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Author(s)

An enquiry into the cultural values of form five students, with


special reference to certain sociological and educational
issuesfacing Hong Kong adolescents
Lee, Gen-hwa, Gennie.; .

Citation

Issued Date

URL

Rights

1974

http://hdl.handle.net/10722/65262

The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights)


and the right to use in future works.

AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CULTURAL VALUES OF FORM FIVE STUDENTS ,


WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CERTAIN SOCIOLOGICAL AND
EDUCATIONAL ISSUES FACING HONG KONG ADOLESCENTS

by
GENNIE LEE GEN HWA

M.Phil. THESIS

APRIL, 1974

UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to express her gratitude
and indebtedness to her two thesis supervisors,
Professor W.F. Dukes and Professor N.K. Henderson,
Dr. Henderson, Professor of Education and Head of the
Department of Education, University of Hong Kong,
gave constructive criticism all through the study.
Dr. Dukes, Professor of Psychology and former ViceChancellor, University of California at Davis, gave
invaluable advice and help in the preliminary stages
of planning and organizing the data when the author
spent three months in the spring of 1970 at
Campus.

the Davis

He returned to the Chinese University of

Hong Kong in September 1973 and guided the development


of the study to its final form.
Special thanks are extended to the following
persons for their help at various stages of the
project; to Miss B.R. Wright and Mrs. M.S. Young who
advised on the questionnaire construction in English
and Chinese respectively, to the 26 Test Administrators
who participated in the data collection and to the
principals, teachers and pupils of the 27 schools
from which the samples were collected; to Mr. Chui
Wah-Sum and Mr. Tsang Kin-Bun who helped in compiling
the data; to Dr. E.

Turner and Mrs. W.F. Dukes who

advised on the statistical method; to Miss Fok Zar-yue,


Dr. A.K. Li and Mrs. M.W. Kao who helped to define
and analyse some of the issues in the study and
finally to Miss Milan Chow and Mrs. Selina Shen for
the typing and clerical work.
Acknowledgement is also gratefully made to
the Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong
for a research grant which contributed towards some
of the costs of the study.

G.L.

TA3LE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION

1.1

The Problem

1.2

The Two Systems:


Anglo-Chinese v s . Chinese Middle
Schools

THE DESIGN AND PROCEDURE


2.1
2.2

The Sample and The Test


Administrators

6
, .

The Instrument

FINDINGS OF STUDY
3.1

6
8
11

The Concepts of Values and


Attitudes

11

3.2

Values and Expectations

14

3.3

General Treatment of Statistics

19

3.4

Relationship

21

3.5

Personal Values

26

3.6

School Values

34

3.7

Cultural Values

42

3.8

On Self Concept

50

3.9

Family Versus Individual

56

3.10

Authorities Versus Peers

60

3.11

National and Cultural Identity ..

70

3.12

Festivals, Rituals and Religions

78

3.13

Food Habits and Medical Treatments

83

3.14

Choice of Spouse

90

SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS


BIBLIOGRAPHY

93
114

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

3.2
3.4,a-b
3.5
3.5a
3.6
3.6a
3.7
3.7a
3.8, a

PAGE

P r o f i l e of V a l u e s
Relationship
Comparison of V a l u e s : P e r s o n a l V a l u e s
S p e c i f i c D i f f e r e n c e s : V a l u e s Between
A n g l o - C h i n e s e and Chinese Groups
Comparison of V a l u e s : S c h o o l V a l u e s
..
S p e c i f i c D i f f e r e n c e s : V a l u e s Within
Chinese Group
Comparison of V a l u e s : C u l t u r a l V a l u e s
S p e c i f i c D i f f e r e n c e s : V a l u e s Within
A n g l o - C h i n e s e Group
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s : On S e l f
Concept

..

13
22
30

..

31
38

..

39
46

Comparison of Attitudes: Family


Versus Individual
3.10,a-c Comparison of Attitudes: Authority
Figure

47
53

3.9

3.10d
3.11
3.11a-d
3.12
3.12a

Comparison of A t t i t u d e s : P e e r Groups . . . .
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s : N a t i o n a l
Identity
Comparison of Attitudes: Cultural
Identity
Comparison of Creeds and Customs:
Festivals and Rituals

58
63

68
73
74
81

Comparison of Creeds and Customs:


Religious Beliefs and Practice

82

3.13

Food Habits

85

3.13a

Comparison of Creeds and Customs:


Food H a b i t s
Kedical Resources
Comparison of Creeds and Customs:
Medical T r e a t m e n t
Comparison of V a l u e s : R e l a t i n g t o
Choice of Spouse

3.13b
3.13c
3.14

87
88
89
91

I.

1.1

INTRODUCTION

The Problem
During the past two decades, industrialization

and urbanization have brought about tremendous changes


in the Hong Kong community.

Changes have occurred not

only in the pattern of living, home, work, and


recreational conditions but also in the general outlook
on life.

Problems and conflicts which traditionally

would be resolved within the family unit now seem beyond


its control.

Such situations call for a readjustment of

human needs and resources.

A modification of individual

beliefs, attitudes and patterns of behaviour is obviously


one basic approach to solving problems formerly handled
in the family circle.

Schools are among the possible

agents of change in attitudes and behaviour.

To study

the values and attitudes of the youth population which


now comprises half of the four million inhabitants of
Hong Kong is thus a major step towards understanding of
such problems.

In 1971, 17 years after establishing it as a


goal, the Hong Kong Government finally achieved universal
primary education.

Universal secondary education and an

improved school system are the targets for the immediate


future.

A report published in 1973 by the Board of

Education on the proposed expansion of secondary education


in Hong Kong stated that the overall aim of education
is the efficient development of intellectual, vocational
and inter-personal skills relevant to the individual as
he takes his place in Hong Kong.

The present study is dedicated to one aspect


of this timely and crucial issue of planning for
improvements in secondary education, namely the cultural
"values of students in the 16-13 year age group.

It aims

to explore the patterns of values, attitudes, ideals,


creeds and customs of adolescents in Hong Kong schools.

The secondary schools in Hong Kong are


classified as either Anglo-Chinese or Chinese Middle
schools, mainly according to the language of instruction.
One may well wonder whether after five years in AngloChinese secondary schools, students may have view points
and value orientations which are not shared by students
in Chinese Middle schools.

The general problem of this

study is to explore whether there are differences between


the two groups, Anglo-Chinese and Chinese Middle students,
in their values and expectations:
they place on their values?

What priorities do

How do the groups see

themselves, their peers, teachers and parents?

What are

the similarities and differences between the two groups


in their views and values and in their creeds and
customs?

How do expressed ideals relate to alleged

practices?

Deliberate attempts have been made to answer

these specific questions in the following chapters.

1,2

The Two Systems;

Anglo-Chinese

vs. Chinese Middle Schools

In the Anglo-Chinese schools, English is used


for teaching all subjects except Chinese Literature and
History,

Chinese (Cantonese) is the language of

instruction in the Chinese Middle schools with English

3
as a required s u b j e c t .

I n e a c h s y s t e m t h e programme

r e q u i r e s f i v e y e a r s to c o m p l e t e ; one l e a d s to t h e Hong
Kong C e r t i f i c a t e

of E d u c a t i o n E x a m i n a t i o n i n E n g l i s h ,

t h e o t h e r to t h e Hong Kong C e r t i f i c a t e of E d u c a t i o n
Chinese.

I n 1974, h o w e v e r , t h e two c e r t i f i c a t e s

be r e p l a c e d b y a s i n g l e c e r t i f i c a t e ,
s t e p towards the u n i f i c a t i o n

in

will

thus s i g n a l i n g a

of t h e two s y s t e m s .

P a t t e r n e d a f t e r the school system in China,


t h e Chinese Middle s c h o o l s enjoyed community s u p p o r t
t h e f i r s t h u n d r e d y e a r s of Hong Kong's h i s t o r y .

in

I n 1954,

t h e r e w e r e 101 Chinese Middle s c h o o l s and 122 A n g l o Chinese s c h o o l s .

The d e c l i n e of t h e Chinese Middle

s c h o o l s was n o t e d o n l y i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s a s t h e Chinese


g r a d u a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y had t o make Hong Kong t h e i r
permanent home and s h o u l d p r o b a b l y e d u c a t e t h e i r
i n a more W e s t e r n framework.

children

A l t h o u g h b o t h t y p e s of

s c h o o l s have o f f e r e d E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e , the A n g l o - C h i n e s e


w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis on E n g l i s h , h a s been

increasingly

chosen by t h e community as t h e means of e d u c a t i n g t h e


younger g e n e r a t i o n i n Hong Kong.

I n 1963 , t h e r e were 223

t h o u s a n d s t u d e n t s i n 239 A n g l o - C h i n e s e and o n l y 57 t h o u s a n d
i n 96 C h i n e s e Middle s c h o o l s .

The n e a r l y 100 p e r

cent

growth of t h e A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s in t h e p a s t two
d e c a d e s i n d i c a t e d t h e community's p r e f e r e n c e
system.

The m a t r i c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s of t h e

for

Chinese

U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong from 1969 to 1973 a l s o

indicated

a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e of s u c c e s s f u l m a t r i c u l a n t s from
A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s from 45% t o
1620 s t u d e n t s ) .

the

the

6 5 % (from 772 to

The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong a c c e p t s mainly

s t u d e n t s who have o b t a i n e d t h e HongKong

Certificate

4
of Education (English) Examination and completed two
years of sixth form

in Anglo-Chinese schools for its

entrance examination.

In addition to the language of instruction


another important variable in the school system, academic
versus technical training, should be noted.

Due perhaps

both to the British educational structure and to the


Chinese traditional respect for scholarship, Hong Kong
has had a great demand for academically oriented schools.
More than ninety six per cent of the secondary school
population are in the grammar schools which lead to the
five year school leaving certificate.

It appears that

the present dual school system Anglo-Chinese v s . Chinese


Middle produces two types of people differentiated not
so much by the students1 aptitudes or academic interest
as by language of instruction.

These are determinants

of socio-economic status in Hong Kong: one group is


preferred over the other for employment and for further
education.

Such grouping seems wasteful of human

resources in the present society.

A unified system with

comprehensive approaches, namely a school with bi-cultural


training (a balanced programme in Chinese and English)
and an interlinking of academic and technical curricula
should be one of the major goals in the formation of an
improved school system.

In his analysis of Hong Kong's

educational problems, Professor N.K. Henderson wrote,


"The comprehensive school plan seems to give a much
more even opportunity for all children

It

postpones, to some extent, the catastrophic need for


making educational and vocational decisions at the

5
too-early age of 11+; and it does away with some of
the envy with which the chosen grammar school elite
is too commonly surrounded.

Hong Kong experimentation

and solutions must in any case retain these distinct


merits of the comprehensive type of secondary schools."

6
II.

2.1

THE DESIGN AND PROCEDURE

The Sample and The Test Administrators

The present sample included 1102 Form V and


Middle V students in 27 secondary grammar schools.

5l6

students were drawn from 17 Anglo-Chinese and 586 from


10 Chinese Middle schools.

Attempt

was made to achieve

some degree of representativeness in the subject sample.


23 schools were situated in highly urban areas, 4 in the
rural areas; 8 were government schools, 12 subsidized and
7 private schools.

There were 559 male and 543 female

students, drawn from 6 boys' schools, 5 girls' schools


and 16 co-educational schools.

12 schools had no

religious affiliation, 8 were Protestant, 6 Catholic,


and 1 Confucian.

558 and 544


streams respectively.

students were in arts and science


As technical schools represented

only 7% and 1% respectively of the Anglo-Chinese and


Chinese Middle school population, it was decided not to
include them in the sample.

The tests were administered by 26 students


taking the course leading to the Diploma/Certificate in
Education in the autumn of 1969.

The Diploma and

Certificate are both teacher's training courses of the same


standing offered by the Department of Education,
University of Hong Kong for graduates who want to obtain
one year (full-time) or two year (part-time) professional
training to teach in local Anglo-Chinese schools.

7
These testers were given one hour of instruction
on how to administer the tests.

Seventeen of them

conducted the tests in the Anglo-Chinese schools where


they were doing their practical teaching.
setting was therefore not foreign to them.

The school
Sixteen of

them administered the tests in Chinese Middle schools by


formal arrangement with the school heads.

They therefore

had had no previous contact with the schools or the


students before the testing took place.

V/hile most of the testers collected data from


a sample of 25 students, a few tested 50.

All were

asked to tally the data and to return the completed test


papers to the present writer.

The tests were administered during school hours


and completed in a

one-hour period.

The students were

allowed to leave the room as soon as they turned in the


test papers.

On the whole, the students were very

cooperative during the testing period, and most of them


completed the tests within **0 minutes.

Form V and Middle V were the final year in


secondary schools.

Students at this stage would gear

themselves diligently for the coming school leaving


examination in early summer.

The testing was, therefore,

scheduled in the fall, at the beginning of the school


term, so that it would be less affected by the
pressure of work on the students and the examination
climate.

2.2

The Instrument

In the spring of 1969, a pilot study was


conducted using 61 items adapted from the "Study of
Secondary School Social Climate" questionnaire printed
in Coleman's The Adolescent Society (1967).

Two hundred

students in their fifth year (Form V or Middle V ) of 12


secondary grammar schools answered the questionnaire
(Appendix l ) . It was administered in an effort to get
preliminary information about the interests and attitudes
of secondary school students in the two types of school
situations, namely Anglo-Chinese and Chinese Middle
schools, and to discover any procedural difficulties
so that they could be corrected before the full scale
project was launched.

Partly on the basis of the information provided


by this pilot project, 4 sets of questionnaires

with a

total of 96 items, some with sub-items, were constructed


for the present study.

Each item could be answered by

a tick with no writing involved.

Two questionnaires were

in English while the other two were in Chinese.

Test A (Appendix I I ) , in English, consisted of


45 items.

Designed to sample attitudes toward self,

peer group, authority figures, national and cultural


identity, it was a modification of the questionnaire used
in the pilot study.

The student was required to select

one response from a number of alternatives which, except


in three instances, varied from three to six.
are as follows:

Examples

Question 5:

When I start work I shall


a) give all my money to parents.
b) share it with parents.
c) keep my money all to myself.

Question26:

I consider my native country to be


a) Hong Xong,
b) China.
c) Ta iwan.
d) Macao.
e) Other.

T e s t 3 (Appendix I I I ) , in C h i n e s e , had 9 i t e m s .
I t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o measure t r a d i t i o n a l and emergent
a t t i t u d e s towards f r i e n d s , m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y and community
in general.

The t e x t was i n t h e form of every day C h i n e s e

s a y i n g s , each w i t h a m o r a l or e t h i c a l t o n e .

On seven of

t h e i t e m s t h e s t u d e n t was i n s t r u c t e d m e r e l y t o s e l e c t
a l t e r n a t i v e - * from 3 to 5 p r e s e n t e d .

one

The l a s t two

questions involved ranking the a l t e r n a t i v e s ,

A sample

i t e m i s a s follows:
Q u e s t i o n 1:

I f y o u r f r i e n d ' s home i s b e i n g
d e s t r o y e d by f i r e , you w i l l s
a)

b)

( t o w a t c h a f i r e from
t h e o p p o s i t e b a n k of r i v e r meaning
l a c k of concern o r i n d i f f e r e n c e . )

(to steer

in accordance
w i t h t h e wind meaning b e i n g
o p p o r t u n i s t i c about i t . )

c)

(to t a k e a c t i o n o n l y
after careful consideration.)

d)

(to send o h a r c o a l t o a
f r i e n d when i t snows meaning t o
give timely a i d . )

e)
f e a r of

get away q u i c k l y f o r
involvement.)

10
T e s t C (Appendix I V ) , i n E n g l i s h ,

c o n t a i n e d 36

i t e m s a d a p t e d from "The E x p e c t a t i o n ' s Check L i s t Form I I "


for Harvard u n d e r g r a d u a t e s .

Essentially it

of v a l u e s , s e e k i n g t o m e a s u r e v a l u e s and
regarding one's self,

inventory

expectations

s c h o o l and c u l t u r e .

a s k e d t o c h e c k ( w i t h a minimum o f f i v e )

i s an

The s t u d e n t was

a s many i t e m s a s he

deemed d e s c r i p t i v e of "Something a p u p i l i n a s e c o n d a r y
school should b e " .
Item 1 to 5:

For e x a m p l e :
He o r s h e

should

1.

be kind,

2.

be friendly.

3.

be tolerant.

4.

be obedient.

5.

be independent.

Each respondent completed 4 copies of the check


list: first for his expectations of himself; second for his
perceived expectations of his parent(s); third of his
teacher(s); and fourth, of his close friends in school
(peers).

Test D (Appendix V ) , in Chinese, with six major


items, concerned creeds and customs, pertaining to
festivals, rituals, religion, medical treatment and food
habits.

For each item, the student made choices from check

lists ranging from 7-15 aub-items, in only one of which


(medical treatment) was the response limited to a single
choice.

For example, regarding rituals, the student was

asked about ancestors' birthdays and/or deathdays, birthday


celebrations, new born celebrations, wedding ceremonies,
funeral rituals, adoption ceremonies, visits to sick
relatives and visits to sick friends.

He was to indicate

which of these he and his family observed together, which


only his family observed and which only he observed.

11
III.

3.1

FINDINGS OF STUDY

The Concepts of Values and Attitudes

In most general terms, the concepts of attitudes


and values concern the individual's orientation toward
aspects of his personal and impersonal environment and
toward himself.

The terms attitudes and values are used

interchangeably in this study.

