIE matrix at

f = 1 Hz is shown in Figure 4.7. After the charge neutrality enforcement,

the smallest eigenvalue has been removed away from the origin. We can also

observe that when frequency increases, however, the lower-right block is a

identity matrix scaled by k02 . Thus the lower block is no longer singular and

such enforcement is no longer necessary.

In this case, the charge neutrality condition cannot be guaranteed since the

is no longer

charge bath absorbs the extra charge. The incidence matrix D

singular. In this situation, no special treatment is needed since the A-EFIE

system is full rank. For a half rectangular loop connected to the ground

plane shown in Figure 4.8, the condition number versus frequency is shown

in Figure 4.9. Since the A-FEIE matrix is no longer singular because of the

ground plane, the condition number remains constant when decreasing the

frequency without any special treatment.

Here, the forward and backward transform matrices become the identity

53

18

10

With CNE

Without CNE

16

10

14

Condition number

10

12

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 4.6: The condition number versus frequency for the rectangular loop.

The condition number is unbounded when decreasing the frequency. Charge

neutrality enforcement (CNE) makes the condition number constant.

x 10

With CNE

Without CNE

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

0

3

4

5

Real part of eigenvalues

9

3

x 10

Figure 4.7: The eigenvalue distribution for the rectangular loop at 1 Hz.

The smallest eigenvalue is removed away from the origin after the charge

neutrality enforcement (CNE).

54

Figure 4.8: The geometrical model of the half loop embedded in a five-layer

medium (including the PEC layer), unit: mm. A delta gap excitation is

applied at the center of the top arm.

5

3.04

x 10

Condition number

3.038

3.036

3.034

3.032

Without CNE

3.03

0

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 4.9: The condition number versus frequency for the half loop. Since

it is connected to the ground plane, charge neutrality cannot be

guaranteed. The condition number is bounded when decreasing the

frequency without any special treatment.

matrix in this situation.

=B

= I

F

(4.63)

structures. For a structure with s independent surfaces, each with pk triangular patches, ik inner edges and gk ground edges, k = 1, 2...s. If there are m

surfaces connected to the ground plane, then the total number of unknowns

is

s

X

N=

(ik + gk + pk ) m

(4.64)

k=1

One should note that though the number of unknowns in A-EFIE increases

knowns is the same as the number of RWG basis, the memory requirement

F

and B

are sparse and consume marginal memory when iterative solver is applied.

In the electrostatic limit, the electric potential is expressed by the following

boundary value problem [1],

2 = s(r)

(4.65)

(r) = 0 r S

(4.66)

Z

(4.67)

where is the surface charge density, Gs (r, r ) is the static layered medium

Greens function [94] and 0 is the potential generated by the source s(r). In

this limit, a typical problem is the parallel plate capacitor, shown in Figure

4.10. Here we connect the two plates with a narrow strip so that we can

apply the electrodynamic analysis.

In this limit, the A-EIFE suffers from an inaccuracy problem, even though

the matrix is nonsingular, because the current is a higher order term in

frequency. To capture the current accurately to arbitrary order, the perturbation method should be applied [95]. We will show that the charge is always

stable and describes the electrostatic physics. In DC, the A-EFIE becomes

"

s D

T P

s B

A

D

F

0

# "

ik0 J

c0 r

"

01 V

0

(4.68)

s and P

s are matrix evaluated at k0 = 0. For this problem, the

where A

current J disappears, while the charge remains constant,

J 0, c

(4.69)

Since the matrix is still full rank, we have unique solution. However, the

56

z (mm)

50

0

50

1000

500

0

500

x (mm)1000

1000

500

500

1000

y (mm)

Figure 4.10: The geometrical model of the circular parallel plate capacitor,

with a dielectric layer (r = 2.65) inserted in between. A delta gap is

applied at the edge. The mesh is refined to capture the fringing effect.

current is no longer correct due to the finite numerical precision. If we

discard the ik0 J term manually, we have

T P

s B

r = 0 V

D

(4.70)

free space, it is straightforward to check that the static Greens function in

(4.67) and (4.70) is the same one

Gs (r, r) =

1

4|r r |

(4.71)

In a layered medium, we will show the static form of the general matrix s in the following subsection, which agrees with

friendly Greens function in P

that of [94] applied in the electrostatic analysis except for minor differences

such as the layer index, constant 1/40 and the sign definition in the Fresnel

reflection coefficient.

57

In the electrostatic limit, the LMGF shown in [94] can be derived from our

general matrix-friendly formulation

Z

1 X +

1

TM

Gs (r, r ) = z z g (r, r ) =

nr

4nr i 0

where the Greens function is described by several images with weight i and

distance Zi

A. m = n

There are one primary term and four image terms.

0 = 1, Z0 = |z z |

(4.73)

m,m1 M

m , Z1 = 2dm + z + z

1 = R

(4.74)

m,m+1 M

m , Z2 = 2dm+1 z z

2 = R

(4.75)

m,m+1 R

m,m1 M

m , Z3 = 2hm + z z

3 = R

(4.76)

m,m+1 R

m,m1 M

m , Z4 = 2hm z + z

4 = R

(4.77)

B. m < n

There are four image terms.

+

1 = Tmn

Mm , Z1 = z + z

(4.78)

n,n+1 T + M

2 = R

mn m , Z2 = 2dn+1 z z

(4.79)

m,m1 T + M

3 = R

mn m , Z3 = 2dm + z + z

(4.80)

+

m,m1 R

n,n+1 Tmn

4 = R

Mm , Z4 = 2dm + 2dn+1 + z z

(4.81)

C. m > n

There are also four image terms.

1 = Tmn

Mm , Z1 = z z

(4.82)

n,n1 T M

2 = R

mn m , Z2 = 2dn + z + z

(4.83)

m,m+1 T M

3 = R

mn m , Z3 = 2dm+1 z z

(4.84)

58

m,m+1 R

n,n1 T M

4 = R

mn m , Z4 = 2dm+1 2dn z + z

where,

(4.85)

i+1,i+2 e2hi+1

Ri,i+1 + R

Ri,i+1 =

i+1,i+2 e2hi+1

1 + Ri,i+1 R

(4.86)

2hi1

R

i1,i2 e2hi1

1 + Ri,i1 R

(4.87)

m =

M

+

Tmn

=

1

m,m1 R

m,m+1 e2hm

1R

n1

Y

Tj,j+1

j+1,j+2 e2hj+1

1 Rj+1,j R

j=m

Tmn

=

m1

Y

j=n

Tj+1,j

j,j1e2hj

1 Rj,j+1R

hi = di+1 di

(4.88)

(4.89)

(4.90)

(4.91)

Several numerical results are presented in this section. The input reactance

of the rectangular loop shown in Figure 4.5 is calculated, where the results

are compared with the loop-tree (LT) decomposition and traditional EFIE in

Figure 4.11. The EFIE breaks down quickly when the frequency decreases,

while the A-EFIE is very stable and agrees very well with the loop-tree

decomposition. We also calculate the input reactance of the half rectangular

loop mentioned above. Because it is connected to a conducting ground plane,

the current can flow along this half loop. The input reactance is shown in

Figure 4.12 and compared with traditional EFIE. Similar phenomenon can be

observed. Since non-magnetic dielectric is transparent to the loop inductor,

the PEC half space model can be used to validate the result, which is also

shown in Figure 4.12. Good agreement with the A-EFIE for general layered

medium can be observed. Finally, a circular parallel plate capacitor with

radius of unit length (a = 1 m) is shown in Figure 4.10 with a dielectric layer

inserted in between (r = 2.65). The distance is set to be d/a = 0.1. The

capacitance extracted from current and charge and static solver are shown in

Figure 4.13. The current suffers from an inaccuracy problem, as mentioned in

59

10

10

10

10

AEFIE

LT

EFIE

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 4.11: The input reactance of the rectangular loop. A-EFIE agrees

well with the loop-tree (LT) decomposition, while the traditional EFIE

breaks down quickly when decreasing the frequency.

last section, while the charge is accurate and agrees with the static analysis.

The analytic result from asymptotic expansion [96] is also shown to validate

the numerical results. In this example, when the frequency is below 1 MHz,

the relative error of the A-EFIE with charge information is around 0.1%. If

the frequency is increased, wave physics begins to play a role and the parallel

plate is no longer a pure capacitor.