Values are things or

complex events in which people are interested

things

that they want, desire to be or become, worship, enjoy


or feel to be obligatory.

Values are meaningful,

affectively invested pattern principles that guide human


action.

The concept of attitude is most frequently


formulated in terms of a "state of readiness for motive
arousal" or a "readiness to act" in a given consistent
manner toward a specified class of stimuli.

Attitudes

are further elaborated as having cognitive, affective and


conative components.

Since many reviews of this concept

are available in the literature (e.g. Allport, 1935;


Green 1954) further elaboration of the various viewpoints
does not seem appropriate in this discussion.

The concept of values has been well developed


in the field of philosophy.

But in its formulation there

is reasoaable convergence of psychological, anthropological


and sociological points of view.

Lewin (1944) spoke of

values as influencing and guiding behaviour, determining


which aspects of the phenomenological world have positive
or negative valence.

Similarly, Erikson (1950) in

12
d i s c u s s i n g h i s S i g h t S t a g e s of Man t r e a t e d v a l u e s as
internalized agents.

M o r r i s (1968) p o s t u l a t e d

b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s of v a l u e and s e v e n
( p a t t e r n e d human v a l u e s ) .

three

life-orientations

He a l s o l i s t e d

thirteen

c o n c e p t i o n s of good l i f e o r p o s s i b l e "ways t o

live".

From t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e w , W i l l i a m s
(1958) d e s c r i b e d a v a l u e as "any a s p e c t of a

situation,

event, or object t h a t i s invested with a p r e f e r e n t i a l


i n t e r e s t as b e i n g ' g o o d ' ,
like.

'bad',

' d e s i r a b l e ' " , and t h e

" V a l u e s a r e not c o n c r e t e g o a l s of a c t i o n , b u t

r a t h e r t h e c r i t e r i o n b y which g o a l s a r e c h o s e n . "

King

(1961) c o n s i d e r e d , from t h e c o n c e p t u a l p o i n t of v i e w ,
t h a t v a l u e s a r e a prominent p a r t of c u l t u r e as w e l l as
meaningful c o n s t r u c t s in p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus,

t h e y have

g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e

social

m i l i e u and t h e b e h a v i o u r o f groups as w e l l a s t h e a c t i o n s
of i n d i v i d u a l s .

V a l u e s may be t h o u g h t of as o r d e r i n g

m e c h a n i s m s , o r a s l o n g - t e r m commitments to a c t i o n which
o p e r a t e t o s e t g o a l s and d e t e r m i n e

choices.

The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , L i n t o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , t r e a t e d
shared values as c u l t u r a l v a l u e s ,

all

A v a l u e may be d e f i n e d

a s an e l e m e n t , common t o a s e r i e s of s i t u a t i o n s , which
i s capable of evoking a

covert i-esponse i n t h e

individual.

An a t t i t u d e may be d e f i n e d a s t h e c o v e r t r e s p o n s e evoked
by s u c h an e l e m e n t .

The c o n t e n t of s u c h r e s p o n s e s seems

t o be l a r g e l y e m o t i o n a l b u t may i n c l u d e o t h e r t y p e s of
r e s p o n s e such a s a n t i c i p a t i o n s .

The v a l u e and a t t i t u d e

t o g e t h e r form a s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n
w i l l be r e f e r r e d

to as a v a l u e - a t t i t u d e

system.

which

13

C u l t u r a l v a l u e s v a r y among c u l t u r e s and w i t h i n
a g i v e n c u l t u r e ; y e t c e r t a i n p e r s i s t e n t l i f e problems have
had t o be f a c e d by a l l human s o c i e t i e s .

I n a t t e m p t i n g to

a n a l y z e t h e s e , F l o r e n c e K l u c k h o l n (1954) i d e n t i f i e d

five

problems a s c r u c i a l to a l l s o c i e t i e s , n a m e l y , how t h e i r
members v i e w : ( l ) human n a t u r e ; (2) t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p
n a t u r e ; (3)

t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o t i m e ; (4)

orientation to a c t i v i t y ;

to

their

(5) t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s .

A l t h o u g h t h e s e problems can be s o l v e d i n a wide v a r i e t y


of w a y s , X l u c k h o l n h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e was a l i m i t t o
t h e number of s o l u t i o n s p o s s i b l e .

W i t h i n any g i v e n

s o c i e t y a t any g i v e n t i m e , numerous v a r i a n t s o l u t i o n s
a v a i l a b l e , but actual behaviour i s influenced

are

primarily

by t h e dominant c o n c e p t i o n of t h e answers to

these

questions.

conceptions,

These " g e n e r a l i z e d and o r g a n i z e d

influencing behaviour,

'of n a t u r e , of m a n ' s p l a c e in

it,

of man's r e l a t i o n to man, and of t h e d e s i r a b l e and nond e s i r a b l e a s t h e y r e l a t e t o man-environment and interhuman


r e l a t i o n s " may be termed a v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n

(Clyde

Kluckhohn, 1951 ) .
Westby-Gibson ( 1965 ) i n d i s c u s s i n g v a l u e
o r i e n t a t i o n s s t a t e d "The dominant and v a r i a n t v a l u e
o r i e n t a t i o n s b o t h between

and w i t h i n c u l t u r e s can be

viewed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , y e t t h e y a r e dynamic.

As t h e

p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n of O r i e n t a l - A m e r i c a n s , f o r

example,

moves away from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of l i n e a l

familial

r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o n e s , d i s o r g a n i zation r e s u l t s .

Communities w i t h l a r g o p o p u l a t i o n s

o f C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s , h i t h e r t o renowned for their


l a c k of d e l i n q u e n c y , a r e c o n f r o n t e d f o r t h e

first

time w i t h an i n c i d e n c e of d e l i n q u e n c y among
Chinese-American

adolescents.

In such

situations

older family members, often perplexed and unable to


understand the breakdown in traditional modes of conduct,
deplore the actions of the younger generation which no
longer reveres its ancestors and respects its elders".
This notion appeared to apply closely also to the Hong
Kong situation.

3.2

Values and Expectations

The thirty six value items in the Expectations


Test (Test C) may, as in the following columns, be
categorized into one of three spheres:
Personal Values

Educational Values

Cultural Values

kindness

creativity

friendliness

c u r i o s i t y and
inquisitiveness
writing s k i l l
s t r e n g t h in E n g l i s h
knowing n o t d o i n g
new i d e a s

tolerance
obedience

independence
honesty
civic-mindedness
sociability

striving for
excellence

extra-curricular
activities
university
education

good manners and


appearance
responsibility

b a l a n c e of work
and l e i s u r e
being a s c i e n t i s t

individuality

being a t ease
g e t t i n g good g r a d e s
w i t h o p p o s i t e sex
respect for
western influence
privacy of e t h e r s

family-mindedness
diligence
s t r e n g t h i n Chinese
caution in
friendship
being a humanist
r e s p e c t for Chinese
tradition
bi-cultural
influences
o r i e n t a t i o n to
nature
o r i e n t a t i o n to p a s t
orientation
future

As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e d i r e c t i o n s were t o

to

check

a s many i t e m s a s t h e s t u d e n t c o n s i d e r e d d e s c r i p t i v e
h i s own v a l u e s , b e i n g s u r e t o check a t l e a s t f i v e
of t h e 3 6 .

of

items

15
After completing this check-list, they were
asked to complete a second one with the same value
items repeated.

This time, they were told to check

what itonsthey considered would describe their parents'


expectations.

The same items and procedures were

repeated two more times, one for their estimates of


their teachers' expectations, and the other for their
estimates of their peers' expectations.

The test thus

yielded four sets of data for each group, AngloChinese and Chinese Middle: their expectations for
self (Se) , their perceptions of parents' (Pa),
teachers' (Te) and peers' (Pe) expectations.

Perceived Values

One way of understanding behaviour is from


the internal frame of reference of the individual
himself.

Learning the student's peroeived values of

his parents, teachers and peers yields an important


variable of the self.

The student's perception of his

parent would not be identical to the parents' own


rating nor would teachers and peers necessarily agree
with the students'perceptions.

Some modicum of

consistency between the actual and the perceived might


be expected.

These three groups, parents, teachers

and peers are the significant others who teach the


child (student) through their behaviour in his
presence and the feelings and attitudes they express.
The child learns roles and socialized behavior through
a combination of techniques, but the directions of
development depend

basically on the directions of

16
others and the development of a self (sikin 1961).
Lewin's theory (1935) on phenomenological personality
cited an example of a mother who threatened her child
by using the power of the policeman.

The mother knew

very well it was only a threat but hoped that, thereby,


the child would perceive the policeman as a punishing
agent and refrain from bad behaviour.

Furthermore,

his attitude towards policeman would also be affected.


Therefore, the perceived values of the parents, teachers
and peers are a reflection of the students' own values
and important for the understanding of self.

Traditional and Emergent Values

Twenty six teachers-in-training were asked


to judge whether the 36 value items were traditional
or emergent.

Traditional values were defined as

those practiced by grandparents' generation which are


still being observed today.

Emergent values denote

those adopted in the past two decades and apparently


gaining acceptance among young people.

As a result,

15 items were deemed to be emergent (each item received


18 to 26 votes) and 19 were considered traditional.
Two items (being a scientist or a humanist) were
indeterminate, each having received a similar number
of checks, 12 for emergent and 14 for traditional.
However, for the convenience of classification, being
a humanist was included among the traditional values
while being a scientist was added to the emergent
values.

17
Important and Unimportant Values

The degree of importance attached to each


value was classified according to the proportion of the
total group of 1102 students which checked that item.
Thus, 11 items which were checked by 50-80% of the
subjects were considered to be of high or moat importance;
21 items checked by 20-48% of the group are deemed to
be of medium importance; only 4 items received so few
checks, 4-15%, that they were considered unimportant
or of low value.

The following chart shows the number

and percentage of responses to each item by the total


sample.

Less
important
values

Important
values

Most
important
values

48

47

43

42

41

39

37

36

33

27

528

515

475

455

448

435

409

396

369

299

04

50

547

39

53

589

15

56

621

169

N=1102

acceptance of Western influence

being a scientist

individuality

strength in English

curiosity and inquisitiveness

civic-inindedness

extra-curricular activities

creativity

university education

being at ease with opposite sex

sociability

independence

orientation to future

balance work and leisure

new ideas

Emergent Values

22
10
09

114

96

40

444

242

45

495

27

46

503

296

46

509

27

47

519

299

50

553

28

52

574

310

53

587

34

responsibility

56

622

369

diligence

68

742

37

kindness

69

761

411

honesty

81

knowing not doing

orientation to the past

striving for excellence

being a humanist

getting good grades

orientation to nature

writing skill

family-mindedness

tolerance

respect privacy of others

respect Chinese tradition

strength in Chinese

good manners and appearance

caution in friendship

obedience

bi-cultural influence

friendliness

Traditional Values

83

917
898

N=1102

Table 3.2
Profile of Values

ess
important
values

Important
values

Most
Simportant
values

18

19
3.3

General Treatment of Statistics

Some unanticipated difficulties arose when


analysis of these data was attempted.

Despite the fact

that A C constituted slightly less than 47$ of the total


sample of subjects (516/1102), in each of the four sets of
value data, their responses comprised more than half
the total.

Of the total 15,533 checks (responses) under

the Se condition 8201 or approximately 53% of these were


made by AC, and similarly for the other three sets of
data: 55$ of Pa, 55$ of T e , and 5 4 % of Pe.

This

unbalanced condition, in which 53$ or more of the


responses came from approximately 4 7 % of the responders,
made the simple Chi-squared statistic inapplicable, for
as one would expect and as preliminary analysis confirmed,
the Anglo-Chinese appeared to value most of the items
more highly than did the Chinese.

Since this seems to

be more a result of the more numerous responses of the


AC group than an accurate reflection of the relative
values of these groups, a different approach was considered necessary

one in which expectancies are

computed not against the 47/53 (AC/c) subject split but


against the 53/47, 55/45, etc.

AC/C response distribution.

The logic is somewhat like that employed in the AllportVernon (1960) treatment of values in which the person is
treated as a universe, and his specific values are
measured in relation to his total value-sphere.

In the

present instance, responses of each group to a given


value are weighted in reference to the total response
frequency of that group before being compared to the
responses in the other group.
is checked by 294 AC and 280 C.

For example, "Obedience"


But the 294, part of a

20

p o o l of 8201 r e s p o n s e s , i s , r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t l y

less

t h a n t h e 280 which i s from a p o o l o f o n l y 7332 ( 4 . 5 1 %


v s . 4.51%).

The C h i - s q u a r e h e r e w o u l d , c o n s e q u e n t l y be

d e t e r m i n e d b y : ( l ) a d d i n g t h e two o b t a i n e d

frequencies

280 and 294; (2) computing t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s


t a k i n g 53 and 47 p e r c e n t of

t h e sum.

by

The e x p e c t e d

f r e q u e n c y i n t h e group w i t h t h e s m a l l e r N (AC), 3 0 3 , i s
t h u s l a r g e r than t h a t i n t h e o t h e r ( c ) , 269 s i n c e i t
b a s e d on t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of r e s p o n s e .

Chi-squared

t h i s item i s
A s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d i n a s s e s s i n g
difference

i n each of t h e v a l u e s under a l l

c o n d i t i o n s ( S e , Pa, T e , P e ) .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Anglo-Chinese
self
parent
teacher
peer
Anglo-Chinese/Chinese

four

the

is

for

21

3.4

Rela t i o n s h i p

The d e g r e e of r e l a t i o n s h i p between A n g l o - C h i n e s 3
and Chinese s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e v a l u e

inventory

( T e s t C) was a s s e s s e d by u s i n g a v a r i a t i o n of
S t e p h e n s o n ' s method (1953) of c o r r e l a t i n g p e r s o n s
of t e s t s .

I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e 36 v a l u e s were

treated

a s p e r s o n s ; A n g l o - C h i n e s e was one T e s t s i t u a t i o n ,
Chinese was t h e o t h e r .

The f r e q u e n c y w i t h

For

i t e m ("be k i n d " ) was checked by 378

A n g l o - C h i n e s e and 383

C h i n e s e ; i t e m two ("be

hy 455 and 462 r e s p e c t i v e l y .


coefficient

and

which one

group checked a given v a l u e c o n s t i t u t e d a s c o r e .


example, the f i r s t

instead

T h u s , i n computing t h e

of c o r r e l a t i o n , X

was 383 and Y was 4 6 2 , e t c .

friendly")

was 3 7 8 , X

was 4 5 5 , Y

(see Table 3 . 4 ) .

The b a s i c c o r r e l a t i o n , t h a t between t h e s e l f
r a t i n g s of A n g l o - C h i n e s e and Chinese s t u d e n t s i s impressively high (r = 0.88, P < 0.01).

The two g r o u p s

a l s o p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and p e e r s
as i n d i c a t e d by

r ' s of 0 . 9 0 , 0 . 8 2 and 0.82

similarly

respectively.

(P < 0.01 i n e a c h i n s t a n c e ) .
Both g r o u p s had a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between
t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e m s e l v e s and of t h e i r

peers

(AC: r = 0 . 9 2 and Cs r = O . 8 7 ) .
The Chinese g r o u p , w i t h r = 0 . 8 0 and r = 0 . 8 5
between s e l f - r a t i n g and p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s '
e x p e c t a t i o n s , had a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o conform t o what
i t b e l i e v e s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s e x p e c t than d i d t h e A n g l o Chinose g r o u p , w i t h r = 0 . 7 0 and r = 0 . 7 3 .

The s u b j e c t s

22

i n t h e sample from t h e Chinese s c h o o l s , moreover,


t h e i r p e e r s as h a v i n g v a l u e s more l i k e t h o s e of
p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s

(r

perceiv-

their

0.77 and r = O.83) t h a n d i d

t h o s e i n A n g l o - C h i n e s e sample ( r = 0 . 5 9 and r = O . 7 5 ) .
F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s of t h e C h i n e s e grouj
w e r e b e l i e v e d t o a g r e e more about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s
the younger g e n e r a t i o n ( r = 0.80)

than t h e i r

of

counterparts

i n t h e Anglo-Chinese group ( r = O . 6 0 ) .

Although b o t h groups w e r e , a s a w h o l e , v e r y
2
much a l i k e , t h e X t e s t of many i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s
demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t
b a s i s of t h e s e f i n d i n g s

differences.

I t was on t h e

t h a t the d a t a in the f o l l o w i n g

c h a p t e r s were d i s c u s s e d and analyzed in d e t a i l .

Table

3.k

Relationship
Similarities
Relationship Between AC -C
for 36 Values
AC

Se

Se

0. 88

Pa

Pa

O.90

Te

Te

0.82

Pe

Pe

0.82

r*

Relationship iJithin C

Relationship Within AC

r*

r*

Se

Pa

0.70

Se

Pa

0.80

Se

Te

0.73

Se

Pe

0.92

Se
Se

Te
Pe

0.85
0.87

Pa

Te

0.60

Pa

Te

0.80

Pa

Pe

0.59

Pa

Pe

0.77

Te

Pe

0.75

Te

Pe

0.83

r* of 0.^2 significant at one per cent level

23
In order t o a s s e s s possible d i f f e r e n c e s

between

t h e AC and C a l o n g an e m e r g e n t - t r a d i t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n ,

the

f r e q u e n c y of r e s p o n s e t o e a c h of t h e v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e
group t o t a l ( o r p e r c e n t ) was t r e a t e d as a s c o r e .