4.9 Summary

Two remedies for low frequency breakdown of the EFIE operator involving the LMGF are discussed in this chapter. By decomposing the current

into the divergence-free part and the non-divergence-free part according to

the property of the current in the low frequency regime, we can capture

both capacitance and inductance physics, which are of the same importance

in circuit physics. Mathematically, loop-tree decomposition combined with

frequency normalization makes the matrix stable. The connection matrix

further makes the final system well conditioned, as is done in free space. Due

to the complexity of pole searching, the A-EFIE for LMGF is developed in

this chapter. The frequency scaling is analyzed for both lossless and lossy

media. The rank deficiency of the A-EFIE in layered media depends on if the

60

10

10

10

10

10

AEFIE

EFIE

PEC halfspace

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 4.12: The input reactance of the half loop. A-EFIE maintains the

scale invariance very well while the traditional EFIE breaks down quickly

when decreasing the frequency. Since the non-magnetic dielectric is

transparent to the inductor, a PEC half space model is applied to validate

the results.

Capacitance (nF)

0.9

0.8

0.7

AEFIE I

AEFIE Q

Static

Analytic

0.6

0.5

0

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

A-EFIE I represents the capacitance extracted from current, while A-EFIE

Q means the capacitance extracted from charge. The A-EFIE current

suffers from an inaccuracy problem while the A-EFIE charge is stable. The

result agrees with the static solver. Both are further validated by the

analytic solution. When the frequency is below 1 MHz, the relative error of

A-EFIE Q is around 0.1%.

61

charge neutrality condition is satisfied. For independent structures, the enforcement is necessary in the low frequency regime, while at mid-frequencies,

such implementation is no longer necessary. For structures connected to the

ground, the A-EFIE matrix is full rank, and no special treatment is needed.

The electrostatic limit is analyzed and compared with the static formulation.

One should note that in the electrostatic limit, though the matrix is well conditioned, the A-EFIE has an inaccuracy problem due to the extremely small

current, which has a high-order frequency dependence. Remedies such as the

perturbation method shall be implement to capture the high-order term of

the current in the future.

62

CHAPTER 5

A NEW LAYERED MEDIUM GREENS

FUNCTION (LMGF) FORMULATION FOR

GENERAL OBJECTS

In this chapter, a new Greens function formulation is developed systematically for modeling general homogeneous (dielectric or magnetic) objects in

a layered medium. The dyadic form of the Greens function is first derived

based on the pilot vector potential approach. The matrix representation in

the moment method implementation is then derived by applying integration

by parts and vector identities. The line integral issue in the matrix representation is investigated, based on the continuity property of the propagation

factor and the consistency of the primary term and the secondary term. The

duality principle of the LMGF is also discussed to make the formulation succinct. After that, the extinction theorem is revisited in the inhomogeneous

background and a surface integral equation for general homogeneous objects

is set up. Different from the popular mixed potential integral equation formulation, this method avoids the artificial definition of scalar potential. The

singularity of the matrix representation of the Greens function can be made

as weak as possible. Several numerical results are demonstrated to validate

the formulation developed at the end of this chapter.

5.1 Introduction

During the last several decades, intensive study has been carried out to model

objects embedded in a layered medium by using integral equation methods

and the LMGF. The two-dimensional (2D) analysis was developed in [97],

where scattering from a conducting cylinder partially buried in a half space

is analyzed. For more practical applications, the three-dimensional (3D)

analysis was carried out and applied to many problems on radiation and

scattering from perfect electric conducting (PEC) objects in the background

of layered medium [98], [16], [99], [52], [100], [101]. Among them, the LMGF,

63

integral equation (MPIE) developed in [16], becomes one of most popular

formulations. A correction vector is introduced to make the definition of a

scalar potential possible, which is due to the fact that a scalar potential of

a point source in layered medium does not in general exist [102]. Different

choice of the vector potential and correction term leads to three different

formulations: Formulations A, B, and C.

For analysis of general scatterers in layered medium, the volume integral

equation (VIE) method is usually applied [103], [104]. Though VIE can handle inhomogeneous objects, the number of unknowns is typically large and the

equation should be reformulated if there are contrasts in both permittivity

and permeability. On the other hand, the SIE is favorable for homogeneous

objects due to its smaller unknown number and elegant form. Different from

the PEC case, both surface electric current and magnetic current are required

and more types of Greens functions are needed in the SIE formulation for

general homogeneous (dielectric or magnetic) objects [17], [18], [1]. A dielectric body of revolution (BOR) buried in soil covered with a layer of snow

is solved by SIE in [105], where Formulation C in [16] is applied. SIE is

further extended for general dielectric target in a multilayered medium in

[106], with application to radar-based sensing of plastic land mines. In [107],

SIE is applied to analyze a dielectric resonator in layered medium coupled to

a microstrip circuit. Though MPIE is also applied, the Greens function is

different from previous one. The vector potential is kept in the simple form

as is developed by Sommerfeld [6], while the scalar potential is manipulated

in a dyadic way. Other attempts are also made in solving this problem, for

example, a spectral integral method is developed for 2D PEC and dielectric

objects with a closed boundary in layered medium [108].

To avoid the artificial definition of the scalar potential in layered medium,

a new formulation of LMGF is developed in EFIE for modeling PEC objects

[21]. By applying integration by parts, the singularity can be reduced as

weak as possible. It is shown in [109] that this formulation is as convenient

as the popular MPIE method developed in [16].

In this chapter, we formulate the Greens function in a systematic way and

extend it to model general homogeneous objects [110]. The configuration is

shown in Figure 5.1. To make the formulation succinct, only the electric-type

e and G

e ) is discussed here, and the magnetic-type

Greens function (G

64

medium. The external excitation is either a plane wave or a Hertzian

dipole. Equivalent electric and magnetic currents are induced on the

boundary which then generate the scattered field.

m and G

m ) can be obtained by applying the duality

Greens function (G

principle of the LMGF, which will be shown later on.

The dyadic form of the layered medium Greens function describes the electric or magnetic field generated by an electric or magnetic dipole in a layered

medium. In other existing literature, one usually defines four dyadic Greens

EJ (r, r ), G

HJ (r, r ), G

EM (r, r ) and G

HM (r, r). In this chapfunctions, G

e (r, r )

ter, however, we will apply the notation slightly differently, namely G

m (r, r) and their curls [1]. It is convenient to introduce the integral

and G

operators with kernels of different Greens functions to express the electromagnetic fields generated by arbitrary electric and magnetic current sources.

So we will first introduce different sets of integral operators and then derive

the expressions of their kernels.

There are generally four integral operators [1].

E(r) = LE (r, r) J(r ) + KE (r, r ) M(r )

65

(5.1)

(5.2)

where J denotes the electric current and M is the magnetic current, r is the

observation point and r is the source point. These expressions are valid for

any inhomogeneous medium; however, we will focus on the planarly layered

medium here. The operator LE is defined as [1]

Z

LE (r, r ) = i

e (r, r)(r )

dr G

(5.3)

where G

equations, the operator KH can then be defined as

KH (r, r ) = (r)

e (r, r )(r )

dr G

(5.4)

Due to the duality principle of the Greens function shown in Section 5.4, we

can further define the other two operators as,

LH (r, r ) = i

KE (r, r ) = (r)

m (r, r )(r )

dr G

(5.5)

m (r, r)(r )

dr G

(5.6)

involved (LE and KE , or simply L and K), since LH and KH can be easily

obtained by LE and KE explicitly, either by a factor of wave impedance (1/ 2 )

or a negative sign [1], due to the fact that for homogeneous medium Greens

e = G

m (see Section 5.4). However, in layered medium,

function, we have G

the relation can only be determined by the duality principle implicitly, so we

prefer to stay with the four operators in this chapter.

It should also be noted that the dyadic Greens function can typically be

expressed in a uniform manner, where the direct term is absorbed in the

total expression in the spectral domain, as is done for example in [17]. However, from implementation point of view, we will always separate the Greens

function into the primary term (direct interaction in a homogeneous environment) and the secondary term (due to the reflection and transmission of the

layered medium) in the following, since the primary term can be determined

in closed form and be calculated separately. In the following, we only focus

66

e and G

e , since G

m and G

m can be easily obtained by the

on G

duality principle of the Greens function shown in Section 5.4.

The primary term is the same as the homogeneous medium Greens function.