According

t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s under e x a m i n a t i o n , one would e x p e c t the


AC t o s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e emergent v a l u e s , lower on the
traditional,

than the C h i n e s e ,

Difference

scores were,

t h e r e f o r e , o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e C h i n e s e s c o r e for
each of t h e 15 emergent v a l u e s from t h a t of t h e A n g l o C h i n e s e , and v i c e v e r s a ( A n g l o - C h i n e s e s u b t r a c t e d from
C h i n e s e ) f o r t h e 19 t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s .
F o r example, 312 Anglo-Chinese and 216 Chinese
check I n d e p e n d e n c e (an emergent value)," i n p e r c e n t t h e s e
a r e 3S0 and 2,95 r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Obedience (a

traditional

v a l u e ) i s checked by 294 A n g l o - C h i n e s e and by 280 Chinese


o r 3 . 5 8 and 3 . 8 2 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
s c o r e s a r e : f o r Independence

The d i f f e r e n c e

3 . 8 0 - 2,95 or + 0 , 9 5 ; f o r

-Obedience - , 3 . 8 2 - 3 . 5 8 o r + 0 . 2 4 .

The mean of t h e s e 34 d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s
p r o v i d e a measure of r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e

in value

o r i e n t a t i o n along the e m e r g e n t - t r a d i t i o n a l
(see Tables

3,4a-b).

thus

dimension,

24

Table 3.4a
Relationship
Differences

i n Emergent T r a d i t i o n a l

Values

Self

Parents

Teachers

Peers

Md.

+0.265'

+0.006>J

+0.411/.

*SE

0.11^

0.12%

0 . 1 4>'

2.36

0.15

2.93

+0.37'/^
0.185?
2.06

t
(t

of2.55and 1.65, s i g n i f i c a n t

per cent

a t one and f i v e

levels, respectively one-tailed

Within AC

test)

Within C

Gelf-Teachers
Md

.06

+ .08
.13
.06

SE

.14

.43

Self-Peers
Md
3E

.03
.08

+ .09

.38

.06

Md

+ .59

+ .37

SE

.13
4.51

.15
2.47

+ .04

+ .06
1.57
.04

.14

Self-Parents

Teachers-Peers
Md
SE

1.51

.03

( t o f 2 . 5 8 a n d 1 # 96, s i g n i f i c a n t

a t one and

five

p e r c e n t l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y t w o - t a i l e d
* Md
* SS

=
=

Mean d i f f e r e n c e
Standard error

test)

Te
Pe
Self
Self
Te
Pe
Pa
Pa

AC
AC
AC
C
C
C
AC
C

0.59

0.73
0.60

0.74

0.78

0.94

0.96

0.98

to mean values of 15 emergent values)

Score (Ratio of mean values of 19 traditional

Relationship

Table 3.4b

25

26
3.5

Personal Values

Similarities between AC and C groups:


(see Table 3.5)

Both groups considered honesty, friendliness;


kindness and responsibility among the most important
values.

Civic-mindcdnoss, striving for excellence,

having acceptable manners and appearance, being at ease


with opposite sex, sociability, privacy were all deemed
to be important values,

3oth groups perceived their parents as holding


honesty, kxndness, friendliness and responsibility to be
the most desirable values.

Both saw their teachers as valuing most highly


honesty, friendliness, kindness and responsibility i with
independence, being at ease with opposite sex and
respecting the privacy of others as important.

Similarly for the perception of their peers:


friendliness, honesty, kindness are believed to be most
important values; sociability, striving for excellence,
civic-mindedness are also important.

Specific differences between AC and C groups:


(see Table 3.5a)

In the self-ratings, AC placed significantly


more value on independence than C while the latter
regarded friendliness and honesty as relatively more
important than did AC.

27
In their perception of parents' values, AC
rated significantly higher sociability, striving for
excellence, having acceptable manners and appearance,
accepting responsibility and respecting privacy of others
while G emphasized kindness and civic-mindedness more.

In their perception of teachers' values,


AC checked significantly more often sociability,
individuality, striving for excellence, having acceptable
manners and appearance and respecting privacy of others.
C significantly more often noted kindness and honesty.

In their perception of peers' values, AC


placed significantly more importance on being
individualistic accepting responsibility and respecting
privacy of others.

C checked friendliness more often.

Similarities within AC groups:


(see Table 3.5)

The students perceived that they and their


parents agreed that honesty, kindness and responsibility
are most important values.

Sociability, individuality,

striving for excellence, having acceptable manners and


appearance, respecting privacy of others were also
important values.

The students perceived that they and their


teachers regarded honesty, kindness, responsibility
as the most important values.

Civic-mindedness,

sociability, individuality, striving for excellence,


having acceptable manners and appearance, being at ease
with opposite sex were important.

23
The students perceived that they and their peers
considered friendliness, honesty, kindness and responsibility were most important.

Sociability, independence,

individuality, striving for excellence, having acceptable


manners and appearance, being at ease with opposite sex,
respecting the privacy of others were also important
va1ues.

Specific differences within AC groups:


(see Table 3.6a)

Between the perception of themselves and of


parents, the students valued independence, civic-mindedness,
being at ease with opposite sex and friendliness

more

while the parents were more for striving for excellence.

Between the students' self-concept and their


perception of teachers, the students placed more value on
independence, being at ease with opposite sex, respect

for

privacy of others, and friendliness, while teachers were


more for striving for excellence.

Between students and their perception of peers,


the students believed

independence to be of greater

importance.

Similarities within C groups:


(see Table 3.5)

The students perceived that they and their


parents regarded kindness and honesty as most important.
Independence, civic-mindedness, striving for excellence,
having acceptable manners and appearance were also

29
The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e y and
t e a c h e r s deemed h o n e s t y and k i n d n e s s a s most

their

important,

i n d e p e n d e n c e , c i v i c - m i n d e d n e s s , s o c i a b i l i t y , s t r i v i n g Tor
e x c e l l e n c e , h a v i n g a c c e p t a b l e manners and a p p e a r a n c e
important.

The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e y and

their

p e e r s c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d l i n e s s , h o n e s t y and k i n d n e s s most
important.

Independence, civic-mindedness,

individuality, s t r i v i n g for excellence,

sociability,

acceptable

manners and a p p e a r a n c e and e a s e w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e s e x


a r e i m p o r t a n t to b o t h .

S p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n C groups:
(see Table 3.7a)

3etween s t u d e n t s ' view of t h e m s e l v e s and


p e r c e p t i o n of p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s v a l u e d

their

sociability,

i n d i v i d u a l i t y , - b e i n g a t ease with opposite sex, r e s p e c t


f o r t h e p r i v a c y of. o t h e r s and f r i e n d l i n e s s more.

They

p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a s p l a c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
v a l u e on k i n d n e s s .
Between t h e p e r c e p t i o n of t h e m s e l v e s and of
t e a c h e r s , t h e s t u d e n t s p l a c e d g r e a t e r v a l u e on i n d e p e n d e n c e ,
i n d i v i d u a l i t y , b e i n g a t e a s e w i t h o p p o s i t e sex and
respect

for

privacy.

Between s t u d e n t s and p e e r s ,
was v a l u e d more by s t u d e n t s .

responsibility

30

Table 3.5
Comparison of Values
(n indicates positive responses)
Se If

Personal Values

Parents

Teachers

Peers

AC
n

AC
c
n
n
386 385

437 497

* kindness

378 383

369 407

C
n
317 38O

* friendliness

455

332 295
206 154

351 377
217 144

409 396
148 202

384 426

245 175
435 474

244 172

209 179

222 139
109 72
178 107

280 186

297 219
187 92

C
n

AC
n

462

312 216

independence

446 452

* honesty
civicmindedness

227 182

sociability-

281 234

individuality

176 123

excellence

119 123
296 223

manners and
appearance

AC
n

C
n

313 188

180

69

172 107
268 172

275 199
307 124
276 163
221 151

322 211

opposite sex

319 303
263 212

85

318 223
181 112

privacy

282 213

95

194 110

* respon sibility

145
220

most important values

141 115

31

T a b l e 3.5a
Specific Differences;
V a l u e s Between Anglo-Chine3e and Chinese Groups

AC - C:
AC significantly more
emergent

self
C significantly more
emergent

2
independence

7.5*+**

2
&be

a scientist

9,99**

39.62**

creativity-

extra-cur ricular 27.42**


activities
o acceptance of
Western influence 5. SO*
AC significantly more
traditional

C significantly more
traditional

x2
cautious in
friendship

X2

4.72*

friendliness

4.07*

honesty

3.39*
8.32**

diligence
write well
strength in
Chinese
^.knowing and not
doing

4.57*
32.82**
6.53*

**

> 6.64 significant at one per cent level

> 3*84 significant at five per cent level

* unimportant value

Table 3.5a ( c o n t . )
AC C: p a r e n t s
AC
AC ssignificantly
i g n i f i c a n t l y more
mcire
emergent
emergent
ccreativity
reativity
sociability
sociability
curiosity
curiosity
extra-curricula
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a :r
r
activities
activities
at ease with
opposite sex

0.92**
0.92**
5.66*
5*66*
9.37**
9.37**
10.67**
10,67**

C ssignificantly
C
i g n i f i c a n t l y more
emergent
emergent

ccivic-mindedness
ivic-mindedness

?
,r2
;
21.82**
21.82*-

6.00*

AC significantly more
traditional
cautious in
friendship

1.13**

striving for
excellence

5.95*

C significantly more
traditional
kindness

X2
17.21**

10.74**
acceptable
manners and
appearance
being a humanisit 6.64**
responsibility
pr iva cy

6.51*
27.71**

**
*

X
p
X

>6.6k s i g n i f i c a n t a t one p e r c e n t l e v e l
>3.84 s i g n i f i c a n t a t f i v e per cent l e v e l

33
Table 3,5a

(cont.)

AC - C: Teachers

AC s i g n i f i c a n t l y
emergent

more

creativity
sociability
i n d i v i d ua l i t y
extra-curricular
activities
a t case w i t h
opposite sex
AC significantly more
traditional

23.43**
4.77*
29.30**
47.15**

C s i g n i f i c a n t l y nor e
emergen t
NONE

5.24*
2

striving for
excellence

4.94*

acceptable manners
and appearance

5.9&*

C significantly more
traditional

v2

kindness

24.86**

honesty

18.24**

strength in
Chinese

46.55**

getting good grades 25. 44**


privacy
9.32**
bi-culturally
oriented

5.11*

A3 - C: P e e r s
AC s i g n i f i c a n t l y
emergent

more
,2

creativity

18.57**

individuality

13.18**

more

NONE

7.65**

curiosity
new

C significantly
emergent

21.04**

ideas

extra-curricular
activities
AC s i g n i f i c a n t l y
traditional
responsibility
privacy

35.50**

more
r2

50.46**
4.11*

C significantly
traditional

more

friendliness

19.05**

strong

23.65**

in Chinese

**

>

6.64 significant at one per cent level

>

3.84 significant at five per cent level

34
3.6

School Values

S i m i l a r i t i e s between AC and C groups:


(see Table 3.6)
The s t u d e n t s r a t e d new i d e a s and b a l a n c e of
work and l e i s u r e a s most i m p o r t a n t .

Curiosity,

writing

s k i l l , strength in English, r e c e i v i n g a universitye d u c a t i o n and g e t t i n g good g r a d e s were i m p o r t a n t .


Tlie s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r
deemed g e t t i n g good g r a d e s , r e c e i v i n g

parents

university-

e d u c a t i o n , w r i t i n g w e l l , h a v i n g s t r e n g t h i n E n g l i s h and
being a s c i e n t i s t

important.

The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r

teachers

v a l u e d w r i t i n g s k i l l and new i d e a s as t h e most

important

school v a l u e s .

getting

Being c u r i o u s and i n q u i s i t i v e ,

a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and b e i n g a s c i e n t i s t were a l s o
important.
The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r

peers

deemed b a l a n c i n g work and l e i s u r e , r e c e i v i n g a u n i v e r s i t y


e d u c a t i o n , g e t t i n g good g r a d e s , w r i t i n g w e l l and h a v i n g
strength in English important.

S p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between AC and C g r o u p s ; - (see Table 3.5a)


I n t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e m s e l v e s , AC,
more t h a n C, v a l u e d c r e a t i v i t y ,

extra-

c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and a c c e p t a n c e of Western
w h i l e C s t r e s s e d more w r i t i n g s k i l l , b e i n g a
and knowing r a t h e r than d o i n g .

influence

scientist

I n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e p a r e n t s 1
AC saw them a s e m p h a s i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n

groups,
creativity,

extra-curricular

activities.
I n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e t e a c h e r s '
AC r e s p o n d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n to b e i n g
g e t t i n g good g r a d e s and emphasizing

groups,
creative,

extra-curricular

activities.
I n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e p e e r s 1 g r o u p s ,
AC checlced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n

creativity,

i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s , a c c e p t a n c e of new i d e a s , and emphasis


on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r

activities.

S i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n AC g r o u p :
(see Table 3.6)
The s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of

parents

a g r e e d t h a t b a l a n c i n g w o r t and l e i s u r e , r e c e i v i n g a
u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , h a v i n g s t r e n g t h in E n g l i s h and
w r i t i n g s k i l l are important school v a l u e s .
The s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of
v a l u e s c o n s i d e r e d new i d e a s to be most

teachers'

important.

Creativity, extra-curricular activities,

university

e d u c a t i o n , b a l a n c e of work and l e i s u r e were a l s o


important.
The s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of p e e r s
r e g a r d e d b a l a n c e of work and l e i s u r e ,

creativity,

i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s , s k i l l in w r i t i n g , s t r e n g t h in
extra-curricular activities,
good g r a d e s a l l a s i m p o r t a n t .

university

English,

education,

36
Specific differences within AC groups:
(see Table 3.5a)
Between the students and their peroeived values
of parents, the students significantly more often valued
creativity, inquisitiveness, acceptance of new ideas and
emphasis on extra-curricular activities.

The parents

were perceived significantly more as valuing university


education and good grades.

Between the students and their perceived values


of teachers, the students significantly more often checked
inquisitiveness, acceptance of Western influence and
emphasis on knowing and not doing while the teachers were
seen significantly more as valuing writing skill.

Between the students and their peroeived values


of peers, the peers were seen as significantly more
likely to accept Western influence.

Similarities within C groups:


(see Table 3.6)
The students and their perceived parents'
values agreed that new ideas, university education,
writing skill and strength in English were important ,

The students and their perceived teachers 1


values deemed new ideas as most important.

Receiving a

university education, getting good grades, being


creative, having strength in English, participating
in extra-curricular activities wereall important.

37
The students and their perceived peers'
values considered creativity, writing skill, university
education, balance of work and leisure important.

Specific differences within C groups:


(see Table 3.7a)
Between students and their perceived parents'
values, the students placed significantly more emphasis
on inquisitiveness, acceptance of new ideas, emphasis
on extra-curricular activities and balance of work
and leisure.

The parents were significantly more often

believed to value good grades and being a scientist.

Between the students and their perceived


teachers' values, the teachers' values were seen as
significantly higher on strength in English, writing
skill and acceptance of Western influence.

Between the students and their perceived


peers' values, the students felt themselves to value
more inquisitiveness and openness

to new ideas while

the peers were more seen as valuing acceptance of Western


influence and getting good grades.

30

Table 3.6
Comparison of Values
(n indicates
School Values

positive responses)

SelLf

creativitycuriosity and.
inquisitiveness
writing skill
strength in
English
^ knowing not
doing

Parenits

AC
C
n
n
304 144

AC
n

C
n

175

215 181

131

97
68

175 194
200 169

206 195
177 166

38

58

43

32

new ideas

323 298

176 201

extra-curricular
activities

286 147

129

university
education
balance work and
leisure
being a scientist
getting good
grades

Petjrs

AC
n

C
n
303 154

C
AC
n
n
265 145

137 133

167

331 338

151 173
182 184

313 217
77

68

52

99

56

63

311 257
290 112

260 136
252 109

226 229

273 222

261 241

185 196

313 276

275 192

308 214

281 203

69 100

102 119
293 227

141 138

86 111

274 131

183 171

171 128

Western influence

Teacllers

29

10

22

13

most important values


unimportant values

44

35

63

37

39
Table 3.6a
Specific Differences;
Values Within Chinese Group

C; S e l f S e l f s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
emergent

P a r e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
emergent

x2

sociability

X2

civic-mindedness

11.39**

individuality

6.32*

curiosity

3k.9k**

new

6.55*
22.58**

ideas

extra-curricular
activities
b a l a n c e work and
leisure
a t ease with.
opposite sex
future oriented

^ being a

8.84**
P a r e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y mcr ;
traditional

x2

15.22**

in

/2i p a s t

grades

oriented

44.27**
3.93*

28.26**
9,45**

bi-culturally
oriented

5.08*

75.32**
9.20**

kindness
g e t t i n g good

privacy

**

family-mindedness

5.50*

responsibility

5. S3*

35.94**

x2

strength
Chinese

scientist

6.6\>**

4.35*

S e l f s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
traditional
friendliness

Parent

> 6,6k

significant

>3.84 significant

unimportant

values

a t one p e r c e n t
at five per cent

level
level

40

Table 3.6a

(cont.)

C: S e l f - T e a c h e r
Self significantly more
emergent

Teachers significant ly more


emergent

x2

x2
independence

6.69**

individuality

9.65**

at ease with
opposite sex
future oriented

19.33**
9.24**

Self significantly more


traditional

strength in
English

13.11**

a being a scientist

10.97**

i acceptance of
Western influence

16.27**

Teachers significant ly more


traditional
,r2

x2
family-mindedness 28.79**

obedience

cautious in
friendship

5.10*

write well

responsibility

4.21*

privacy
bi-culturally
oriented
respecting
Chinese
tradition

** X
* X

57.77**

20.09**
21,4o**
37.67**

>6.64

significant

a t one p e r c e n t

>3.84

significant

a t f i v e per cent

* u n i m p o r t a n t

8.05**

values

level
level

41
Table 3.6a (cont.)
C: Celf Peers
Self significantly more
emergent
2
curiosity

12.50**

new ideas

37.39**

Self significantly more


traditional

Peers significantly more


emergent
,2
acceptance of
western influence

17.96**

Peers significantly more


traditional
-,2

x2

-i -

obedience

5.11*
7.93**

strength, in
Chinese
re spon s ib i li ty

getting good
grades

14.21**

49.53**
respecting Chinese 12.34**
traditions
C: Parents Teachers

Parents significantly more


emergent

Teachers significantly more


emergen t
,,2

NONE

creativity

10.37*'

sociability
curiosity
strength in
English
extra-curricu lar
activities
Parents signiflean tly more
traditional
2

7,

71.82**

getting,

29.65**

write well

grades
respecting Chinese
tradition

o
X
X

30.05**

6.64 s i g n i f i c a n t
3.84 s i g n i f i c a n t

10.5 3**

Teachers significantly more


traditional
0

familymindedness

gocd

17.33**
^.39*"

a t one p e r c e n t l e v e l
a t f i v e per cent level

32.21**

42
3.7

C u l t u r a l Values

S i m i l a r i t i e s between AC and C groups:


(see Table 3.7)
The two g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t
d i l i g e n c e , o b e d i e n c e , a c c e p t a n c e of b i - c u l t u r a l

influence,

and l o o k i n g toward t h e f u t u r e a r e most i m p o r t a n t v a l u e s .


R e s p e c t i n g Chinese t r a d i t i o n ,
humanism were

tolerance,

family-mindedness,

important.

Both groups p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a s h o l d i n g
d i l i g e n c e , f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s and o b e d i e n c e as t h e most
important values.

C a u t i o n i n forming

friendships,

h a v i n g s t r e n g t h i n C h i n e s e , r e s p e c t i n g Chinese

tradition,

t o l e r a n c e , n a t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e of b i - c u l t u r a l
i n f l u e n c e , humanism, b e i n g

o r i e n t e d to t h e

future

were a l s o v a l u e d .
Both groups b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r
deemed d i l i g e n c e and o b e d i e n c e

most

teachers

important.

T o l e r a n c e , a c c e p t a n c e of b i - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e ,
o r i e n t a t i o n , c a u t i o n i n forming f r i e n d s h i p s ,

nature

respect

f o r C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n , f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s and l o o k i n g t o
t h e f u t u r e were i m p o r t a n t .
Both g r o u p s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r p e e r s r e g a r d e d
b e i n g h a r d w o r k i n g as most i m p o r t a n t .

Caution i n forming

f r i e n d s h i p s , t o l e r a n c e , a c c e p t a n c e of

bi-cultural

i n f l u e n c e , f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , o b e d i e n c e , humanism and
f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s were a l s o

important.

43
Significant differences between AC and C groups:
(see Table 3.5a)
In self-ratings, AC placed significantly more
value on caution in forming friendships while C
significantly more often stressed diligence and having
strength in Chinese,

In their perception of parents, AC significantly


more often checked caution in forming friendships and
being humanistic.

In their perception of teachers, AC believed


them to be significantly more bi-culturally oriented
while C saw more emphasis on having strength in Chinese,

In their perception of peers , C made a


significantly higher estimate of the value of having
strength in Chinese,

Similarities within AC groups:


(see Table 3.7)
Students agreed with their perception of
parents , regarding diligence and obedience as most
important values.

For both groups, caution in making

friends, respect for Chinese tradition, tolerance and


nature orientation were important.

Students and their perception of teachers


values

agreed that diligence was a most important value.

Strength in Chinese, harmony with nature and future


orientation were considered important.

S t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of p e e r s '
deemed d i l i g e n c e , c a u t i o n i n making f r i e n d s h i p s

values,

and

a c c e p t a n c e of b i - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e most i m p o r t a n t .
S t r e n g t h i n C h i n e s e , humanism, r e s p e c t f o r C h i n e s e
t r a d i t i o n were a l s o

important.

S p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n AC groups;
(see Table 3.6a)
Between s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n
parents' values, students
often

checked

of

s i g n i f i c a n t l y more

f u t u r e and b i - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n w h i l e

t h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s favoured obedience,
f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s , d i l i g e n c e , h a v i n g s t r e n g t h i n Chinese
and r e s p e c t i n g Chinese

tradition.

Between s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of
t e a c h e r s * v a l u e s , s t u d e n t s were more l i k e l y t o p l a c e
emphasis on o r i e n t a t i o n to t h e f u t u r e , b i - c u l t u r a l
and o r i e n t a t i o n toward n a t u r e .

influence

They a l s o deemed f a m i l y -

m i n d e d n e s s , c a u t i o n i n forming f r i e n d s h i p s and r e s p e c t i n g
Chinese t r a d i t i o n d e s i r a b l e . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e y p e r c e i v e d
t h a t t h e i r t e a c h e r s favoured obedience as a s t u d e n t ' s v a l u e .
Between s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of p e e r s '
v a l u e s , s t u d e n t s emphasized s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o b e d i e n c e ,
f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s , h a v i n g a s t r e n g t h in Chinese and
r e s p e c t i n g Chinese

tradition.

45

S i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n C groups:
(see Table 3.7)
S t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d v a l u e s of

parents

r e g a r d e d d i l i g e n c e , o b e d i e n c e and c a u t i o n i n making f r i e n d s
most i m p o r t a n t .

T o l e r a n c e , humanism, r e s p e c t f o r

t r a d i t i o n and n a t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n were a l s o

Chinese

important.

S t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d v a l u e s of
deemed d i l i g e n c e and o b e d i e n c e most i m p o r t a n t .
i n C h i n e s e , c a u t i o n i n forming f r i e n d s h i p s ,

teachers
Strength

emphasis on

t h e f u t u r e and n a t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n were i m p o r t a n t .
S t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d v a l u e s of p e e r s
c o n s i d e r e d d i l i g e n c e as

most i m p o r t a n t .

Humanism, future-

o r i e n t a t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e of b i - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e were
also

important.

S p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n C groups:
(see Table 3.7a)

Between s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of
parents,
the

s t u d e n t s p l a c e d more v a l u e on o r i e n t a t i o n

future,

b i - c u l t u r a l influence

s t r e n g t h in Chinese.

to

and seeking

They p e r c e i v e d t h e i r

as emphasizing

more f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s

o r i e n t a t i o n to t h e

past.

parents
and

Between s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of
teachers,
bi-cultural
Chinese

s t u d e n t s more

o f t e n checked

future

and

o r i e n t a t i o n , f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s and r e s p e c t
tradition.

They p e r c e i v e d t h e i r

teachers

t o have p l a c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more v a l u e on o b e d i e n c e .

for

k6
Between students and their perception of
peers,

students stressed significantly more obedience,

strength in Chinese and respect for Chinese tradition .

Table 3.7
Comparison of Values
(n indicates positive responses)
Cultural

Values

Self
AC
C
n
n

Parents
AC
C
n
n

Teachers
AC
C
n
n

232 212

21 4 1 9 4

216 195

215 213

29k

353 314
110
85

178 192

2 2 0 191

351 305
386 349

116

* diligence
strength in
Chinese

351 391

410 381

385 395

298 315

205 304

282 209

160 259

137 200

* caution in
friend ship

319 234

3 1 7 201

192

165

2 7 8 221

165 131

162

94

122

124

123 100

259 244

301

233

163

134

183 144

312

275

210

174

204 128

258

198

200

170

154 129

140 119

185

147

64

50

93

56

271

276

tolerance
* obedience
family-

280

Peers
AC
C
n
n

123

niindedness

being a

humanist

respect Chinese
tradition
bi-cultural
influence
nature-oriented
l\
*

past-oriented
future-oriented

98

most i m p o r t a n t
unimportant

63

79

57

187 176

210

183

values

values

207 204

47
Table
Specific

3.7a

Differences;

Values Within Anglo-Chinese

AC:

Self

Group

Parent

civic-mindedness

P a r e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
emergent
2
2
x
X
8.48**
13.96**
university
e
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
10.27**

creativity-

24.31**

curiosity

13.78**

new

32.37**

S e l f s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
emergent
independence

ideas

extra-curricular
activities
at ease with
o p p o s i t e sex
future-oriented

46.43**
25.04**
11.65**

S e l f significantly
s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
more
Self
traditional
traditional
friendliness
friendliness
bbi-culturally
i-culturally
oriented
oriented

x2

10.54**
10.54**
12.58**
12.58**

P a r e n t s significantly
s i g n i f i c a n t l yr more
Parents
traditional
traditional
X2
obedience
obedience
family-mindedne ss

223.37**
3.37**
23.61**
23.61**

diligen ce

1
1 00.42**
.42**

strength in
Chinese

18.55**
18.55**

striving for
excellenc
getting good
grades

16.04**
16.04**
41.70**
41.70**

respecting Chinese
tradition

**

X > 6.64 s i g n i f i c a n t

a t one p e r

7.08**

cent

level

48
Table 3.7a (cont.)

AC: Self - Teacher


Self significantly more
emergent

Teachers significantly more


emergent

x2
independence

13.02**

curiosity

13.53**
12.00**

at ease with
opposite sex

x2
Strength in
English

29.51**

/0>heing a scientist

26.80**

13.2*1**
& acceptance of
Western influence
future-orient ed
Self significantly
traditiona1

5.4o*
nore

Teachers significant l y
traditional

x2

x2
friendliness

7.35**

obedience

9.39**

family-mindedness

write

32.15**
25.80**

58.82**

well

11.15**

striving for
excellence

cautious in
friendship
knowing n o t d o i n g 14.62**
17.74**
respecting
Chinese t r a d i t i o n
privacy
13.11**
bi-culturally
oriented
nature oriented

**
*
/\

>6.64

18.23**
8.25**

significant

X^^->3.84 s i g n i f i c a n t
unimportant

values

more

at

one p e r c e n t

at five per cent

level
level

49
Table 3.7a (cont.)
AC: Self - Peer
Self significantly more
emergent
v2
independence

7.1^**

Self significantly more


traditional
v2
obedience

23.37**

Peers significantly more


emergent
2
acceptanco of
Western influence

18.50**

Yeers significantly more


traditional
r2

NONE

family-mindedness 23.62**
strength in
Chinese

8.23**

respecting Chinese 73^**


tradition

AC: Parents Teachers


Parentssignificantly
emergent

more

Teachers
emergent

s i g n i f i c a n t l y more
,2

-2
NONE

creativity
strength
nevr

in

English

ideas

extra-curricular
activities

Parents s i g n i f i c a n t l y
traditional
family-mindedncss

aorc

x2
16.40**
37.66**

Teachers s i g n i f i c a n t l y
traditional

> 6.64 significant

32.09**

5k.k5**
more
y

write well

strength in
Chinese
35.82**
c a u t i o u s in
friendship
46.60**
respecting
Chinese t r a d i t i o n

**

28.65**
31.90*^

at one per cont level

21.96**

50

3.8

On S e l f

Concept

( s e e T a b l e 3 . 8 and

3.8a)

The p o s i t i o n of t h e c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y and
t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s of t h e f a m i l y would i n p a r t be
d e t e r m i n a n t s of t h e s t u d e n t s ' a s p i r a t i o n s and
evaluations.

self-

L a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of b o t h g r o u p s

(AC and

C) r a t e d t h e i r f a m i l i e s a s m i d d l e c l a s s * 32$ and 79';'


respectively.
families

Around 17'/' and 2 1 $ c o n s i d e r e d

their

t o be l o w e r c l a s s and 5 $ and 6$ u p p e r

respectively.

class,

As t h e Hong Song economy hod been on an

upward t r e n d f o r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , i t seems p r o b a b l e
t h a t s t u d e n t s w e r e r e s p o n d i n g a s much t o t h e

general

p r o s p e r i t y and i n c r e a s e d s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g a s
p r e s e n t income l e v e l .

to

Economic upward m o b i l i t y c o u l d b o

one of s t u d e n t s ' main g o a l s .

5 0 $ of t h e A n g l o - C h i n e s e

(AC) and 5 1 $

Chinese (c) s t a t e d t h a t they were middle c h i l d r e n


1 S$ e a c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e t h e y o u n g e s t ;
27$ were t h e e l d e s t , and 3 $
In t h e Hong Hong f a m i l y ,
particular)

while

25$ and

n d 4 $ were t h e o n l y

child.

the f i r s t born (male in

and t h e y o u n g e s t g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e more

s u p p o r t from t h e f a m i l y to o b t a i n a s e c o n d a r y

education

f o r w h i c h t h e payment of f e e s i s r e q u i r e d .

Fees

one c h i l d would amount t o 1/6 of a f a m i l y ' s

income of

*600 p e r m o n t h . *

for

Having a s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n would

* Hong Hong Annual H e p o r t 1971 i P . 2 t h e answer


t h e c e n s u s q u e s t i o n s on f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s showed
5 7 . 5 $ of h o u s e h o l d s i n Hong Hong had a m o n t h l y
of *600 o r m o r e ; 7 . 7 $ e a r n e d more t h a n
1 6 . 6 $ l o s s t h a n $400,

to
that
income

';2,000 a month,

I n 1 9 6 1 , 45$ e a r n e d l e s s

than

$400 p e r month and o n l y 2 7 $ had an income o f more


than $600, 6 . 7 $ earned over

$2,000.

51
call for some degree of sacrifice from the other members
of the family, even for those in a middle income bracliet,
if they were to send more than one child to school.
Moreover, the position of the child in the family did
not appear to have an outstanding effect on the students'
chances of receiving a secondary education in this sample.

Cn religion, 60C/J and 64>J claimed either no


religion or no interest in religion.

26y

Only 33$ and

were Christian while 6$ and 9$ were non-Christian.


However this may be misleading if one assumes that this
reflects a lac!: of spiritual life in the community.
the

data

on religious practices

(Section 3,t2)

In

one

would discover many festival, ritual and religious


practices were frequently observed in the everyday
life of the homes.

On appearance, 52$ and 47$ considered


themselves average in loohs; 32L/J and 337' rated themselves as plain looking.

Only 14v and 17/' declared

themselves as having attractive appearance.

In the

western peer culture, youth deem physical attractiveness


as a criterion of success (Coleman, p.52).

Both groups (01/.' and 73$) endorsed the idea


that they had a great deal to learn.
self as a person received only
responses respectively.

Satisfaction with

9$ and 10/> of the

Thus education stands out

rather clearly as a primary goal of the students in this


study.

This would be consistent with our assumption

of the striving for upward economic mobility.

52
While a majority of both groups considered
themselves to be followers or just one of the crowd (70;
and 60^>) , a great proportion of the Chinese
562 responding

210 of

regarded themselves as leaders -

AC: 1*11/504, X 2 = 6.31 P < .05 .

Discontent felt by

both AC and C with their lives and their striving for


improvement was widespread (75'/-' and 67/^)

C, however,

did express relatively more contentment in life (177/5^7


vs. 123/509, X 2 = 4.3^, P < .05). In this context,
perhaps the Chinese students were given a greater degree
of national or cultural identity, and wanted to be
leaders in their society.

Similarly, they were probably

more integrated with their culture which allowed them to


feel contentment in life.

The data on cultural and

national identity would give support to these


(Para. 3.1 1 ) .

notions

About 38/j and kO'jo of AC and C respectively,

considered Hong Hong as home and planned to stay here.


Around 30/J of each (32/j and 27/^) said they remained in
Kong Hong because they had no place to go.
one quarter (26^ and 22c/i) hoped to go abroad.

Approximate I3/
The question

of identity and loyalty to the community in which they


lived appeared to bo a searching goal among the groups.

Thoy had divided opinions on school life.

In

response to two questions, half of the groups considered


secondary school as the happiest period of life (56/- and
50/^'); in another question, a similar percentage of
students (53/J and 52^) answered that is the most unhappy
period in one's life.

The majority of both groups found attempting to


form a self concept interesting or amusing (Si'/'1 and 83V)

53
Table 3.8
Comparison of Attitudes
(% based on positive responses)

AngloChinese
n = 516

n = 586

56

a. ma le

261

50.5

291

49.6

b.

250

48.4

293

50.0

Q.
No.

21.

On Self Concept

female

248

48.0

309

52.7

b . science stream

250

48.4

276

47.0

18

1 .02

In my family, I am
the:-

d, middle

child
NR

18
127
97

3.4
24.6
18.4

22
156
107

3.7
26.6
18.2

242

46.7

285

48 ."5""

256

49.6

299

51.0

18

0.005

My religion is:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Protestant
Catholic
Buddhist
Moslem
Ancestor-worship
Other

g. no interest
h. no religion

NR
29.

a. arts stream

a. only child
b . eldest child
c. youngest child

25.

1.57

I am a student in:

NR
23.

Chi
Square

I am a:

NR
22.