It is nonzero only when the observation point and the source point are in

the same layer. For the sake of completeness, we will also briefly list the

expressions of the primary term.

e

Expression of G

e of the primary term in (5.3) is

The G

Ge (r, r ) = I + 2

g(r, r)

km

(5.7)

g(r, r) =

eikm R

eikm |rr |

=

4|r r |

4R

(5.8)

where the subscript m is the layer index of the source point (and n for

observation layer, here m = n), and km is the wave number in layer m. In

Cartesian coordinates, the dyadic Greens function can be further written as,

ik R 1

m

e (r, r ) = I R

R

+ I 3R

R

G

g(r, r)

2 R2

km

(5.9)

= R = r r = 1 [(x x )

R

x + (y y )

y + (z z )

z]

R

|r r |

R

(5.10)

e

Expression of G

e of the primary term in (5.4), we have

For G

e (r, r ) = Ig(r, r)

G

67

(5.11)

e (r, r) =

G

z

y

z

0

x

zz

(y y )

R1 ikm

1

R

x g(r, r)

0

(z z )

y y

0

x x

g(r, r)

(5.12)

(x x )

0

The secondary term of the Greens function is from the reflection and transmission of the layered medium; it can be expressed as [21]

e (r, r ) = G

TE (r, r ) + 1 G

TM (r, r)

G

e

e

2

knm

(5.13)

2

where knm

= 2 n m , and

G

e

(5.14)

TM (r, r ) = ( z) ( z) g TM (r, r )

G

e

(5.15)

where

g (r, r) =

=

i

8 2

i

4

RR +

dks

eiks (rs rs ) F (ks , z, z )

kmz ks2

R +

0

(5.16)

dk

J (k )F (k , z, z )

kmz k 0

p 2

[71], and kmz = km

k2 . In Cartesian coordinates, we have ks = kx x +ky y,

rs = x

x + y y, while in cylindrical coordinates, we further have kx = k cos ,

ky = k sin , and x x = cos , y y = sin . If we denote a 2D inverse

Fourier transform and a Sommerfeld integral as [16]

F 1 {f(kx , ky )} =

1

(2)2

RR +

68

(5.17)

1

Sn {f(k )} =

2

(5.18)

we have

i

g (r, r ) = F 1

2

F (ks , z, z )

kmz ks2

i

= S0

2

F (k , z, z )

kmz k2

(5.19)

higher order Sommerfeld integrals in the cylindrical system by applying the

integral representation of the Bessel function [5]

1

Jn (k ) =

2

(5.20)

The expressions have been derived in [16] (Appendix I) and will not be repeated here. Notice that the second-order Sommerfeld integrals are further

simplified to lower-order counterparts by using the recursive property of the

Bessel function [111], [18]

J2 (k ) =

2

J1 (k ) J0 (k ).

k

(5.21)

All the relations will be utilized in deriving the following Greens function

components (the time convention here is eit and is different from that of

[16]).

e

Expression of G

We first consider the TE wave, since

z = y x x y

we have

y y

TE (r, r) =

G

x y

e

0

where

GTE

e,xx

i

cos 2S1

=

2

F TE

kmz k2

(5.22)

y x 0

x x

0

0 g TE (r, r )

0

i

+ (1 cos 2) S0

4

69

F TE

kmz

(5.23)

(5.24)

GTE

e,xy

GTE

e,yy

i

=

sin 2S1

2

F TE

kmz k2

i

sin 2S0

4

F TE

kmz

TE

GTE

e,yx = Ge,xy

TE

TE

i

F

i

F

= cos 2S1

+ (1 + cos 2) S0

2

2

kmz k

4

kmz

(5.25)

(5.26)

(5.27)

z = x z x + y z y + ks2 z

(5.28)

then

x x z z x y z z x z k2

TM

TM (r, r) =

G

y x z z y y z z y z k2 g (r, r )

e

x z k2

y z k2

k4

where

i

GTM

e,xx = 2 cos 2S1

+ 4i

z z F TM

kmz k2

z z F TM

kmz

(1 + cos 2) S0

n

o

z z F TM

i

GTM

=

sin

2S

1

e,xy

2

kmz k2

n

o

F TM

+ 4i sin 2S0 z kzmz

i

z F TM

TM

Ge,xz = cos S1

2

kmz

TM

GTM

e,yx = Ge,xy

n

o

z z F TM

i

GTM

=

cos

2S

1

e,yy

2

kmz k2

n

o

F TM

+ 4i (1 cos 2) S0 z kzmz

i

z F TM

TM

Ge,yz = sin S1

2

kmz

i

z F TM

TM

Ge,zx = cos S1

2

kmz

i

z F TM

TM

Ge,zy = sin S1

2

kmz

70

(5.29)

(5.30)

(5.31)

(5.32)

(5.33)

(5.34)

(5.35)

(5.36)

(5.37)

GTM

zz

i

= S0

2

k2 F TM

kmz

(5.38)

e

Expression of G

e , from (5.13)(5.15), we simply have

For G

e (r, r ) = G

TE (r, r) + 1 G

TM (r, r )

G

e

e

2

knm

(5.39)

G

e

(5.40)

G

e

n

(5.41)

where

Here (5.41) is derived due to the fact that for the secondary field, we have

2 + kn2 g (r, r) = 0.

(5.42)

Again we first consider the TE wave, from (5.22), (5.28), and (5.40), we have

x z y x z x 0

TE

TE (r, r) =

G

y z y y z x 0 g (r, r )

e

k2 y

k2 x 0

(5.43)

where,

n TE o

i

z F

TE

=

G

sin

2S

1

e

2

kmz k2

xx

n TE o

+ 4i sin 2S0 zkFmz

n TE o

z F

i

TE

G

=

cos

2S

1

e

2

kmz k2

xy

n TE o

4i (1 + cos 2) S0 zkFmz

n TE o

i

z F

TE

cos

2S

G

=

1

e

2

kmz k2

yx

n TE o

i

+ 4 (1 cos 2) S0 zkFmz

TE

TE

G

= G

e

yy

71

xx

(5.44)

(5.45)

(5.46)

(5.47)

F TE

kmz

TE

F

i

= cos S1

.

2

kmz

i

TE

G

= sin S1

e

zx

2

TE

G

e

zy

(5.48)

(5.49)

y x z

y y z

y k2

2 TM

TM (r, r ) =

G

x x z x y z x k2 kn g (r, r )

e

0

0

0

where

n

o

z F TM

i

=

sin

2S

kn2

1

2

kmz k2

xx

n

o

F TM

+ 4i sin 2S0 zk mz

kn2

n

o

z F TM

i

TM

n

o

F TM

+ 4i (1 cos 2) S0 zk mz

kn2

TM

i

F

TM

kn2

Ge xz = sin S1

2

kmz

n

o

z F TM

i

TM

n

o

F TM

4i (1 + cos 2) S0 zk mz

kn2

TM

TM

G

= G

e

e

yy

xx

TM

i

F

TM

G

=

cos

S

kn2

1

e

yz

2

kmz

TM

G

e

(5.50)

(5.51)

(5.52)

(5.53)

(5.54)

(5.55)

(5.56)

To validate the dyadic form of the Greens function derived in this section,

an electric dipole radiating in a seven-layer medium is investigated. The

layered medium is shown in Figure 5.2, and the working frequency is f = 300

MHz. The layered medium is both dielectric and magnetic. The source is

at (x = 0, y = 0, z = 1.4) m and the observation line is at (3 x

3, y = 1, z = 0.3) m. The polarization of the dipole is ( = 20o , = 30o ).

e is involved.

The electric field of an electric dipole is first evaluated, where G

The result is compared with that from the transmission line (TL) method

[17] as shown in Figure 5.3. Good agreement is observed. To further test the

magnetic-type Greens function, the electric field of a magnetic dipole is also

72

medium (unit: m). The layered medium is both dielectric and magnetic,

and the layer constants are shown in the figure. The source point is in

Layer 2 and the observation line is in Layer 5.

m is involved. The result is shown in Figure 5.4 and

calculated, where G

again agrees well with the TL method.