Chinese

80
89
11
1
9
12
202

15.5
17.2
2.1
0.1
1.7
2.3

87
64
10
2
22
17

14.8
10.9
1.7
0.3
3.7
2.9

3C 9

202

34.3

63
246

12.2
47.6

89
287

15.1
49.1

309

59"7B

376" "55". 1"

2.44

I consider ray family


belongs to the:
a. upper class
b , lower class

_6J5

4.8
12.5

36
90

6.1
15.8

90

17.3

126

21.9

423

81.9

449

76.6

25

c. middle class
NR

11

1.96

54
Table 3.0a
Comparison of Attitudes
(% based on positive responses)

Q.
No.

AngloChinese
n = 516

On Self Concept

47

9.1

61

10.4

417

80.8

426

72.6

45
462

8.7

83

14.1

89.5

509
16

86.7

80

15.4

129

22.0

144

27.8

159

27.0

224

43.2

O 00
600

49.0

287

55.5

295

50.2

b, that I still have a


lot to learn
c. that I am a rather
inadequate person
NR

74

14.0

120

23.0

172

29.2

194

37.0

254

291

53.0

308

43.1
52.4

c. secondary school
NR

3.40

I consider the most


unhappy period of my
life to be:
a. pre-school and
kindergarten
b. primary school
c. secondary school
NR

30.

0.63

I consider the happiest


period of my life to
be:
a. preschool and
kindergarten
b. primary school

37.

Chi
Square

I feel:
a. quite satisfied
with myself as a
person

36.

n = 586

fo

n
32.

Chinese

82. 13.9

2.90

24

31

I consider myself:
a. something of a
leader

141

27.3

210

35.0

b. just one of the


crowd
c. a follower

325

62.9

315

53.7

38

7.3
70.2

37
352

6.3
60.0

364
NR

12

11 .1 8^

55
Table 3.8a

(cont.)

Comparison of Attitudes
Q.
No.

Ang loChinese
n = 516

On Self Concept

of

41.

With my situation in
life, I am generally:

42.

123

b. striving for improvement


c. discontented

290

96
386

56.2
23.8

13.6
74.8

177
287

30.2
49.0

4.34*

103
390

17.5
66.5

22.10**

19

My personal appearance
is, I believe:
a, attractive
b. average
c p la in
NR

45.

n = 586
n

Chi
Square

a. contented

NR

Chinese

72
268
166
434
10

13.9
51.9
32.1
84.0

72
134
286
24

13.9
25.9
55.4

107
274
194
428

16.5
46.7
33.1
73.0

3.43

14.3
35.3
47.6

2.23

13

To attempt to form a
concept of myself is:
a. uncomfortable
b.
c.

amusing
interesting
NR

significant 5 per cent level

**

significant 1 per cent level

84
207
279
16

56

3.9 Family Versus I n d i v i d u a l


( s e e T a b l e s 3 . 9 , 3.10 a - c )
I n T e s t B, t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l

situation

was put t o t h e s t u d e n t s :
Question

ft:

Assuming t h a t you a r e t h e e l d e s t
c h i l d w i t h a good academic r e c o r d
from a f a m i l y i n need of f i n a n c i a l
s u p p o r t , a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , what f i l i a l r o l e
would you p l a y i n t h e f a m i l y ?

The m a j o r i t y , 78$ of AC and 80$ of C s t a t e d


t h a t t h e y would remain i n Hong Kong to c o n t i n u e s c h o o l i n g
i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e i r f a m i l y by working p a r t - t i m e .
Only 19$ from AC g r o u p and 16$ from C group e x p r e s s e d a
p r e f e r e n c e f o r going abroad t o f u r t h e r
working p a r t - t i m e to support

t h e i r s t u d i e s while

themselves.

D e s i r e f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e a p p e a r e d t o b e a major
theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h AC s s e l e c t i o n of v a l u e s and
expectations (

Sec. 35 )> t h i s was r e p e a t e d a g a i n i n

t h e i r answers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s .
p l a n n i n g o n e ' s own l i f e

AC was more f o r

(AC: 19^/511> C: 155/575

X 2 = 1 0 . 6 3 , P C . 0 1 ) , h a v i n g a hobby (AC: 2 4 8 / 5 1 3 .
C: 193/577 X 2 = 7 . 9 4 , ? C . 0 1 ) .
The Chinese g r o u p on t h e o t h e r hand was more
family-minded.

They s t r e s s e d more h e l p i n g o r obeying

f a m i l y (C: 3 5 V 5 7 5 , AC: 2 6 1 / 5 1 1 , X 2 = 4 . 9 3 , P C . 0 5 ) ,
and a c c e p t i n g p a r e n t s 1 a d v i c e on c h o i c e of

spouse

(C: 3 9 / 5 3 3 , AC: 5 1 / 5 0 3 , X 2 = 6 . 0 2 , P C . 0 5 ) .

57
One characteristic of parents that both groups
felt important was for parents to allow them to make their
own decisions (46$ and 5 0 $ ) . On the other hand, in
practice, both groups seemed to indicate a high dependency
on parents.

For example, they would prefer to discuss the

following matters with their parents than with teachers


or peers: family problems (62$ and 6 1 $ ) , financial
problems (65$ and 5 5 $ ) t health (50$ and 4 8 $ ) , career
plans (48$ and 5 0 $ ) , boy-girl relationships (23$ and 30$).
Only a small per cent in each group insisted on making
their own decisions on these matterss family problems
(11$ and 9$) , financial problems (9$ and 11$), career
plans (9$ and 14$), and school problems (9$ each).
That youth ideals do not necessarily fit in with their
practices appeared to be one of the characteristics of
the students' stage of life.

On evaluating their feelings towards the


family and its members, the groups had split opinions,
for example, concerning relationship with the family
members, more than half of the group expressed a feeling
of relaxation (51$ and 57$)5 the other half of the group
indicated attitudes of discomfort or indifference (47$
and 4 1 $ ) . Regarding the family, more than half of each
group said they did not have any strong feelings, or felt
negative about it (59$ and 60$) while less

than half

indicated they felt quite proud of their families (40$


and 38$). These divided attitudes also prevailed in
their feelings towards secondary school life ( ^^c'

3.Q).

58
Table 3.9
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s
(% b a s e d on p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s )
Q.
Family Versus Individual
No.

3.

c. plan my own life

Chi
Square

57

11.0

76

12.9

204

39.5

278

47.4

261

50.5

354

60.3

_37.9
_._ . 155
~~42~
~ 42

26.4
7.1

12

2.3

24

4.93*
IO.63**

4.0

NR

a. give all my money


to parents
b. share it with parents

74

14.3

150

26.0

397
38

76.9

408

70.0

7.3

28

4.0

11

'/hen I start work I


shall:

c. keep my money all to


myself
"
NR

16.60**

When I marry I will:


a. choose my own partner
b. do what my parents
advice
c. expect my parents to
find me a partner
NR

13.

196

d. take advice from my


friends
e. take advice from my
teachers

12.

n = 586

Chinese

I would most want to:


a. obey the head of
the family
b. help my family

5.

AngloChinese
n = 516

456

88.3

494

44

8.5

71

84.3
12.1

1.3

18

3.0

51

9.8

89

15.1

6.59*

I my spare time, I prefer


to:
a. help my family at
home

114

22.0

169

28.8

b. have a hobby
c. do home work
d. take a job outside

248
32
119

52.0
5.3
20.0

186
85
144

31.7
14.5
24.5

399

77.3

415
2

70.7

NR

30.32**

59
Table 3.9 ( c o a t . )
Comparison of
Q.
No.

18,

Family Versus Individual

Attitudes
Chines e

Anglo. Chinese
n = 516
n

a, live with my family

283

5h,h

b. live with relatives

n = 586

Square

If money were no problem


I would prefer to:

c. live with friends

109

384 65.5
6
0.8
0.3
21 .1
9.8
65

d. live alone

109

21 .1

NR

122

15

significant

5 per cent

level

*"*

significant

1 per c e n t

level

3.33

18;79**
19.4 7.94**

60
3.10

Authorities Versus Peers

(see Tables 3.10, 3.10a-d, 3.12a)

The father was considered head of the family by


both groups (AGs 66fo , C: 63$) j mother, grandparents and
students themselves were occasionally mentioned (15$> 1 4y
and 5$; 10$, 17$ and 5 $ ) . The patriarchal structure was
still highly evident .

The majority of both groups (80$ and 90$) gave


positive descriptions of the head of the family, using
words such as kind, understanding, hard-working, cheerful,
fair, honest and dignified,

AC were more critical

than C (AC: 104/516, C: 58/586, X 2 = 18.74, P < .01 )


describing the head of the household more often in
negative terms like old fashioned, stern, obstinate
and uninteresting.

Father and mother vere considered to be quite


understanding by more than half of the group, too old
fashioned by one third of the group and modern in outlook
by only about one tenth of the group.

With respect to parent-child relationships,


both groups agreed in placing primary importance on
allowing children to make their own decisions (46$ and
48$).

However, they showed differences in the relative

importance of dignity and friendliness.

AC considered a

friendly parent more important while C preferred a


dignified one (AC: 230/510, C: 186/582, X 2 = 14.34,
P C . 0 1 ) , (AC: 41/510, C: 115/582, X 2 = 24.0, P < .01).

61
On p a r e n t s b e i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ,

both

g r o u p s a p p e a r e d to have a c o h e s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h
t h e i r e l d e r s , AC b e i n g more f r e e from t h e i r p a r e n t s and
f e e l i n g a b l e to make c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e r e m a r k s about
them.

C, b e i n g more s u b m i s s i v e to a u t h o r i t y , c o u l d o n l y

see p a r e n t s in t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l

role.

Only one q u e s t i o n was asked about

teacher-

s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , namely t o choose which was t h e most


i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e of a t e a c h e r d i g n i t y ,

friendliness

o r l e a v i n g a s t u d e n t f r e e to make h i s own d e c i s i o n s .

The

m a j o r i t y of b o t h groups ( a b o u t 70$ each) p r e f e r r e d a


friendly teacher.

About 20$ chose a l l o w i n g p u p i l s

make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s .

to

Only a few opted f o r a

d i g n i f i e d t e a c h e r (7$ and 13$) hut t h e d i f f e r e n c e was


significant

(AC: 3 7 / 5 0 8 , C? 7 8 / 5 8 6 , X 2 = 8 . ^ , P < . 0 1 ) .

While t h e groups i n d i c a t e d a c o h e s i v e

relation-

s h i p w i t h a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , t h e y a l s o showed a d e g r e e of
c l o s e n e s s to t h e i r f r i e n d s .

Not o n l y would t h e

of b o t h groups o f f e r h e l p to f r i e n d
d e s t r o y e d by f i r e

majority

i f h i s home was being

(87$ and 8 8 $ ) , b u t they would c o n f i d e

in

t h e i r f r i e n d s on t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t t e r s ; s c h o o l problems
(60$ and h6fo) , b o y - g i r l r e l a t i o n s h i p s

(56$ and k6fo) ,

c a r e e r p l a n s ( 2 1 $ and 1 8 $ ) , f i n a n c i a l problems (10$ and


1 6 $ ) , f a m i l y problems (7$ and 8$) and h e a l t h ( 7 $ and 6 $ ) .

Although b o t h g r o u p s l i v e d w i t h t h e i r own f a m i l i e s ,
r e l a t i v e l y more AC t h a n C p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e w i t h

friends

(AC: 1 0 9 / 5 0 1 , C: 6 5 / 5 7 7 , X2 = 1 8 . 7 9 , P < . 0 1 ) and

confided

i n p e e r s a b o u t problems r e l a t i n g t o s c h o o l and b o y - g i r l
r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e C looked more to a u t h o r i t y

figures

62
for guidance.

For example: AC were more l i k e l y to

d i s c u s s s c h o o l problems w i t h t h e i r p e e r s (AC: 4 2 0 / 5 0 8 ,
C: 3 8 7 / 5 8 6 , X 2 = 1 1 . 7 3 , P < . 0 1 ) w h i l e C would more
o f t e n d i s c u s s them w i t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s (C: 1 9 9 / 5 8 6 ,
AC: 8 8 / 5 0 8 , X 2 = 26.531 P < .01 ) .
relationships too,

On b o y - g i r l

AC would p r e f e r t o d i s c u s s

such

problems w i t h t h e i r p e e r s (AC: 3 7 5 / 4 9 9 , C: 3 5 6 / 5 5 8 ,
X

= 5.44, P (

. 0 5 ) , w h e r e a s C would

r e l y more upon

p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s (C: 2 0 2 / 5 5 8 , AC: 1 2 4 / 4 9 9 , X 2 = 1 0 . 0 0 ,


P < .01).
R e g a r d i n g f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , b o t h g r o u p s would
c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s (AC: 343/509*
C: 3 4 1 / 5 7 8 , X 2 = 2 . 7 1 ) but C were more l i k e l y than AC t o
d i s c u s s them w i t h p e e r s (C: 2 3 7 / 5 7 8 , AC: 1 6 6 / 5 0 9 ,
p

= 5.03, P < ,0f).

The groups preferred to be with

friends of both sexes; (81% and 7 9 % ) . Only 13% and 14%


respectively chose to restrict friends to those of their
own sex or 6%

each

to the opposite sex.

They also indicated that most of their friends


were approximately their own age (88% and 8 6 % ) , 9% and
11% respectively had older friends and 3% and 2% had
friends younger than themselves.

63
Table 3.10
Comparison of Attitudes
(% based on positive responses)

Q.

1.

Anglo-

Authority Figure

I c o n s i d e r t h e head of
my f a m i l y to b e :
a. grandfather
b . grandmother
c . f a t h e r or s t e p - f a t h e r
d . mother or s t e p - m o t h e r
e . uncle or a u n t
f. e l d e r s i b l i n g s
g. b r o t h e r or s i s t e r in-law
h . mys eIf
NR

19.

1 t h i n k a p a r e n t needs:
a . to a p p e a r d i g n i f i e d
b . t o bo f r i e n d t o
his/her children
c. to allow h i s / h e r
c h i l d r e n to make
t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s
NR

20.

Chinese
n = 516

Chinese
n = 586

jo

50
11
338
76
475
1
9
0

9.6
0.2
65.5
14.7
92.0
0.1
1.6
0

61
33
361
05
540
4
15
0

10.8
5.7
63.O
14*2
93.7
0.6
2.7
0

26
36
5

5.0
6.7

26
46
0

4.4
7.7

41
230

7.9
44.5

115
186

19.6
31.7

23 9

46.3

281

47.9

I t h i n k a t e a c h e r needs:-a . t o have d i g n i t y
37
b. t o be f r i e n d t o
366
his/her pupils
c. to allow the pupils
105
to make t h e i r own
descisions
NR
8

Chi
Square

0.22

24.00**
14,3^**

7.1
70.9

78
398

13.3
68.0

20.3

110

18.7

** significant 1 per cent level

8.40**

64
Table

3.10a

Comparison of A t t i t u d e s
(% b a s e d on p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s )
Authority Figure

2.

The head of my f a m i l y
can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d
as:
a . kind
b . cheerful
0, d i g n i f i e d
d. f a i r
e, hardworking
f, u n d e r s t a n d i n g
g. honest
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.
m.
n.

stern
obstinate
dishonest
unfair
oldfashioned
uninteresting
l a zy
NR

14.

I f e e l my f a t h e r i s : ~
a . too o l d f a s h i o n e d
b , quite understanding
c . modern i n h i s o u t l o o k
NR

15.

I
a,
bf
c,

f e e l my mother i s :
t o o old f a s h i o n e d
quite understanding
modern in h e r o u t l o o k
NR

16,

AngloChinese
n = 516

n = 586

io

87
36
30
43
74
114
28
412
26
15
1
3
42
14
1043

17.2
7.3
5.8
8.3
14.3
22.0
5.4
80.0
5.0
2.9
0.1
0.5
8.1
2.6
2 00 .. 75

190
56
23
41
84
97
37
528

34.3
9.5
3.9
7.3
14.8
17.4
6.3
90.1

10
11
1
3
27
6
0
58
0

1.7
1.8
0.1
0.5
4.6
1.0
0
9.7

156

30.2

295
49
344
16

57.1
11.4
68.5

219
319
48

37.3
54.4
8.1

367
0

62.5

2.57

156

30.2

301
38
339
21

58.3
7.3
65.6

206
316
56
372
8

35.1
53.9
9.7
63.6

2.03

40.1
48.6

225
282

38.3
48.1

10.0
58.6

72

12.2

354
7

60.3

R e g a r d i n g my family:
207
a . I f e e l q u i t e proud
251
b . I d o n ' t have any
strong feeling
52
c , I d o n ' t want t o t h i n k
of i t b e c a u s e i t h u r t s 303
NR
6

Chinese

Chi
Square

3.71

18.74**

0.34

65
T a b l e 3.10a
Comparison of
Q.
No.
17.

Attitudes

Anglo Chinese
n = 516
n
fo

Authority Figure

C o n c e r n i n g members o f
my family:
a, I f e e l very relaxed
b . r a t h e r uncomfortable
o. i n d i f f e r e n t
NH

** s i g n i f i c a n t

(cont.)

263
160
80
240
13

1 per c e n t

50.9
31.O
15.5
46.5

level

Chinese
n = 586
n

33^
135
106
241
11

Chi
Square

56.9
23.0
18.0
41.0

3.65

66

T a b l e 3.10b
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s

Q.
No.

6.

Authority Figure

c.
d.
e.
f.

249
39
288

48.2
7.5

290
51
3^1

50.0
9.0
59.0
9.0
1.8
17.0
13.8

66
6

brothers/sisters
relatives
friends
no one

106
49
227
NR

Chi
Square

55.7
12.7
1.1
20.7
9.4
43.9

53
11
100
81
245

41.6

O.56

I most often discuss


school problems with:
a. parents
b. teachers
c.
d.
e.
f.

brothers/sisters
relatives
friends
no one

36
52

6.9
10.0

6,6
39
160 27.0

88

16.9

59

11.4
0
6o.4
9.4

199
60
2
271
54
387
0

33.6 26.53**
10.2
0.3
46.0
9.2
65.7 11.73**

23.0
0.9

179
23

23.9
15.8
0.9
55.8
72.5

202

30.5
3.9
34.4 10.00**

0
312
49
420
NR

8.

n = 586

Chinese

I think it is most
important to
discuss my career
plans with:
a. parents
b. teachers

7.