The dyadic form of the Greens function in the last section can map the

current source to the field directly. However, the singularity of the Greens

function is high in spatial domain due to the spatial derivatives, or it has high

frequency component in the spectral domain, which leads to slow convergence

of the Sommerfeld integral. Usually, in moment method implementation [4],

MPIE is applied, where the Greens function has lower singularity. As has

already been mentioned in the introduction, the scalar potential in layered

medium is ambiguous; so careful manipulation should be made to obtain

a proper MPIE. Due to this fact, a matrix-friendly formulation for PEC

objects without defining any artificial potential is developed in [21]. In this

formulation, integration by parts is applied wherever possible to transfer the

partial derivative from the Greens function to the basis functions, where

the Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis [73] is applied as both expansion and

testing functions. Hence, the singularity of the Greens function in the spatial

domain can be made as weak as possible. In other words, the Sommerfeld

integral can be made rapidly convergent.

In this section, we will extend the matrix representation for general homo73

300

Ex

Ey

250

Electric field (V/m)

Ez

200

150

100

50

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

The dipole polarization is ( = 20o , = 30o ) and is working at f = 300

MHz. The result is validated by the transmission line method (solid line).

1.4

Ex

1.2

Ey

Ez

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

The dipole polarization is ( = 20o , = 30o ) and is working at f = 300

MHz. The result is validated by the transmission line method (solid line).

74

e and G

e are involved since the LH and KE can be easily

KH where G

obtained by the duality principle of the Greens function.

The primary term is from the direct interaction in a homogeneous environment, hence the conventional MPIE form can be applied since the auxiliary

potentials can be easily determined if the Lorentz gauge is utilized [73]. The

matrix representation is

hfj (r), LE (r, r ), fi (r )i

e (r, r), fi (r )i

= im hfj (r), G

(5.57)

+ i1m h fj (r), g(r, r), fi (r )i

hfj (r), KH (r, r ), fi (r )i

=

m

hf (r),

n j

e (r, r), fi (r )i

G

(5.58)

I, fi (r )i

R

where the inner product is defined as hf(r), X(r)i = s drf(r) X(r) for real

=

m

hf (r), g(r, r)

n j

function f(r). Also fj (r) is the j-th testing function and fi (r ) is the i-th basis

function, g(r, r) is the scalar homogeneous medium Greens function shown

in (5.8).

75

For the secondary term, the matrix representation of the LE operator is [21]

hfj (r), LE (r, r), fi (r )i

= im hfjs (r), ge,ss(r, r ), fis (r )i

+ im h

z fj (r), ge,zz (r, r), z fi (r )i

(5.59)

+ im h

z fj (r), ge,zd(r, r ), fi (r )i

+ im h fj (r), ge,dz (r, r ), z fi (r )i

+ im h fj (r), ge,dd(r, r ), fi (r )i

where fs =

z z f is the horizontal projection of the basis function and

ge,ss

i

= S0

2

F TE

kmz

1

i

TE

2

TM

ge,zz = S0 z z F + kmn F

2

kmz k2

i

n

1

TE

TM

ge,zd = S0

z F

z F

2

m

kmz k2

i

m

1

TE

TM

z F z F

ge,dz = S0

2

n

kmz k2

i

z z TM

1

TE

ge,dd = S0

F + 2 F

.

2

knm

kmz k2

(5.60)

(5.61)

(5.62)

(5.63)

(5.64)

One should note that for RWG basis function straddling the interface of two

adjacent layers, the coefficient m should be modified accordingly. Since in

real implementation the matrix element is accounted for by half RWG-half

RWG (triangle-triangle) interactions, the expression in (5.59) is convenient

and shall not cause confusion. The derivation details can be found in [21]

and will not be repeated here.

We pay more attention to the matrix representation of the KH operator

e here. For the TE wave, from (5.40), (5.42), we

with the kernel of G

have

TE (r, r) = ( z + k 2 z)( z)g TE (r, r )

G

(5.65)

e

n

76

It can be divided into two parts and the matrix representation can be obtained by applying integration by parts,

TE (r, r), fi (r )i

hfj (r), G

e

= h fj (r), z zg TE (r, r), fi (r )i

+

(5.66)

dlfj (r) n

hz zg TE (r, r ), fi (r )i

c

+ h

z fj (r), kn2 zg TE (r, r ), fi (r )i

Similarly from (5.41), we have

TM (r, r) = k 2 ( z) z + k 2 z g TM (r, r )

G

e

n

m

(5.67)

TM (r, r ), fi (r )i

hfj (r), G

e

= hfj (r), kn2 zz g TM (r, r ), fi (r )i

+ hfj (r),

dl kn2

c

zz g

TM

(5.68)

(r, r )fi (r ) n

i

2

+ hfj (r), kn2 km

zg TM (r, r ), z fi (r )i

spatial domain. For accurate evaluation, the curl can also be implemented

in the spectral domain, as is done in Section 5.2. In summary, from (5.4),

77

hfj (r), KH (r, r), fi (r )i

where

m

h

n

m

n

m

h

z fj (r), gce,zs(r, r), fis (r )i

n

m

hf (r), gce,sd(r, r ),

n js

m

hf (r), c

n js

m

hf (r), gce,sz (r, r), z fi (r )i

n js

dlfj (r) n

hgce,ds (r, r), fis (r )i

fi (r )i

dl gce,sd(r, r )fi (r ) n

i

#

sin i

z F TE

S1

gce,ds (r, r ) =

2

kmz k2

cos

"

#

TE

sin

i

F

2

S1

gce,zs (r, r ) = kn

kmz k2

cos 2

"

#

sin

i

z F TM

n

S1

gce,sd(r, r ) =

m cos 2

kmz k2

"

#

TM

sin

i

F

2

gce,sz (r, r ) = kmn

S1

2

kmz k2

cos

(5.69)

"

(5.70)

(5.71)

(5.72)

(5.73)

Although the line integral is absent in MPIE in homogeneous environment

(namely only the matrix representation of the primary term is involved), it

is always an issue in layered medium when the object is penetrating more

than one layer and the RWG basis defined on two adjacent triangles has

to straddle the interface of two layers. However, if the kernel is continuous

across the interface, such line integral from positive and negative triangles of

a RWG basis function can be canceled.

In fact, this is usually the case. The continuity of the kernel can be verified

78

Z++

Z+

Z+

Matrix (real)

9.662

1.080

Matrix (imag)

0.623

5.147

Dyadic (real)

Dyadic (imag)

0.189

4.348

1.118 0.558 0.577

9.133 3.538

0.967

2.568

0.816 3.538

0.315 2.568

Z++

Z+

Z+

Matrix (real)

2.870

2.103

3.868

1.436

2.015

Matrix (imag)

1.521

Dyadic (real)

0.911

0.437

0.547

0.119

2.015

Dyadic (imag)

4.274 0.712

0.185 1.303

0.385 1.303

the observation point r comes across the interface, we have [5]

F1 (z+ , z ) = F2 (z , z )

(5.74)

p1

1 (z+ )z F1 (z+ , z ) = p2 (z )z F2 (z , z )

(5.75)

point r , the symmetry relation of the F (z, z ) can be applied [112]

p(z )

p(z)

F (z, z ) =

F (z , z).

kz (z )

kz (z)

(5.76)

p1 (z+

)

p2 (z

)

F

(z,

z

)

=

F (z, z

)

1

+

k1z (z+ )

k2z (z ) 2

(5.77)

k1z

(z+ )z F1 (z, z+

) = k2z

(z )z F2 (z, z

)

(5.78)

The continuity of the kernel of the LE in (5.59) is shown in [109]. The one of

KH in (5.69) can be verified similarly since the horizontal partial derivatives

(( ) z) in (5.66) and (5.68) do not affect the vertical continuity due to the

phase matching condition.

79

Figure 5.5: Cases where testing line integral exists. The testing function is

straddling the interface, all radiation from the RWG or half-RWG basis

functions (triangles) in color needs invoking testing line integral, while

radiation from others does not need this line integral.

Figure 5.6: Line integral test. The testing function is at the top interface.

Radiation from: basis function 1: no line integral activated; basis function

2: testing line integral activated; basis function 3: both testing and basis

line integrals activated. (unit: m).

80

Table 5.3: Matrix element of KE : testing & basis line integrals (104 )

Matrix (real)

Matrix (imag)

Dyadic (real)

Dyadic (imag)

Z++

Z+

1.406

0.063

0.680

1.406

0.680

2.765

0.063

2.765

Z+

3.379

0.131

1.426

3.379

0.131

1.426

However, the propagation factor shown in (5.74)(5.78) contains all fields

information (including the primary field if necessary), the continuity is valid

only when all the fields are expressed as the Sommerfeld integral of the

propagation factor. Since we have separated the primary term in closed-form

to avoid ill-convergent self-term Sommerfeld integral, and also to gain the

convenience of singularity treatment, we have to make sure that the matrix

representation of the two terms are consistent before we can surely remove

the line integral. By setting the basis function and the testing function in

different layers, and then making the layers homogeneous, we can easily test

the consistency. The secondary term is consistent with the primary term in

the matrix representation of LE [90], hence there is always no line integral

in (5.59). However, for the KH , we find that the secondary term is not

consistent with the primary term. In the primary term, the operator

acts directly on the Greens function in (5.58), while in the secondary term,

it is transferred to either testing or basis function in (5.69). This operator

transfer reduces the singularity of the Greens function; however, it also

destroys the continuity of the propagation factor and leads to non-canceled

line integral for interactions where the primary term is involved. For the

testing line integral (the first line integral in (5.69)), it needs to be calculated

only when the testing RWG function straddles the interface and the basis

RWG functions or half-RWGs (either positive or negative triangles) are in

the same two layers shown in Figure 5.5. The necessity of basis line integral

(the secondary line integral in (5.69)) can be analyzed similarly. Since we are

filling the matrix elements by triangle-triangle pairs other than RWG-RWG

pairs, the line integral can be easily judged and added if necessary; and also

the number of Sommerfeld integrals can be reduced to minimum.

81

between one testing function and several basis functions shown in Figure

5.6, the representative basis functions are picked from a mesh of a sphere

embedded in a four-layer medium. The working frequency is f = 300 MHz.

The results are validated by applying the dyadic form Greens function. The

testing function straddles the interface, and three different basis functions are

considered. Table 5.1 shows the radiation from basis 1, where no primary

field is involved. Hence, no line integral is activated. We can observe that

though the interactions between triangle-triangle pairs differ due to the line

integral, it can be canceled and the final matrix element is the same. Table

5.2 shows the radiation from basis 2, in this case, the testing line integral

should be activated, and again the final matrix element agrees. Finally,

the radiation from basis 3 is calculated and shown in Table 5.3. Now both

testing line integral and basis line integral need to be activated and the matrix

representation exactly recovers the dyadic form.

m and G

m in (5.5) and (5.6) can

The magnetic type Greens function G

be obtained from the duality principle. One form of the duality principle

reads [5],

E H, H E, ,

(5.79)

M J, J M, m , m

Since the scalar homogeneous medium Greens function in (5.8) satisfies the

scalar Helmholtz equation

2

(2 + km

)g(r, r) = (r, r )

(5.80)

(5.81)

82

Hence

Gm (r, r ) = Ge (r, r ) = I + 2

g(r, r)

km

(5.82)

m.

function in gm or G

The propagation factor F (z, z ) of the secondary term satisfies the following

differential equation [1]

d 1 d

1 2

+

k (z) F (z, z ) = 0

dz p(z) dz p(z) z

(5.83)

It is obvious that

F TE (z, z ) F TM (z, z ), F TM (z, z ) F TE (z, z )

(5.84)

(5.85)

hence,

Finally, we have

TE (r, r )

m (r, r ) = G

TM (r, r) + 1 G

G

m

2

kmn m

(5.86)

G

m

(5.87)

TE (r, r ) = ( z) ( z) g TE (r, r)

G

m

(5.88)

e (r, r) G

m (r, r), G

m (r, r) G

e (r, r )

G

(5.89)

where

Hence,

e and G

m.

and similar duality holds between G

With these properties, we can now easily verify the correctness of definition

of the LH and KE in (5.5) and (5.6).

83

As the LMGF is formulated properly, we can set up the surface integral

equation for general homogeneous objects by applying the extinction theorem

[5]. For the object shown in Figure 5.1, if we put r S and r S + , we

have

o

Eoinc (r) = LoE (r, r ) J(r) + KE

(r, r ) M(r ).

(5.90)

Here we use superscript o to represent that the Greens function is evaluated in the outside region (i will be used for inside region). Similarly, if

r S + , r S ,

i

0 = LiE (r, r) [J(r )] + KE

(r, r ) [M(r )]

(5.91)

where the negative signs of the currents are due to the unique definition of

the unit normal vector in one problem (J = n

H, M = E n

). One should

note that for Li and Ki , the choice of the Greens function has some freedom.

As long as the material and the boundary condition is maintained, the field

can be uniquely determined. The Greens function may even not satisfy the

radiation boundary condition (non-physical). However, for simplicity, we

usually choose the homogeneous medium Greens function.

In practice, we may have internal resonance problems if we only use the

above two E-type equations. To avoid it, the H-type equations are usually

applied too. The H-field equations read

o

Hoinc (r) = LoH (r, r) M(r ) + KH

(r, r) J(r )

(5.92)

i

0 = LiH (r, r) [M(r )] + KH

(r, r) [J(r )]

(5.93)

formulation [113] is applied here though other alternatives are available in

homogeneous medium [114]. Finally, the surface integral equation in matrix

notation reads

"

#

"

# "

#

o

i

Eoinc

(LoE + LiE ) (KE

+ KE

)

J

=

o

i

Hoinc tan

(KH

+ KH

) (LoH + LiH )

M tan

84

(5.94)

Several numerical results are presented in this section. Figure 5.7 shows a

capsule structure embedded in a 5-layer medium. The parameters of the

layered medium are shown in the figure. The dimension of the object is

h = 0.6 m, r = 0.15 m. A Hertzian dipole is at (x = 0.1, y = 0.1, z = 0.4) m

with polarization of ( = 20o , = 30o ). The working frequency is f = 300

MHz. The object is first set to be transparent for sanity check, namely there

is no contrast between the object and the surrounding layer ( = 2, = 2).

The scattered field at the center line of the object (z = 0) is calculated by the

SIE. In this case, the equivalent electric and magnetic current should generate

exactly the incident field according to the extinction theorem. The result is

shown in Figure 5.8 and agrees well with the theoretical prediction. In fact,

this sanity-check model activates almost all ingredients of the layered medium

Greens function and SIE developed in this chapter. For real non-transparent

objects, only the Greens function inside the object needs to be modified,

which is trivial since it is the homogeneous medium Greens function. Next,

the material of the object is set to be non-transparent ( = 4 and = 1), and

the scattered field due to the same Hertzian dipole is calculated and shown in

Figure 5.9 and Figure 5.10. The observation line is set to be at the interface

(z = d5 = 0.55 m). We can observe that the tangential components of the

E field are continuous while the normal component differs by a factor of 3

(4 /5 ), which satisfy the boundary condition. Finally, a cuboid penetrating

different layers are shown in Figure 5.11. The cuboid is tilted by = 45o

and the dimension is a = 0.6 m, b = c = 0.2 m. It is illuminated by a

TE plane wave with normal incidence (f = 300 MHz). To further validate

the Greens functions and operators for the straddling case, the cuboid is

e and LE involved) and

first filled with PEC material. Hence both EFIE (G

e and KH involved) can be implemented. The scattered coMFIE ( G

polarization fields are evaluated at z = 0.5. The results are shown in Figure

5.12 and good agreement can be observed. Finally, the cuboid is filled with

dielectric material ( = 5 and = 1). The scattered field is again calculated

and shown in Figure 5.13, which is weaker than that of the PEC case.

85

medium, where h = 0.6, r = 0.15 (unit: m).

500

Ex

Ey

400

Ez

300

200

100

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.1

Observation point x (m)

0.2

0.3

Figure 5.8: The scattered field inside the object with = 2 and = 2.

Since there is no contrast, the scattered field recovers the incident field

(solid line).

86

40

Ex

35

Ey

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

Figure 5.9: The scattered field outside the object with = 4 and = 1.

The tangential components of the E field are continuous at the interface.

Symbol: field at d+

5 , solid line: field at d5 .

50

Ez at d+5

Ez at d5

40

30

20

10

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

Figure 5.10: The scattered field outside the object with = 4 and = 1.

The normal component of the E field differs by a factor of 3 (4 /5 ) at the

interface.

87

m). It is penetrating different layers.

0.25

EFIE

MFIE

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

Figure 5.12: The scattered field of the PEC object, calculated from EFIE

and MFIE.