AngloChinese
n = 516

81.2

When the matter is


about boy-girl relationship, I shall discuss
it with:
119
5
124

a. parents
b. teachers
c, brother/sisters
d, relatives
e, friends

82

5
288
375
NR

** Significant 1 per cent level


* Significant 5 per cent l e v e l

17

16
8
272
356
28

12.9
1.3
46.4
60.6

5.44*

67
Table 3.10c
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s

No.

AngloChinese
n = 516

Authority Figure

1*

Chinese
n = 586
n

48.0
1.8
42.1

Chi
Square

9. When the matter is


about health, I shall
discuss it with:
a. parents
b. teachers
c. doctor
d. brothers/sisters
e. relatives
f. friends

50.0
0.1
37.2

281
11
247

451

87.3

539 91.9

0.1

0.3

33
6.7
53 ~To76~ " 47

5.6

35

NR
10.

258
1
192

12

2.00

When it is a family
problem, I shall discuss
it with:
322

a. parents
b. teachers
c.
d.
e.
f.

brothers/sisters
relatives
friends
no one
NR

62.4
0.7
63.1

356
7

60.7
1.1
61.3

80
10

363
83
15.5
1 .9 24

35
59

11.4

44
55

184

35.5

206

7.5
9.3
24.9

4
326

11.

7.9

6.7

14.1
4.0

0.002

17

When it is a financial
problem, I shall discuss
it with:
a. parents
b. teachers

337
6

65.3
1.1

343 66.k
c.
d.
e.
f.

58
7
52
49

brothers/sisters
relatives
friends
no one
NR

11 .2
1.3
10.0

325
16
341

63
12

9.4

96
66

166 31.9
7

237
24

* s i g n i f i c a n t 5 per cent

level

55.4
2.7
58.7
10.7
2.0
16.3
11.2
40.2
5.03*

68
Table 3.10d
Comparison of Attitudes
(% based on positive responses)

4.

A ngloChinese
n = 516

Peer Group

No

b. keep to my relatives
c. have the friends
approved by my
parents
NR
I most often discuss
school problems with:
a. parents
b. teachers
c.
d.
e.
f.

friends
siblings
relatives
no one
NR

8.

$>

fo

430

83.3

483

32.4

23

4.4

50

9.6

48
51

8.1
3.7

73

14.0

99

15.8

1 .26

13

36

6.9

39

6.6

52

10.0

160

27.9

88

16.9

312
59
0

60.4
11.4
0

199
271
60
2

34.5
47.0
10.2
0.3

49

9.4

_54_

9.2

420

81.2

387

66.7

39.44**

When the matter is


abaut boy-girl relationship, I shall discuss
it with:
a. parents
b. teachers

119
5
124

23.O
0.9
23.9

179
23
202

3.05
3.9
34.4

c. friends
d. siblings
e. relatives

288
82
5

55.8
15.8
0.9

272

46.4

76

12.9

12.7

14.3
5.9
20.2
73.8

375
NR
34.

n = 586

Chi
Square

I think I should:a. choose my own


friends

7.

Chinese

17

8
72.5 356
0

1 .3
60.6 15.96**

I prefer to be with
friends of:
66

a. my own sex
b, opposite sex
c. both sexes
NR

32

6.2

98

18.9

34
35
119

417

80.8

462

0.34

69
Table 3.10d

(cont.)

Comparison of

Q.
No.

35.

Peer Group

Attitudes
Chinese

Ang loChinese
n = 516

n = 586

453

87.7

504

86.0

47
13
60

9.1
2.5
11 .6

66
12
78

Most of my friends are:


a. of similar age
b. older than myself
c. younger than myself

1 1 .2
2.0
13.2

0.70

3
40.

Chi
Square

I have in this class:


a. no one I care for

42

8.1

b. a special friend
c. a few good friends
d. a lot of friends

35
260
170
465

6.7
50.3
32.9

NR

**

Significant

89.7

97
44
203
219
466
23

1 per cent

level

16.6
7.5
3^.7
37.3
79.5

0.10

70
3.11

National and Cultural Identity

(see Tables 3.11, 3.11

a-d)

On nationality, the majority of the students


stated that they wore Chinese (81% and 8 8 % ) . But when
the question of what they considered to be their native
country was posed, the responses indicated: China
(38% and 47%)5 Kong Kong (48% and 35%) and Taiwan (6% and
15%). tfith respect to nationality, AC were more likely
to consider themselves British subjects (AC: 63/504,
C: 40/574, X 2 = 8.20, P < .01). C more often identified
Taiwan as the native country (AC: 32/494, C: 86/584,
X 2 = 15.78, P < .01).

The students were also


of origin.

asked for their place

This term, in the Chinese context, was

intended to refer to the native province or village of


father or grandfather (specifically

paternal ancestors).

However, the term could have been interpreted by some


the students as their own birth place.

if

About half of both

groups said Ilong Kong was their place of origin (55% and
44%) and another large group claimed China (40% and 4 1 % ) .
Taiwan was infrequently mentioned (2% and 6%). AC more
often stated Hong Kong was the place of origin
(AC: 284/516, C: 257/536, X 2 = 6.45, P < .05) while C
claimed Taiwan more frequently (AC: 10/516, C: 36/568,
X 2 = 9.66,

P c .01).

Because Hong Kong is not a nation, a national


anthem has never played a prominent part in school or
community activities.

One would not be surprised,

therefore, to find considerable ambiguity in students'

71
identification of their national anthem.

The choices

given to them and their responses were as follows:


"San Min Chi I", the national anthem of the Republic
of China and a popular Chinese Nationist party song
during their parents 1 school days was selected by 35$ and
50$; "God Save the Queen" was chosen by 17$ and 8$;
"Don Feng Hung" ("The East is Red") although not a
national anthem is identified with the People's Republic
of China and was the choice of 6$ and 3$; the remainder
of the sample, 38$ and 28$ checked "other".

AC more

often than C checked "God Save the Queen" (AC: 86/489,


C: 44/551, X 2 = 18.54, P < .01) or "Other" (AC: 194/489,
C: 167/551, X 2 = 6.67, P C .01)

C, on the other hand

were significantly more likely to select the anthem of


the Republic of China (AC: 179/489, C: 291/551,
X 2 = 14.70, P < .01).

On Chinese customs, the majority of both


groups considered that they should be partially preserved
(82$ and 71$). However C were more of the opinion that
ffcef should be fully preserved (AC: 65/503, Cs 126/579,
X

= 10.66, P < .01) whereas AC felt that tUey should be

pstrtially preserved (AC: 422/503, C: 418/579, X 2 = 6.03,


P < .05).
On Western customs, both groups felt that they
should be partially adopted (91$ and 83$).

On language, more than half of the students


agreed that Chinese and English are both essential.
However, AC were more in favour of bi-lingual training
(AC: 373/506, C: 343/586, X 2 = 10.64, P<

.01)

while

C more often felt that Chinese should be the essential

72
language (AC: 117/506, C: 213/586, X 2 = 14.51,
P < .01).

On playing games, AG were more for playing


for enjoyment alone (AC: 283/505, C: 238/572, X 2 = 10.83,
P < .01) while C were more likely to play for health
reasons (AC: 199/505, C: 284/572, X 2 = 6.28, P < . 0 5 ) .

On social attitudes, the majority of both


groups would give their support to blood donation (775
and 8 2 $ ) , lending a helping hand to the old and disabled
(74$ and 81 $) donating to charity (83$ and 90$) taking
positive action to mend a failing endeavour (75$ each).
On expressing opinions openly on a social matter,

half

of the group preferred to take a passive interest (50$


and 55$) while the other half would express their own
opinions (47$ and 4 5 $ ) .

73
Table 3.11
Comparison of Attitudes
(% based on positive responses)
Q.
No.

24.

National Identity

British
Chinese
Chinese
uncertain
other
NR

63

12.2

40

<
0
. 00

420
19
2

81.3
3.6
0.3

514
16
4

87.7
2.7
0.6

1.47

2.43

12

8.20**

12

246

47.6

250

42.6

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

194
32
4
18

37.5
6.2
0.7
3.4

273
86
4
16

46.5
14.6
0.6
2.7

3.27
15.48**

44.1

6.45**
C.?6
9.66**

7.5
8.3
49.6
28.4

China
Taiwan
Ilacao
other
no answer

22

X consider my place of
origin to be:
a. Hong Kong.

284

55.0

b.
c.
d
e.

206
10
5
11

40.0
1.9
0.9
2.1

257
250
36
8
23
9

16.6
5.8
34.6
37.5

44
49
291
167

China
Taiwan
Ma ca o
other

41.4
6.1
1.3
4.0

I consider my national
anthem begins with:
a.
b.
c.
d.

86
30
179
194

God saves the Queen


Dong Feng Hung
Can Min Chu I
other
NR

43.

a. Kong Kong

NR
28.

Chi
Square

I consider my native
country to be:

NR
27.

n = 586

Chin es e

My nationality is:
a.
b,
b.
c.
d.

26.

AngloChinese
n = 516

27

18.54**
2.14
14.70**
6.67*

35

I live in Hong Kong now


because:
194

37.5

236

40.2

b. there is no where else 166


to go
134
c. I hope to go abroad
NR
20

32.1

215

36.6

25.9

126

21.5

a. It is my home and I
plan to stay here

** significant 1 per cent level


* significant 5 per cent level

1.55

74
T a b l e 3 . 11a
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s
(% b a s e d on p o s i t i v e
Q.
No.

AngloChinese
n = 516

Cultural Identity

n
30.

NR

65
16
422

n = 586
i:1

12.5
3.1
81.7

126
35
418
7

21 .5
5.9
71.3

3.8
4.0
90.8

54
40
489

9.2
5.5
83.4

13

20
21
469
NR

33.

Chi
Square

10.66**
6.03*

I think Western customs


should be:
a. fully adopted
b. largely discarded
c. partially adopted

44.

Chin ese

I think Chinese customs


should be:a. fully preserved
b. largely discarded
c. partially preserved

31.

responses)

1.43

To me:
a. Chinese and English
are essential

373

72.2

343

53.8

10.64**

b, Chinese is the
essential language
c. English is the
essential language
NR

117

22.6

213

36.3

14.51**

16

3.1

30

5.1

10

I think playing games


is i

39.

238

40.6

10.83**

50

8.5
48.4

6.23-*

a. a good enjoyment

233

54.8

b. a waste of time
c. necessary for health
NR

23
199
11

"4.4
33.5

245

46.8

263

44.8

138
b. take a passive
interest in sooial
matters
120
c leave such matters
to responsible person
persons
258

26.7

133

31.2

23.5

140

24.0

50.2

323

55.2

I believe it is best
to:
a, express opinions on
social matters

NR

*
**

significant
significant

284
14

13

5 pe*" c e n t
1 per c e n t

level
level

1.69

75

Table 3.11b
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s
(% based on p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s )
Q.
No.

46.

Cultural Identity

n = 58b

36

363
117

65.O
22.0

Wo'"

o. be unconcerned
d. wait and see which
side of the bread is
buttered
e. get away quickly for
fear of involvement
NR

Chi
square

0.9
4.0

5
17

0.8
2.9

1.7

6.6

24

0.3
4.0

35
1

In case your best friend


has fallen into bad ways
and has disregarded your
sincere advice, you will:
146
a. Then go your own way
and not be influenced
148
b. terminate the friendship
294

NR

396 60.0
166 28.0
87.0' ~562~"8870"

5
21

c. strongly advise andeven 175


reproach him
d. pretend to be friendly
28
with him (on the
surface only
203

48.

Chinese

If your friend's home is


being destroyed by fire,
you will:
a. Render prompt help
b. Act after serious
consideration

47.

AngloChinese
n = 516

2.51

28.0

164

30.4

29.0

200

32.0

57.0

364

~62.T

33.0

183

31.0

5.4

39

6.6

38.4

222

37.6

0.99

19

The Red Cross Society


usually solicits blood
donations from the public.
Your attitude toward
blood donation is:
a, you are eager to help
b. you feel that in
helping others you are
also helping yourself
c. you feel that it is a
social obligation
d. you feel that this
issue is not your real
concern
e. you feel that blood
donation endangers
one's health
NR

47
209

9.1
40.0

79
235

13.0
40.0

146

28.0

173

402

77.1

487

29.0
82.0

33

6.3

43

7.3

62

12.0

56

9.5

18.3

99

16.8

19

0.89

76
Table

3.11c

Comparison of

Attitudes

(% b a s e d on p o s i t i v e

Q.
T
No,

49

Cultural Identity

responses)

Ang loChinese

Chinese

n = 516

n = 586

Chi
Square

You are endeavouring to make


a success out of a certain
project, and you are hoping
to win the praise of your
parents, teachers or friends,
but at the last moment everything gets out of hand, by
then you will:
a. look upon it philosophi- 131
cally hoping that the
loss may turn into future
blessings
b. consider that it is never 258
too late to mend the
389
situation

25.0

169 28.0

40.0

305 52.0
474 75.0

80

16,0

89

15.0

30

5.8

23

3.9

1 .90

0.26

c. tend to put all the blame


on others; or attribute
it to fate
d. be completely defeated,
and give up everything
NR

75.0

14

50 . After a hard day's work, you


were on a bus with a comfortable seat. There were
no other seats left. A
young person, an aged person and a handicapped
person walked into the bus
and you are faced with the
decision of whether or not
you should allow one of
the:n to take your seat.
Your attitude is:
a, you respect your own old
folks and therefore
extend this respect to
other old people.
b. you adore youth and
beauty
c, you wish to show a sympathetic attitude to the
handicapped
d, you want to remain seated
e, you may wish to offer
your seat but you did not
do so, lest your action
might CDuse you
embarrasement
NR

80

15.0

103

17.0

1.3

0.3

301

58.0

376

64.0

25

4.8
18,0

17
88

15.0

96

0.53

2.9
2.89

77
T a b l e 3.11d
Comparison of A t t i t u d e s
(% b a s e d on p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s )
Q.
No.

5-/.

Ajiglo-

Cultural Identity

n = 516

53

n = 586

Chi
Square

$>

a. act according to your


own wishes

127

24.6

118

20.0

b. accept parents'
advice unwillingly
c. accept parents*
advice with pleasure
d, accept parents'
advice in exchange for
other privileges

215

41.0

300

51.0

109

21,0

125

21 .0

59

11.0

43

7.3

383
6

73.0

468

79.3

0.26

235
199

^5.0
38.0

319
210

54.4
35.8

2.76

66
16

12.0

57
0

9.8

a. stay in Hong Kong and


403
continue your studies,
while working part-time
after school hours.
b. further your studies
101
abroad, while working
part-time to support
yourself.
NR
12

78.0

473

80.0

19.0

99

16.0

If you want to participate in some social


activities and your family
does not approve of it 5
you will:

NR

52-

Chinese

Chinese

If your school has a


monthly donation for
charity, and you have
only $1 in your pocket,
you will:
a. give generously
b. make only a token
gesture
c. not contribute
a cent
NR

3.45

If you are the eldest


child in your family with
parents and siblings.
You are academically
brilliant but financially
poor, and your family
needs you to wori parttime to support them,
after
your graduation
from secondary school, you
are ready to:

14
i .

1.04

78
3.12

Festivals, Rituals and Religions

(see Tables 3.12 and 3.12a)

Both groups observed Chinese festivals (mean 300


and 361) and Jestern holidays (mean 302 and 342) equally.

The chief festivals in China are connected with


the seasons or ancestor-worship.

Among students and their

families of both groups, they observed the following most:


Chinese New Year (Spring Festival, 1080), Moon Festival
(Mid-Autumn Festival, 9 5 6 ) , Dragon Boat Festival (Summer
Festival, 9 3 0 ) , New Year ('festern, 839) and "./inter
Solstice (819).

Easter (760), the Double Ninth (hill climbing


to gain better perspective, 720) , Ching Ming (Visiting
family graves, 687), Christmas (575) and Memorial Day
(401) were also popular occasions.

The Double Seventh (reunion of two immortal


lovers, the Cowboy and Weaver, 291) Feast on lst/l5th
Moon (258) and exorcising the Hungry Ghosts (204) were
less observed.

Among all the festivals, significant differences


were found between the two groups on only two.

indicated

significantly larger numbers observed Ching Ming


(AC: 268/516, C: 419/586, X 2 = 9.64, P <

0.01), and

Memorial Day (AC: 145/516, C: 256/586, X 2 = 18.07,


P < 0.01).

Both groups had similar frequencies with respect


to performing certain rituals such as observing ancestors 1
birth/deathdays (46$ and 5 6 $ ) , celebrating birthdays (80>

79
and 76/i) , new born p a r t i e s (48^> and 5 0 ^ ) , a d o p t i o n
c e r e m o n i e s (17c/i and 18>) , v i s i t s to s i c k r e l a t i o n s
and 43c/o) and s i c k f r i e n d s

( 6 8 ^ and 69^0).

(S?^

AC s i g n i f i c a n t l y

more o f t e n a t t e n d e d wedding c e r e m o n i e s (AC: 3 1 5 / 5 1 6 ,


C: 2 4 0 / 5 8 6 , X 2 = 2 1 . 4 8 , P < 0 . 0 1 ) .
A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s as
o b s e r v o r s of E a s t e r n R e l i g i o n s ; t h e numbers r a n g e d between
one and f i v e p e r c e n t .