88

0.1

Dielectric object

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

3

1

0

1

Observation point x (m)

5.7 Summary

A new Greens function formulation for modeling homogeneous objects in

layered medium is systematically developed in this chapter. The dyadic

form of the Greens function is developed by applying the pilot vector potential approach, and all components are derived in terms of order 0 and

order 1 Sommerfeld integrals. The matrix representation is further derived

by applying integration by parts and vector identities. The line integral issue for interactions between straddling basis functions is discussed in details

for different situations, based on the continuity property of the propagation

factor and the consistency analysis of the primary term and the secondary

term. The duality principle of the LMGF is further discussed to make the

formulation succinct. Finally, the extinction theorem is revisited in inhomogeneous environment and the relevant integral equations are set up. Several

numerical results are presented to validate this formulation.

89

CHAPTER 6

DCIM ACCELERATED SURFACE

INTEGRAL EQUATION (SIE) METHOD

FOR NANO-OPTICAL APPLICATIONS

The SIE involving LMGF developed in Chapter 5 is accelerated by the DCIM

introduced in Chapter 2 and is applied to nano-optical applications. We

only focus on the situation where the nano scatterers are embedded in a

single layer, which is common in various optical applications. Some issues in

incorporating DCIM to SIE in this case will be discussed. The basic theory

of spontaneous emission (SE) of a quantum emitter and the surface plasmon

resonance will also be briefly reviewed. SE is then studied numerically for an

emitter embedded in a layered medium and in the presence of nano scatterers,

where the emitter is coupled to the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and

the localized surface plasmons (LSP).

6.1 Introduction

When atoms are prepared in the excited states, they spontaneously emit light

even in the vacuum. This interesting phenomenon attracted much attention

after the development of quantum mechanics in 1920s [116]. Purcell in 1946

first demonstrated that the SE of a quantum emitter is not an intrinsic

property of the emitter but can be modified when it is located in a cavity,

now known as the Purcell effect [117]. SE can be explained by the atom-field

interaction, after the quantization of the electromagnetic (EM) field. The

vacuum fluctuation of the EM field perturbs the atom system and causes the

spontaneous emission of photons. If the local electromagnetic environment

is changed, which leads to the change of local density of states (LDOS), the

emission can be modified. Purcells work stimulated relevant studies, led to

the development of laser (firstly in microwave spectrum, known as maser),

and finally started the subject of cavity quantum electrodynamics (Cavity

QED) [118]. In the so-called weak coupling regime, the SE enhancement and

90

cavity, which now plays an important role in a variety of novel optoelectronic

designs such as light-emitting diode (LED), laser, solar cell, etc. Recently,

the photonic crystal (PC) [119] or surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) [120]

other than the cavity mode are applied to control SE [121], [122]. In the

strong coupling regime, the entanglement can be manipulated, which can be

used for quantum information.

We will focus on SE in the weak coupling regime. The spontaneous emission rate (SER) can be calculated by the Fermis golden rule [11], [116], [123],

it can be further related to the LDOS after some mathematical derivation.

The LDOS counts the number of EM modes where photons can be emitted at

the specific location of the emitter. By using the Greens function approach,

the LDOS can be easily obtained. Hence, this quantum electrodynamic problem can finally be cast into a classical EM scattering problem.

In this chapter, the SIE developed previously will be applied to analyze

SE enhancement of an emitter embedded in a layered medium with metal

layers and in the presence of metallic nano scatterers, where the emitter can

be coupled to the SPPs formed by the dielectric-metal interface and the LSP

formed by the nano scatterers. It is observed that SE can further be enhanced

by the coupling of the two resonances. For the sake of completeness, we will

discuss some special issues in applying DCIM to SIE, introduce the Greens

function approach in calculating SE and briefly review the surface plasmon

resonance.

The broadband simulation in visible spectrum (400 nm800 nm) requires

efficient computation of single frequency response. The direct evaluation of

Sommerfeld integrals in SIE makes the matrix filling extremely slow. DCIM

introduced in Chapter 2 will be applied to accelerate the calculation. The

near field information is important in the simulation since the nano scatterers

are usually in the sub-wavelength scale. Hence, the traditional DCIM [22]

will be applied here since it preserves good accuracy in the near field region.

In the following, we will only focus on the special features in combining DCIM

to SIE. The main idea of DCIM can be found in Chapter 2 and will not be

91

repeated here. We will also focus our attention on the secondary field since

the primary field has closed-form solution.

Since the nano scatterers are confined in a single layer, the DCIM can be

made position (z, z ) independent [115]. From (2.3), the propagation factor

of the secondary field can be written as follows when n = m,

F (z, z ) = F1 (z, z ) + F2 (z, z ) + F3 (z, z ) + F4 (z, z )

(6.1)

mR

m,m1 eikmz z1

F1 (z, z ) = M

(6.2)

mR

m,m+1 eikmz z2

F2 (z, z ) = M

(6.3)

mR

m,m+1 R

m,m1 eikmz z3

F3 (z, z ) = M

(6.4)

mR

m,m1 R

m,m+1 eikmz z4

F4 (z, z ) = M

(6.5)

z1 = 2dm + z + z

(6.6)

z2 = 2dm+1 z z

(6.7)

z3 = 2dm+1 2dm + z z

(6.8)

z4 = 2dm+1 2dm z + z

(6.9)

where

and

The position dependent factor is already in the form of exponentials and can

be extracted during the function fitting in DCIM process, if we separate the

propagation factor into four parts, as are shown in (6.2)(6.5). Once the

DCIM coefficients ai and bi are obtained, the position-dependent factor can

be easily added back to the Greens function; hence, (2.23) becomes

g() =

Mj

4 X

X

j=1 i=1

aji

eikm rji

, rji =

4rji

92

2 + (bi + zj )2

(6.10)

In the LE operator, the ordinary (order 0) Sommerfeld identity [5] can be

applied, we show it again here for clarity.

eikm r

=i

r

dk

k

J0 (k )eikmz |z|

kmz

(6.11)

Sommerfeld integrals occur in the KH operator when they are calculated in

the spectral domain. We will apply the order 1 Sommerfeld identity [115] in

this case.

eikm r

(1 ikm r) = i

r3

k2

dk

J1 (k )eikmz |z|

kmz

(6.12)

Alternatively, we can also use the order 0 identity in this operator and calculate the horizontal partial derivatives in the spatial domain. For example,

x

eikm r

eikm r

= 3 (ikm r 1)x

r

r

(6.13)

In the matrix representation of the LE operator, except for ge,ss, there seems

to be poles associated with the TE and TM waves in the integrand in

(5.61)(5.64) at k = 0. Take ge,zz for example,

o

2

z z F TE + kmn

F TM kmz1 k2

2 F TM

R +

(z z F TE +kmn

)

k

i

= 4 0 dk kmz J0 (k )

k2

ge,zz =

i

S

2 0

(6.14)

2

z z F TE + kmn

F TM

g(k ) =

k2

(6.15)

can be canceled and this function is regular at k = 0.

In the matrix representation of the KH operator, however, TE wave and

93

gce,ds (r, r ) =

"

sin

cos

"

sin

cos

i

S

2 1

i

4

z F TE

kmz k2

R +

0

(6.16)

k2

dk kmz

J1 (k)

F TE

k2

g(k ) =

z F TE

k2

(6.17)

is also a k2 in the numerator that can cancel the one in the denominator),

the function in (6.17) in DCIM is unfortunately singular at k = 0.

Note that the matrix representation is derived to reduce the singularity of

the LMGF, which means that the Sommerfeld integral converges more rapidly

compared with the dyadic LMGF in direct numerical evaluation. In DCIM,

however, the slow convergence of the dyadic Greens function can also be

remedied by techniques such as the two-level approximation [35], where the

sampling path can be made longer along the real axis with sparser sampling

rate. By investigating the expressions of the dyadic LMGF in (5.44)(5.49)

and (5.51)(5.56) carefully, we found that only two Sommerfeld integrals have

possible pole problems in DCIM

S1

z F TE

kmz k2

S1

z F TM

kmz k2

(6.18)

Fortunately, the two always appear in pairs, hence the poles can be canceled in a similar way as in the matrix representation of the LE operator. In

a word, when using DCIM in KH , we choose the dyadic LMGF other than

the matrix representation.

94

Emission (SE)

6.3.1 Spontaneous Emission Rate (SER)

The emitter is assumed to be a two-level system, located at r = r0 . The

transition process is shown in Figure 6.1. The initial state of the atomfield system is |ii = |e, 0i, where the atom is at excited state, and the EM

field is at the 0-photon state; the final state is |f i = |g, 1kii after transition,

where the atom jumps to the ground state and the EM field is now at the

1-photon state (ki mean different degenerate EM modes with frequency )

The SER of this system is determined by the Fermis golden rule [123],

which can be derived from the perturbation method [116], [11]

=

2 X

I |ii|2(i f )

|hf |H

2

h

f

(6.19)

I =

H

pE

(6.20)

where p

= er = p (|gihe| + |eihg|)

p

(6.21)

p = hg|

p|ei = he|

p|gi

(6.22)

and

has the form of

The electric field operator E

=

E

i

Xh

+

Ek a

k (t) + Ek a

k (t)

(6.23)

where

a

k (t) = a

k (0)eik t

(6.24)

a

k (t) = ak (0)eik t

(6.25)

95

Here, ak (0) and ak (0) are the annihilation and creation operators. After

substituting all these expressions into (6.19), we have

=

0 X

[p (uk uk ) p] (k 0 )

h

0 k

(6.26)

E+

k

h

k

uk ,

20

E

k

h

k

u

20 k

(6.27)

=

0 2

|p| p (r0 , 0 )

3h0

(6.28)

with

p (r0 , 0 ) = 3

X

k

where p = pnp .

[np (uk uk ) np ] (k 0 )

(6.29)

The eigen modes satisfy the Helmholtz equation.

uk (r, k )

96

k2

uk (r, k ) = 0

c2

(6.30)

The electric-type Greens function defined in (5.1), (5.3), satisfies the same

equation with excitation of delta function.

2

r , ) G(r,

r , ) = I(r r )

G(r,

c2

(6.31)

r , ) =

G(r,

ck (r , )uk (r, k )

(6.32)

The expansion coefficients can be easily determined by the orthonormal property of the eigen modes and hence we have

r, ) =

G(r,

c2

uk (r , k )uk (r, k )

k2 2

(6.33)

relationship.

2 X

r, ) = c

Im G(r,

uk (r, k )uk (r, k )( k )

2 k

(6.34)

Finally, the partial LDOS in (6.29) can be expressed by the the imaginary

part of the Greens function as

p (r0 , 0) =

60

0 , r0 , ) np }

{n

Im

G(r

p

c2

(6.35)

by definition, based on which the density of states (DOS) can be obtained

by integrating over space.

(r0 , 0 ) =

X

k

|uk |2 (k 0 )

(6.36)

If the emitter has no fixed dipole axis, the emission rate is obtained by

averaging over all possible directions. In this case, the partial LDOS becomes

the same as the LDOS.

(r0 , 0) =

20

0 , r0 , 0 ) }

Im{Tr G(r

2

c

97

(6.37)

where Tr means trace. Alternatively, the SER can also be derived from

the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [124], [125], which will not be discussed

here.

2

(r, )E

(r , )i = h

hE

Im{G (r, r , )}

(6.38)

c2 0

Specifically, in vacuum (free space), the imaginary part of the trace of the

dyadic Greens function shown in (5.7) is

1

0 (r0 , r0 , 0 ) } = k0 = 0 .

Im{Tr G

3

6

6c

(6.39)

0 =

03 |p|2

30h

c3

(6.40)

which is identical with the one obtained by Einstein from Boltzmann statistics and Plancks formula in the black body radiation [116].

To quantify the SE enhancement in an inhomogeneous environment, it is

convenient to define the normalized SER or Purcell factor as

0 , r0 , 0 ) }

Im{Tr G(r

(r0 , 0 )

=

=

(6.41)

0 (r0 , r0 , 0 ) }

0

0 (r0 , 0)

Im{Tr G

In summary, the local environment changes the eigen modes of the EM

field, and thus changes the partial LDOS or LDOS. By calculating the Greens

function, and making the source point and the observation point identical

(r = r = r0 ), one can obtained the partial LDOS and finally the SER, as

are shown in (6.28) and (6.35).

Surface Plasmons (LSP)

6.4.1 SPPs at Dielectric-Metal Interface

As has been mentioned, noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu, etc) are good conductors

at microwave or far-infrared spectrum; however, as the frequency goes to

the infrared or visible region, the skin depth increases considerably. Strong

98

space.

absorption occurs due to transitions between electronic bands. The dielectric

constant (electric permittivity) of metals can be described by either Drude

model, which is based on the free electron gas, or Lorentz model, which

also adds a term of restoring force. The dielectric constant of noble metals

has a negative real part in optics, which leads to a variety of interesting

phenomena such as the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the localized

surface plasmons (LSP).

The SPPs arises from the coupling of EM fields to the oscillations of the

metals electron plasma. The EM field propagates at the interface of a half

space (2-layer medium) formed by a normal non-absorbing dielectric with 2

and a metal with Re [1 ()] < 0. The field is evanescently confined in the

vertical direction, shown in Figure 6.2. Notice that only the TM wave can

support the SPPs since the TE wave cannot satisfy the proper boundary

condition. If is the propagation constant along the interface (x direction),

we have the following dispersion relationship [120]

= k0

1 2

1 + 2

(6.42)

This leads to the dispersion curve of the SPPs lying to the right of the light

line. When the frequency tends to the surface plasmon frequency,

sp =

p

1 + 2

(6.43)

99

field excitation.

bulk metal. In this limit, we have

1 () + 2 = 0

(6.44)

Particle

LSP comes from the coupling of EM field and oscillation of conduction electrons of metallic nano particles. It leads to strong field amplification both

inside and in the near-field region outside the particle, and hence are now

applied in various optical devices. Since the particle is typically much smaller

than the wavelength of light, LSP can be analyzed simply from the quasistatic approximation [120]. For a nano sphere with dielectric constant 1 ()

and radius a located in the surrounding medium with 2 shown in Figure 6.3,

it responds to the external EM field as a dipole and the polarizability can be

obtained as

= 4a3

1 () 2

1 () + 22

(6.45)

1 () + 22 = 0

which is different from the resonance condition of SPPs in (6.44).

100

(6.46)

Resonance

Surface plasmon resonance is recently applied to enhance SE in optoelectronic

devices, for example in the quantum well lasers [126], [127]. The improved

photoluminescence and low threshold current can be achieved due to the

strong optical confinement in surface plasmon resonance. However, most

theoretical works employed approximate methods to model this problem and

convincing results can hardly be found in the literature. In this chapter, we

will apply the full-wave 3D electromagnetic surface-integral-equation solver

based on the layered medium Greens function, which is developed previously,

to study this problem.

As has been mentioned, the computation of SER of a quantum emitter in

a plasmonic system can be cast into a classical EM scattering problem. More

specifically, we put a Hertzian dipole to excite the structure, and calculate

the scattered field at the same location. Once the total field is obtained

numerically, the Greens function (of the whole hybrid structure) can be

deduced accordingly (actually the imaginary part of the Greens function

since the real part is singluar).

From numerical point of view, there are various methods available in computational electromagnetics (CEM) in solving the aforementioned classical

scattering problem. For example, the finite element method (FEM) can be

applied to obtain the Greens function. However, since the whole structure

has to be discretized by tetrahedrons, the number of unknowns is thus huge,

especially when considering that the substrates are typically large. For localized plasmons, very fine mesh is required around the nano scatterers to

capture the highly concentrated and localized field, multiscale discretization

is hence required in FEM and the condition of the matrix is bad. Also, if

the number of layers increases in certain optimizations, the mesh has to be

regenerated and the number of unknowns increases accordingly. However, for

the scheme developed here, such problems no longer existonly the surface

of the nano-scatterers needs to be discretized, and the increase of the number

of layers does not add extra modeling complexity.