These i n c l u d e d B u d d h i s t , T a o i s t ,

Moslem and A n c e s t o r - w o r s h i p p i n g

groups.

I n p r a c t i c e , many of t h e homes k e p t s h r i n e s of
t h e f o l l o w i n g Gods: A n c e s t o r s (37'/' and 53c/^) > a r God
(14 and 1 3 ^ ) ; Door God (367? and 45c/>) ; K i t c h e n God (30/
and 40/o) ; Goddess o f Mercy (7c/> e a c h ) .

Many f a m i l i e s

o b s e r v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g b i r t h d a y s : b i r t h / d e a t h of
a n c e s t o r s (46L/i and 56/--); Goddess o f Mercy (7A> e a c h ) ; Tin
Hau (Goddess of s e a , 4$ and 1 0 ^ ) ; Confucius

( 4 $ and 5c/i>);

Buddha ( 1 $ and 3 $ ) .
On T/estern r e l i g i o n , 21cp and 12L/o w e r e C a t h o l i c ,
19/i and 20^J were P r o t e s t a n t .

I n p r a c t i c e , 55/ J and 50/J

c e l e b r a t e d C h r i s t m a s ; 72/-' and 66$> observed E a s t e r and 28v


and 21^> o b s e r v e d Holy Day or Sunday.

In t h e i r homes, 12^

and 11/ had a s h r i n e of t h e V i r g i n Mary and 24 r / and 23V


k e p t p i c t u r e s of C h r i s t ,

( s t u d e n t s and f a m i l e s

observed

together).
AC were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n

Catholic

(AC: 1 0 7 / 5 1 6 , C: 7 1 / 5 8 6 , Z 2 = 1 0 . 4 1 , P < 0 . 0 1 )

and

o b s e r v e r s of Holy Day o r Sunday (AC: 1 4 7 / 5 1 6 , C: 1 2 2 / 5 8 6 ,


X

= 6 . 2 7 , P ^ 0 . 0 5 ) , w h i l e C s i g n i f i c a n t l y more

f r e q u e n t l y k e p t s h r i n e s a s follows:

80

Ancestors'

(C: 3 1 0 / 5 8 6 , AC: 1 9 1 / 5 1 6 , X 2 = 1 5 . 1 5 , P < 0 . 0 1 ) ,

Door God's (C: 2 6 5 / 5 3 6 , AC: 1 8 6 / 5 1 6 , X 2 = 5 . 7 9 , P< 0 . 0 5 ) ,


K i t c h e n G o d ' s (C: 233/586 , AC: 1 5 5 / 5 1 6 , X 2 = 7 . 2 ^ ,

P<0.01),

Goddess of M e r c y ' s (C: 1 0 6 / 5 8 6 , A C : 35/51 6 , X 2 = 2 0 . 2 1 ,


P < 0.01).

81
Table 3.12
Comparison of Creeds and Customs
Q.
No.

Festivals
Family & Student
observed together

An g l o Chinese
n - 516
n

Chinese
91.

a.
c.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

91.
96.

n = 586
n

AC + C
n=1102

Chi
Square

Festivals

C h i n e s e New
Year
Ching Ming
Dragon Boat
Hungry G h o s t s
The D o u b l e
Seventh
Moon F e s t i v a l
The D o u b l e
Ninth
Winter
Solstice
F e a s t on 1 s t /
1 5 t h Moon

Western

Chinese

499

96.7

581

99.1

1080

268

Mo
86
132

51.9
79.5
16.6
25.6

419
520
118
159

71.5
88.7
20.1
27.1

687
930
204
291

477
318

92.4
61.6

479
402

81.7
68.6

956
720

389

75.4

430

73.4

819

122

23.6

136

23.2

258

410
372
145
282

79.4
63.4
24.7
54. t>

429
308
256
293

73.2
66.2
43.7
50.0

839
760
401
575

382

74.0

416

71.0

279

54.0

328

60.0

315

61.0

240

41.0

242

47.0

287

fc9.o

237

46.0

322

55.0

191

37.0

252

43.0

181
72

35.0
14.0

211
88

36.0
15.0

17.36**

Festivals

b . New Y e a r
d. E a s t e r
m. M e m o r i a l Day
e. Christmas

18.07**

Rituals
Ceremonies
Birthday
celebration
Visiting sick
friends
Wedding
ceremony
Newborn
ceremony
Birth and/or
d e a t h d a t e of
ancestor(s)
Visiting sick
relatives
Funeral rituals
Godparent's
rituals

#*

S i g n i f i c a n t one p e r c e n t

level

21.48**

82

T a b l e 3.12a
Comparison of Creeds and Customs
Q.
No.

96.

Religious Beliefs and


Practices Family
and Student observed
together

AngloChinese
n = 516

Chinese
n = 586

1o

20
2
0
107
98

3.9
0.4
0
20.7
19.0

5.2
0.8
3.9
12.1
20.0

156

30.2

27
5
23
71
117
192

32.7

28

5.4

49

8.4

19

3.6

56

9.6

6
22
282
1^7
372
268
242

1.2
4.2
28.4
72.0
51.9
46.3

20
28
293
122
388
419
320

3.4
4.8
50.0
20.8
66.2
71.5
55.5

Chi
Square

Religious beliefs
h,
i.
j.
f.
e.

Buddhist
Taoist
Moslem
Catholic
Protestant

k, no religion

10.41**

Religious Practices

96.

91.
92.
95.

a. Birthday of Goddess
of Mercy
b. Birthday of Tin Hau
(Goddess of Sea)
c. Birthday of Buddha
d. Birthday of Confucius
e. Christmas
1. Holy Day or Sunday
d. Easter
c. Ching Ming
a. Birth and/or death
date of ancestor(s)

54.6

Keeping of Family
Shrine
Chinese
a. Ancestors'
b. War God
d. Door God
f. Kitchen God
h. Others
g. Goddess of Mercy

191
71
18b
155
35
35

37.0
13.7
36.O
30.0
6.8
16.4

310
76
265
233
41
106

52.9
13.0
45.2
39.7
7.0
18.0

Western
c. Virgin Mary
e. Christ

76
125

12.3
24.2

66
133

11.3
22.7

62

12.0

56

9.6

i. None

*
**

s i g n i f i c a n t five per cent level


s i g n i f i c a n t one p e r c e n t l e v e l

6.27*
17.36**

15. 15 * *
5.79*
7.26**
20.21**

83
3.13

Food Habits and Medical Treatments

(see Tables 3.13-3.13c)

The following data were gathered from one


question of Test B.

It was the only item in that test

which would allow more than one check in each column

students could respond to a combination of foods normally


eaten at one meal.

The combination of rice, Chinese dishes and


fruits were most preferred for lunch and supper (figures
doubled because lunch and dinner are combined: 1947> 1502
and 797) while bread (724), western cakes and pastries
(309), Chinese porridge (481), noodles (348), pastries
(188), milk (459) and tea (232) were for breakfast.

For

afternoon tea, bread (234), western cakes and pastries


(436), tea (254) and milk (225) were chosen.

Out of a total sample of 1102, 158 students


reported not eating breakfast, 14 and 18 not having lunch
and supper respectively and 253 not taking afternoon tea.

Comparing the food habits of the two groups, AC


more often ate the western type of

lunch and supper and

both western and Chinese varieties of afternoon tea.

They

were inclined to eat more fruit as well: (western style


lunch: AC: 256/516, C: 120/586, X 2 = 65.77, P < .01 5
western supper: AC:139/516, C: 49/586, X 2 = 54.48,
P C .01; western style afternoon tea: AC:1T2/516,
C:

94/586, X

tea: AC:

5.81, P < ,05$

65/516, C:

Chinese style afternoon

39/586, X 2 = *U.4Q, P ^ .01 j

fruit: AC: 130/516, C: 102/586, X 2 = 10.05, P < .01).

84

C more o f t e n r e f r a i n e d from h a v i n g
noon t e a

(AC:

after-

8 2 / 5 1 6 , Gt 1 7 1 / 5 8 6 , X 2 = 2 1 . 1 3 , P < 0 . 0 1 )

For m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t s , many of b o t h groups


r e l i e d on w e s t e r n d o c t o r s and m e d i c i n e s f o r common
a i l m e n t s s u c h a s f l u (394 and 4 3 2 ) , stomach u p - s e t

(168

and 172) and headache (232 and 2 5 0 ) .


An a p p r e c i a b l e number would not go t o d o c t o r s
b u t t r e a t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h balms or o i n t m e n t s o r avoided
t r e a t m e n t a l t o g e t h e r : f l u (103 and 1 1 4 ) , stomach u p - s e t
(279 and 3 3 6 ) , headache (231 and 273) and t w i s t e d bones
(110 and 1 0 2 ) .
F o r a t w i s t e d a n k l e , t h e m a j o r i t y of b o t h
groups would s e e k t r e a t m e n t by a b o n e - s e t t e r o r h e r b a l i s t
(441 and 4 7 9 ) .

F o r t h a t p r o b l e m , Western t r e a t m e n t was

chosen by v e r y few (28 and 9 )

22

Total

Grand

1657

938

508

549

1194

28
390
12

115
518
12

719

287

473

1009

29
317
86

96
427
13

Total

Breakfast
Lunch
Afternoon
tea
Supper

Total

Breakfast
Lunch
Afternoon
tea
Supper

Rice

Chinese
dishes

764

363

32

264
55
12

401

64

217
97
23

Chinese
porridge

814

353

39

168
102
44

461

79

184
149
49

Noodles

719

331

53

114
49
115

388

5k

118
77
139

tea

376

13 7

82
10
38

239

13

106
40
80

Chinese
. .
pastries

'~~~~~~~~~~~~~ xi

Table 3.13
Chinese Food

1090

553

3316
6533

198

129
187
39

537

162

125
185
65

Mean

1188

771
1124
233

3217

970

1107
390

750

_.
,
Total

929

408

209

25
15^
20

521

251

35
183
52

Fruits

443

257

13

65
8
171

186

93
6
82

No
Meal

85

1120

Grand
Total
239

59
804

363

33

550

146
16
197

4
40
11

441

377
35
105

180

10

80

23

570

163
29
239

Western
cakes &
pastries

11
83
6

Western
dishes

347
71
129

Total

Breakfast
Lunch
Afternoon
tea
Supper

Total

Breakfast
Lunch
Afternoon
tea
Suppe r

AC

Bread

720

317

204
7
102

403

11

255
14
123

Milk

Western Food

Table 3.13 (cont.)

277

113

34
7
70

164

51
22
84

Coffee

355

168

75
15
76

187

50
37
92

Soft
drinks

3515

1570

49

840
120
561

1945

139

087
256
673

Total

585

262

140
20
94

324

23

146
43
112

Mea^i

86

87
Table 3.13a
Comparison of Creeds and Customs
Q.
No.

94.

AngloChinese
n = 516

Chi nese

<

125
185
65
162

24.2
35.8
12.6
31.4

129
187
39
198

22.0
32.0

146
43
112
23

28.2
8.3
21.7
4.4

140
20
94

23.9
34.1
16.0

1.4

2.01
12.40**
5.81*
9.62**

ii

130

25.2

102

17.4

10.05**

II

46

8.9

64

10.9

4.20*

Food H a b i t s

n = 586

01IX

Square

C h i n e s e Food
a. Breakfast
b . Lunch
c . A f t e r n o o n Tea
d. Supper

Mean
it
ii

6.7

33.8

0.75
3.29
11.40**
0.71

W e s t e r n Food
a. Breakfast
b . Lunch
o . A f t e r n o o n Tea
d . Supper

it
II

it
ti

Fruits
e.

Fruits

Not h a v i n g a n y
f,

not having
a n y food f o r
one meal

*
**

s i g n i f i c a n t 5 per c e n t l e v e l
s i g n i f i c a n t 1 per cent l e v e l

88
Table

Medical Resource

Stomach
up set

Flu
AC

3.13b

AC

Headache

Twisting
of bones

AC

AC

295

307

89

86

112

138

28

47
0

25
0

29
8

48

43

Bone-setter

33
0

80
361

75
404

4.

Self-prescribing
pills

99

125

79

86

120

112

5.

Self-prescribing
herbs

^6

61

62

62

30

34

10

6.

No treatment

82

80

64

83

73

76

22

12

7.

Ointments

21

34

215

253

158

197

78

90

1 + 4

394

432

168

172

232

250

30

10

2 + 5

89

108

87

91

78

77

88

85

6 + 7

103

114

279

336

231

273

100

102

Western doctor

2.

Herbalist

3.

90
3.14
Choice of Spouse
( s e e Table 3.14)
With r e s p e c t to choice of a marriage p a r t n e r ,
the s t u d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l i s t of 18 q u a l i t i e s
or v i r t u e s .

These q u a l i t i e s were p r e s e n t e d in two

columns of 9 each, and the s t u d e n t s were asked to rank


the items in each column from 1 t o 9.

AC and C r a t e d

the items i n b o t h columns in e s s e n t i a l l y the same o r d e r ,


the r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n for Column 1 being 0.98 and
f o r Column 2 showing p r e c i s e i d e n t i t y , i . e .

1.00.

Both

groups c o n s i d e r e d of r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t importance
f a c t o r s such as s i m i l a r i t y in t a s t e and i n t e r e s t s ,
contentmont in o n e ' s p r o f e s s i o n , honesty and w i l l i n g n e s s
to accept good a d v i c e .

S i m i l a r i t y in s o c i a l

standing,

r i g i d i t y in t r a d i t i o n a l male-female r o l e s e t c .

weighed ,

on the o t h e r hand, comparatively l e s s h e a v i l y .


S i m i l a r l y , t h e m a j o r i t y of both groups i n s i s t e d
t h a t freedom t o choose o n e ' s own spouse should be granted
(88$ and Sk'fo),

C, however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more often

chose to allow p a r e n t s t o o f f e r advice about the choice


of a marriage p a r t n e r (AC: 5 1 / 5 0 7 , C: 8 9 / 5 8 3 , X2 = 6 . 5 9 .
P C .05).

91
Table 3.14
Comparison of Values;
Relating to Choice of Spouse
AC
Column 1
a.

o b e d i e n c e and a b i l i t y t oi
traditional marital role

CO pe

with

a l l o w husband manage e x t e r n a l ,
domestic
c . r e c e p t i v e t o good a d v i c e

wife

b.

d.

h o n e s t and

e.

mature

5.25

5.04

6.10

5.92

4.16

4.19
2.24

rel i a b l e

2.32
5.13
6.02

c o n s e r v a t i v e u p b r i n g i n g s > modern
world outlook.
g . p e r s e v e r i n g and c a u t i o u s i n s p e e c h
h . h a v i n g g i f t o f p u b l i c s p e a ki n g
f.

i.

youthful

and b e a u t i f u l

AC
R

c
R

ft

4.90

4.95

5.11

DR

2.32

2.24

0.08

c,

4.16

0.03

g.
i.

3
4

4.43

4.19
4.90

4.95

e.
a.

5
6

5.13

5.11
5.21

0.47
0.16

0.08

5.04

0.21

h.

5.25
5.81

6.24

f.

6.02

5.84

0.43
0.18

b.

6.10

5.92

0.18

1 -

12
9(80)

5.84

4.43
5.81

d.

rank order corr.

5.21

0.98

6.24

92

Table 3.l4(cont.)
Comparison of Values;
Relating to Choice of Spouse
AC
Column

a. follow parents' advice in marriage

6.86

6.70

b. of similar social stand ing

6.97

c. of similar taste and interes ts

1.25
4.21

6.97
1.30

d. harmonious patterning in life


e. capable husband, beautiful wife

4.33
4.82

4.53
5.66

f. genius at running business


g. content in profession, outgoing
sociable

6.14

3.98

3.20

h. mutual respecb

4.00

4.04

i. bring fortune to spouse and


offspring

6.96

6.96

AC

DR

c.

1.25

1.30

0.05

g.

3.90

3.20

0.78

h.
d.
e.
f.
a.

3
4
5
6
7

4.00

3
4

4.04

0.04

0.12

i.

b.

4.21
4.53
5.66

4.33
4.82

6.14

0.29
0.48

6.86

6.70

0.16

6.96

7
8

6.97

6.96
6.91

rank, order corr.

= 1 .00

93
IV.

SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS

Every group in a

society, regardless of its

cultural heritage and social structure, must train its


members to conform to its patterns (standards, attitudes,
behaviours, values and goals).

It is assumed that the

pattern of culture which characterizes the life of the


group as a whole is to be found at least in part in
every individual who is a member of the group. 'Though
the family has traditionally been the primary group in
shaping the personality of a child, the school is perhaps
becoming a more significant force in value development.
As the child grows older and spends more of his time
in formal schooling, the influences of his teachers,
friends, curricula and activities serve as strong social
determinants of his attitudes and relationships with
people around him.)

By adolescence , young peopLo are


towards authority.
while

ambivalent

They are sceptical and rebellious

having a sincere desire to be helpful and

supportive.

They want to have new experiences and to

be granted social and intellectual recognition.


desire for security remains along with a
opportunities to reform the world.

In the case of

drive for

(Sadler 19^8).

secondary school pupils in

Hong Kong, who are being educated in two main types


of school, one

may expect consistent differences in

areas supposedly reflecting differences between the


types of schools.

It is also assumed that in more

central areas of life students have a relatively common

94

outlook which is of great significance for understanding


their characters and needs.

In this discussion, the

similarities between the groups will be considered first


in order to form a general picture of the student
group; later an examination of the differences between
them will be analyzed.

Self-Concept and Values

Young people between 16 and 18 years of age


tend to be keenly concerned with their self-image and
its projection in the social world around them.