The first example is shown in Figure 6.4, where a gold nano sphere with

radius 20 nm is located above a gold slab with thickness 30 nm. The zpolarized emitter stays in between and the distances to the slab and the

101

Numerical

DCIM

Matrix filling

1.5 days

9.2 minutes

Excitation

2.1 minutes

1 second

Scattered field

2.1 minutes

1 second

sphere are both 10 nm. We scan the visible spectrum from 400 nm to 800 nm,

with the step of 10 nm. The dielectric constant of the gold is obtained from

a more accurate Brendel-Bormann model [128], which satisfies the KramersKronig relation. We consider the following three cases: (a) SE of an emitter

in the presence of the slab; (b) SE of an emitter in the presence of the

nano sphere; (c) SE of an emitter in the presence of both structures. The

normalized SER are calculated and shown in Figure 6.5. For case a, the SER

of the emitter is enhanced by the SPPs of the slab, while for case b, the

SER is enhanced by the LSP of the nano sphere. In vacuum, the resonant

frequency of SPPs and LSP are similar and around 510 nm. For case c, the

SER is strongly enhanced by the coupling of SPPs and LSP at the same

resonant frequency.

For the nano sphere here, a reasonably fine surface mesh can be obtained

by using 1620 triangular elements. The number of unknowns (electric and

magnetic current) is 4860, hence it only requires around 180 MB to store the

matrix if single precision is used. The CPU times for matrix filling, RHS

vector (excitation) filling and scattered field calculation at a single frequency

(wavelength) point are also listed in Table 6.1 for further comparison. This

simulation is run on a laptop computer with Intel 2.00 GHz processor. It is

observed that the computation can be much accelerated by using DCIM.

Next, we consider a nano bowl structure embedded in a layered medium

with two gold layers shown in Figure 6.6. The mesh of the nano bowl is

shown in Figure 6.7. The normalized SER is calculated and shown in Figure

6.8. Two sub-figures are also demonstrated to show the respective effects

from the layered medium and the nano bowl.

102

Figure 6.4: A gold nano sphere with radius 20 nm is located above a gold

slab with thickness 30 nm. A z-polarized emitter is located at the middle of

the sphere and slab.

350

Normalized SER

300

Slab

Sphere

Both

250

200

150

100

50

0

400

450

500

550

600

650

Wavelength (nm)

700

750

800

Figure 6.5: Normalized SER for the three cases: (a) only slab (SPPs

enhanced SE); (b) only nano sphere (LSP enhanced SE); (c) both (both

effects).

103

Figure 6.6: A gold nano bowl is located in a layered medium with two gold

layers. A z-polarized emitter is located at the center of the aperture. The

dimensions are shown in the figure.

80

z (nm)

60

40

20

0

100

50

x (nm)0

50

50

50

100

0 y (nm)

104

Figure 6.8: Normalized SER. The first peak corresponds to the peak from

SPPs of the layered medium at 520 nm, the second peak is from the nano

bowl effect around 590 nm.

6.6 Summary

DCIM is incorporated into the SIE formulation and the developed 3D full

wave EM solver is applied to study SE enhancement of a quantum emitter

in plasmonic structures. The special features of combination of DCIM and

SIE are discussed in details for the case when the scatterers are confined in a

single layer. The fundamental principle and computational technique of SE is

reviewed, which is based on the Fermis golden rule and the Greens function

approach. SPPs of a air-metal interface and LSP of a metallic nano particle

are also discussed for completeness. Finally, several numerical results are

demonstrated to show the SE enhancement of a quantum emitter coupled to

SPPs and LSP. It is observed that the SE can further be enhanced from the

coupling of the two plasmonic resonances.

105

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

Surface integral equation (SIE) method involving the layered medium Greens

function (LMGF) is important in analyzing electromagnetic radiation and

scattering in planarly layered structures, such as the microstrip antenna,

integrated circuit, organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and optical forces

in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) etc.

In this thesis, the SIE with LMGF is investigated systematically. The acceleration technique for evaluation of Greens function is first studied. The

popular discrete complex image method (DCIM) is reviewed and a novel implementation scheme based on Sommerfeld branch cut is proposed. Next,

a broadband fast integral equation solver, the mixed-form thin-stratified

medium fast-multipole algorithm (MF-TSM-FMA), is developed to expedite the matrix-vector product in the iterative solvers. After that, the lowfrequency breakdown of the integral operator is discussed and the loop-tree

decomposition and the augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE)

are studied. In order to model general homogeneous objects in layered

medium, a new formulation of the LMGF based on the pilot vector potential

approach is developed and the corresponding SIE is then obtained. Finally,

attempt is made to apply the developed full wave three-dimensional (3D)

electromagnetic solver to nano-optics, and the spontaneous emission (SE) of

a quantum emitter located in a plasmonic system is studied.

Future work can be done to incorporate the generalized impedance boundary condition (GIBC) to model the finite conductance in circuit simulation.

The finite element method (FEM) can also be combined with the developed

SIE to model inhomogeneous objects in under-ground detection. For objects

with arbitrary penetration such as in optical lithography, DCIM can be further combined with the interpolation technique to expedite matrix filling and

fast integral equation solvers such as the kernel-independent algorithm can

be further developed for large-scale problems.

106

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

Journal Papers

Y. P. Chen, J. L. Xiong, W. C. Chew, and Z. P. Nie, Numerical

analysis of electrically small structures embedded in a layered medium,

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1304-1308, May 2009.

Y. P. Chen, L. Jiang, Z.-G. Qian, and W. C. Chew, An augmented

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 960-968, Mar.

2011.

discrete complex image method for layered medium Greens function,

IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 419-422, 2011.

Y. P. Chen, J. L. Xiong, and W. C. Chew, A mixed-form thinstratified medium fast-multipole algorithm for both low and mid-frequency

problems, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 23412349, Jun. 2011.

J. L. Xiong, Y. P. Chen, and W. C. Chew, A quasi-3D thin-stratified

medium fast-multipole algorithm for microstrip structures, IEEE Trans.

Antennas Propagat., vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 2578-2587, Jul. 2011.

W. E. I. Sha, W. C. H. Choy, Y. P. Chen, and W. C. Chew, Optical design of organic solar cell with hybrid plasmonic system, Optics

Express, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 15908-15918, Aug. 2011.

Y. P. Chen, W. C. Chew, and L. Jiang, A new Greens function

formulation for modeling homogeneous objects in layered medium,

119

Y. P. Chen, W. E. I. Sha, W. C. H.Choy, W. C. Chew, and L. Jiang,

Study on spontaneous emission in complex coupled plasmonic system

via a rigorous surface integral equation method, in preparation.

Conference Papers

Y. P. Chen, J. L. Xiong, W. C. Chew, and Z. P. Nie, Simulation

of structures situated in a layered medium at low frequencies, Asia

Pacific Microwave Conference, Hong Kong SAR, China, Dec. 16-20,

2008.

Y. P. Chen, W. C. Chew, and J. L. Xiong, A mixed-form thinstratified medium fast-multipole algorithm for broadband simulation,

Workshop on Computational Electromagnetics and Its Applications,

Chengdu, China, Aug. 2009.

Y. P. Chen, J. L. Xiong, and W. C. Chew, Fast and broadband

simulation of large-scale microstrip structures, Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Xian, China, Mar. 22-26, 2010.

Greens function, Workshop on Simulation and Modeling of Emerging

Electronics, Hong Kong SAR, China, P-4, Dec. 6-10, 2010.

of layered medium Greens function, IEEE International Symposium

on Antennas and Propagation, Spokane, USA, pp. 3211-3213, Jul. 3-8,

2011.

Y. P. Chen, L. Jiang, Z.-G. Qian, and W. C. Chew, Modeling

electrically small structures in layered medium with augmented EFIE

method, IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Spokane, USA, pp. 3218-3221, Jul. 3-8, 2011.

120

of dyadic Greens function for modeling general dielectric objects embedded in a layered medium, Progress in Electromagnetics Research

Symposium, Suzhou, China, pp. 277-277, Sept. 12-16, 2011.

P.-F. Qiao, W. E. I. Sha, Y. P. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. C. Chew,

Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Suzhou, China, pp.

577-577, Sept. 12-16, 2011.

Y. H. Lo, L. Jiang, Y. P. Chen and W. C. Chew, Finite-width excitation and impedance models, Progress in Electromagnetics Research

Symposium, Suzhou, China, pp. 273-273, Sept. 12-16, 2011.

121

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY

Yongpin CHEN was born in Zhejiang, China, in 1981. He received the B.S.

and the M.S. degrees in microwave engineering from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, in 2003 and

2006, respectively. He was a Ph.D. student at UESTC from 2006 to 2007,

and then a Research Assistant at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) in

2008. He transferred to HKU as a Ph.D. student from Jan. 1, 2009 and is

currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in electrical and electronic engineering

at HKU.

122

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