Their

preferences among values would lead to some understanding


of their expectations of themselves

what they ought

to do and how they ought to spend their time.

How do

they view themselves in relation to the chosen values in


the emergent-traditional, Western-Chinese dimensions?
What are the sources of these influences?

Along the emergent-traditional dimension,


the 11 most important values, friendliness, honesty,
kindness, diligence, responsibility, acceptance of bicultural influences, obedience, caution in forming
friendships and future orientation are complemented by
openness to new ideas and achievement of a balance
between work and leisure.

It is interesting to note that

9 items out of 11, pertaining to the areas of personal


or cultural values, are in the traditional dimension.
It is only in the values pertaining to school such as
new ideas, work and leisure that the emergent dimension
comes forth.

95
In this

research contrast of Chinese and 'Jestern

oriented values does not appear to create conflicts but


hastens assimilation at various levels.

For example,

among the medium important values, the Western oriented


values of independence, sociability, being at ease with
opposite sex, receiving a university education,
participating in extra-curricular activities and civicmindedness, which are mostly functional in school,
would not clash with the Chinese-oriented values of
having acceptable manners and appearance, having
strength in Chinese, respecting Chinese tradition,
being tolerant and family-minded, which are more
important to social relationships.

The Chinese virtues of humanity (yen "( ) ,


righteousness (yi ^J/ ) , and propriety (li ij ) were
consistently reflected in the high standing given to
friendliness, honesty, kindness, diligence, obedience
and willingness to accept responsibility.
relating

In values

to school, the Chinese virtue wisdom (chih >~f )

was also highly esteemed.

Liu !/u-chi (1955) in

discussing Confucian philosophy stated, "As a matter of


fact, these virtues of Confucianism are also the virtues
of the Chinese people

the Chinese are essentially

Confucian in their outlook, and that except for some


Buddhist and Taoist trends in the arts and letters,
Chinese culture and Confucianism are almost synonymous,
if not identical."

Me went on to say "The distinguishing

features of Confucianism are many.

First of all, it is

a moral system which is both practical and practicable.


Without any trace of metaphysical and supernatural,

96
its contents are readily understood by the man in the
street; and its ethical teachings, replete with wisdom
and common sense, can be applied in daily life......
The chief strength is its flexibility, a remarkable
quality that enables it to resist all pressures and to
face all adversities.

For this reason, though suffering

eclipse from time to time, it has always emerged with


renewed brilliance."

The Chinese approach to the problem of human


nature aims at self-cultivation of humanity, righteousness,
propriety and wisdom.

This approach accepts human

nature as it is and makes use of it within human


relationships.

The cultivation of the mind and the

investigation of things are the two ways to realize


one's nature to the fullest extent, one stressing the
moral nature of man and the other the rational principle
of things.

In fact, this spirit of balance or synthesis

rather characterizes the Chinese concept of man (Chan


T'7ing-Tsit) .'

The students indicated a wide repertoire of


values and expectations.

They chose with notable

frequency 31 items out of a total of jG,

Indeed they

seemed to prefer to follow many paths at the same time.

Attitudes Toward Authority

In most cultures, adolescents generally


depend on their parents for guidance and advice, although
the adolescents in societies which value early
independence may not admit or verbalize this.

Kingsley

97
(1966) indicated that in the traditional society of China
or Japani the end of adolescence does not mean a
significant change in power status, the authority of the
parent prevailing until his death.

The process of

emancipation and independence commences gradually and


slowly, thus little or no conflict over authority and
power occurs.

In this study, both groups stated firmly that


the father is the head of the family.
traditional practice of living with

Because of the
the extended family,

the mother and the grandfather also received considerable


recognition.

The majority held positive impressions of

the head of the family, describing him as kind, hardworking, fair, cheerful, dignified or honest.

Most of

them considered their parents understanding and deemed


an ideal parent to be one that can be a friend to his
children.

One third of the group

professed to be proud

of their families, and many more claimed that they felt


relaxed with family members.

The presence of more than

two adults in an extended family perhaps helps to reduce


the emotional conflicts of the parent-child relationship,
This may also account for the students' strongly positive
view of the authority figures.

Groups indicated a dependence on their parents


for discussing most of their everyday problems such as
career plans, health, family and financial problems.

They

also professed a positive involvement with family matters


such as sharing earnings, accommodations, accepting
family wishes about schooling and social activities.

98
However, on t h e m a t t e r of f r i e n d s h i p , m a r r i a g e
and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y would want t o

partner

make t h e i r

own c h o i c e s r a t h e r than s u b m i t t i n g t o p a r e n t s '


On t h e w h o l e , s t u d e n t s ' a s p i r a t i o n s

direction.
paralleled

t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t of p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s i n such m a t t e r s
a s h o n e s t y , d i l i g e n c e , k i n d n e s s and f r i e n d l i n e s s ,
differed

but

i n t h o s e such a s o b e d i e n c e , g e t t i n g good

g r a d e s , r e c e i v i n g a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , and b e i n g
family-minded.

These l a t t e r were c o n s i d e r e d t o be

esteemed b y t h e i r p a r e n t s , b u t n o t deemed so i m p o r t a n t
by t h e s t u d e n t s .
As an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , t h e t e a c h e r was viewed
as h a v i n g n o t n e a r l y so much i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t s as
the p a r e n t s .

Only on

such t h i n g s

a s s c h o o l problems

would t h e y be more l i k e l y to c o n s u l t w i t h

teachers

than w i t h p a r e n t s and even h e r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s n o t


v e r y h i g h ( w i t h t e a c h e r s AC 1 0 $ , C 2 7 $ ) .

As f o r t h e

more p e r s o n a l problems t h e y r e l i e d on t h e i r p a r e n t s or
friends for discussion.

In the secondary schools in

Hong Kong, t h e main t a s k s of a t e a c h e r a r e

largely

c o n f i n e d t o s c h o l a s t i c m a t t e r s such a s c o a c h i n g
examinations.

for

The i n d i v i d u a l needs of s t u d e n t s a p p e a r

n o t to have been given much p r i o r i t y . I t i s n o t


surprising that students f e l t
t h e t e a c h e r s t o be i m p e r s o n a l .

t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with
In t h e C h i n e s e

t r a d i t i o n t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are developed
from t h e e a r l i e s t y e a r s o f s c h o o l to be s e v e r e ,
a u t h o r i t a r i a n and d i s c i p l i n a r y i n n a t u r e and in
y e a r s seem t o be w e l l a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e
outlook.

later

pupil's

99
However, t h e groups in t h i s s t u d y f e l t
t h a t a t e a c h e r n e e d s t o be a f r i e n d

strongly

to h i s p u p i l s .

own v a l u e s a l s o c o i n c i d e d w i t h some of t h e i r
of t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s e . g .

Their

assessments

honesty,

f r i e n d l i n e s s , d i l i g e n c e , k i n d n e s s , o p e n n e s s t o new i d e a s ,
emphasis on t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e and a c c e p t a n c e of
bi-cultural

influences.

Opinion was d i v i d e d on w h e t h e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
was t h e h a p p i e s t time i n t h e i r l i v e s .

One may guess

t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who had succeeded in t h e s c h o o l


system b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y would g i v e an
affirmative

answer.

School days may w e l l be t h e h a p p i e s t

days o n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t f o r i t i s o n l y i n a d u l t
t h a t one r e a l i s e s t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k of
at that period.

I n Hong Kong i t

life

responsibilities

is difficult

to b e l i e v e

t h a t any one s t i l l i n t h a t p e r i o d of l i f e can a c t u a l l y


r e g a r d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t p r e s s u r e s and
e x a m i n a t i o n s a s the h a p p i e s t time of h i s l i f e .

There

is

the s t o r y a b o u t one f i r s t y e a r u n d e r g r a d u a t e summoned


t o a c c o u n t f o r h i s non-work a t t i t u d e .

His r e p l y was

t h a t t h i s was t h e f i r s t y e a r s i n c e he was f i v e

years

o l d t h a t he d i d n o t have to work f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n and


he was g o i n g t o make t h e most of

itj

S t u d e n t s a s s e r t e d some d e g r e e of a m b i v a l e n c e
towards a u t h o r i t y .

Although a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e view of

t h e i r p a r e n t s had been e x p r e s s e d , more than one

third

of t h e groups i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had o l d

fashioned

p a r e n t s , and many more p r o f e s s e d n e g a t i v e

feelings

r e g a r d i n g f a m i l i e s and t h e i r members.

100
Students and Their Peers

Both groups appeared to be very much like


their schoolmates, having values and aspirations which
were very similar to those projected for their peers.
Friendliness, honesty and kindness were considered the
most important personal values.

Balance of work and

leisure, diligence and openness to new ideas were deemed


important values relating to school as were caution in
forming friendships and acceptance of bi-cultural
influences in the area of social relationships.

The peer culture was also perceived as desiring


freedom from parental domination and as discussing personal
problems with their friends.

The majority of each peer

group was viewed as wanting to have a choice of friends


and spouses, as preferring to have friends of both sexes
and of their own age, as being gregarious in that they
chose to have a few good friends or a lot of friends,
and as willing to give immediate help to friends in
trouble but as guarding against friends of bad character.

This verbalization of an easy relationship


between sexes and among friends may be due to the extended
family grouping so that there is always close contact
between sexes and among people of all ages at every stage
of their development.

In the sample, however, 11 out of

27 are single sex schools (6 boys' and 5 girls')*

I*

be that the students are voicing their expectations


rather than a true picture of situation in practice.

mav

101

Identity
The young p e r s o n i n Hong Kong h a s to f a c e an
i s s u e of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y which i s c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n t o
his parents.

E.H. E r i k s o n used t h e term

"identity

c r i s i s " t o d e n o t e t h a t p e r i o d of l i f e when a person must


work h a r d e s t a t t h e t a s k of a c h i e v i n g

self-delineation

and e g o - i d e n t i t y w i t h some r e a s o n a b l y c o m f o r t a b l e view


of h i s p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e .

In t h e c a s e of

these

s t u d e n t s , most have no c o m f o r t a b l e view of t h e i r p a s t ,


nor a p r e d i c t a b l e future

t o g u i d e them b u t must make

v i t a l d e c i s i o n s l a r g e l y on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r

experience

w i t h t h e u n s e t t l e d s o c i e t y in which t h e y p r e s e n t l y

live.

The g r o u p s a p p e a r e d confused on t h e i d e n t i t y q u e s t i o n of
l o y a l t y and b e l o n g i n g to a n a t i o n ( C h i n a , B r i t a i n ,
Hong Kong).

While most of them p r o f e s s e d

or

to be of Chinese

n a t i o n a l i t y , r e s p e c t i n g t h e one n a t i o n a l h e r o , Sun
Y a t - s e n , t h e problem o f p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i y (Which Chinese
n a t i o n ? ) seemed to r e m a i n l a r g e l y u n s o l v e d .

What E r i k s o n

c a l l s a " s e n s e of f i d e l i t y " p r o v i d e s a c e r t a i n

strength

i n h e r e n t i n youth of t h i s age group a s t h e y s e a r c h f o r


someone or something t o be t r u e t o .

If

the s c h o o l and

t h e s o c i e t y do not p r o v i d e t h e f u l f i l m e n t

of

this

s p e c i a l n e e d , t h e y o u t h i n Hong Kong would p r o b a b l y


p r o l o n g t h i s s e n s e of f i d e l i t y to t h e f a m i l y u n i t beyond
t h e p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o t h e r

societies.

While t h e n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y c r i s i s r e m a i n s
u n s o l v e d , t h e problem of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y

presents

fewer c o n f l i c t s , f o r b o t h g r o u p s can l o o k i n t o
past heritage with pride.

their

To a c q u i r e t h e s k i l l of

l i v i n g in a b i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y i s t h e main good

102

r e i n f o r c e d i n s c h o o l s and encouraged a t home.

A person

w e l l v e r s e d i n b o t h E n g l i s h and Chinese i s t o be d e s i r e d
i n o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l c i r c l e s .

Given a c h o i c e of

C h i n e s e , Western and b i - c u l t u r a l r o u t e s , the groups


s e l e c t e d c u l t u r a l t r a i t s and p a t t e r n s of b o t h w o r l d s
p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c c o m b i n a t i o n s .

for

I n matters of

language, r e l i g i o n , medical p r a c t i c e , food,

festivals,

p u b l i c i s s u e s and f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s , b i - c u l t u r a 3 p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g , combining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b o t h


E a s t and e s t , a r e a p p a r e n t .
T r a d i t i o n - D i r e c t e d and

I n n e r - D i r e c t e d Types

For h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between
s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r and s o c i e t y , Riesman i d e n t i f i e d
t y p e s of c h a r a c t e r :

the t r a d i t i o n - d i r e c t e d ,

d i r e c t e d and the o t h e r - d i r e c t e d .

the

three
inner-

He emphasised t h e

i n t i m a t e t i e s between p e r s o n a l i t y and c u l t u r e and t h e


fact

t h a t w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n was t e n d i n g t o produce

a profound s h i f t in the c h a r a c t e r and o r i e n t a t i o n of


its

people.

T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the

tradition-directed

c h a r a c t e r t y p e i s g e n e r a l l y found t o be most p r e v a l e n t
in r u r a l society.
old t r a d i t i o n .

Such p e o p l e a r e dominated by c e n t u r i e s -

Each p e r s o n knows h i s s t a t i o n and

its

accompanying r o l e .
The t r a d i t i o n - d i r e c t e d c h a r a c t e r t y p e b e g i n s
t o d i s a p p e a r when t h e s o c i e t y u n d e r g o e s change?
d i r e c t e d c h a r a c t e r t y p e then e m e r g e s .

The

an i n n e r -

inner-directed

man i s n o t q u i t e t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d , autonomous man.

103
R a t h e r , h i s v a l u e s and p r i n c i p l e s , which a r e l a r g e l y t h o s e
of h i s p a r e n t s , a r e d u l y embedded i n h i s c o n s c i e n c e i n
his e a r l i e s t years.

Ke f l o u r i s h e s i n an e r a when

o r i g i n a l i t y , t o u g h - m i n d e d n e s s and dLndependence a r e economic


virtues.
The o t h e r - d i r e c t e d type i s the p r o d u c t of a
s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e t h a t has i n c r e a s i n g l y come t o
approve teamwork, group i n t e g r a t i o n and g r e g a r i o u s n e s s
over i n d i v i d u a l i s m .

"When c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s framework,

t h e Hong

Kong s t u d e n t s 1 a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f , toward a u t h o r i t y ,


toward p e e r s , toward n a t i o n and c u l t u r e a p p e a r t o be
inner-directed.

A c c o r d i n g to Riesman, t h e p a t t e r n of

c o n f o r m i t y seems t o r e s t on o b e d i e n c e t o
c o n t r o l s i n s t i l l e d i n c h i l d h o o d by t h e
p a r e n t s and o t h e r a d u l t a u t h o r i t i e s .

internalised

individual's
The gyroscope

i m p l a n t e d by a d u l t s s e r v e s t o s t a b i l i z e t h e young even
in voyages o c c u p a t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l l y , or g e o g r a p h i c a l l y
f a r from t h e a n c e s t r a l home.

I n t h e h i s t o r i c a l s e q u e n c e , t h e g r a n d p a r e n t s of
t h e s e s t u d e n t s began t h e i r l i v e s a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y
and l i v e d t h r o u g h u p h e a v a l s such a s the impact of w e s t e r n
c i v i l i z a t i o n , s o c i a l r e f o r m s , r e v o l u t i o n s and c o u n t l e s s
c i v i l wars.

The p a r e n t s of t h e s e groups were b r o u g h t up

under t h e Chinese R e p u b l i c , w i t n e s s e d t h e s p l i t of t h e
p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the r i s e of n a t i o n a l i s m and c u l t u r a l
r e v o l u t i o n s and l a t e r were d e e p l y s h a t t e r e d by t h e
S i n o - J a p a n e s e War,

By chance o r by c h o i c e , t h e y e v e n t u a l l y

104
sought refuge in Hong Kong, uprooting themselves and,
sometimes, their entire families, from their ancestral
land, properties and status.

It would seem that these

people, having had the strength to withstand and survive


these experiences possess the stability and solidarity to
direct their young.

In a society of change and transition, once a


parent becomes uncertain about how best to prepare his
children for the future, relationships within the family
have to be reorganised.

In the process of change, the

most affected would be the young, who are caught up in the


process of making decisions about the present and the
future.

They are the ones who suffer or benefit most in

the transitional period.

In Hong Kong, where the

population enlarged ten times

and land values

increased a hundred times in a span of two decades, the


family and the parents are the major agents of stability.
Young people in this study appeared to share the values of
the adults and showed contentment with and responsibility
towards their families.

Two consequences of urbanisation, technological


advance, and industrialisation are marginality and
alienation.

The family which has failed to socialise

the child to fit properly into modern culture may produce


a person who is isolated from others and so forced to
maintain an identity without emotional support from the
group or the culture.

The Hong Kong students did not

appear to suffer from these consequences, for the family


had rather successfully played its role in socialisation,
and the school's structure is goal-directed.

105
By comparing t h e f i n d i n g s from the two g r o u p s ,
s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e more s t r i k i n g t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s .

They

had an i n t e r r e l a t e d s o t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make up


the c e n t r a l

c o r e of an i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n .

regarded t h e i r parents
v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s .

positively,

They

internalising

their

They enjoyed a c l o s e l y k n i t

f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p and were w i l l i n g to be d i r e c t e d .
They a c c e p t e d t h e p e e r c u l t u r e , b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by i t
in v a r i o u s ways.

School was i m p o r t a n t to them i n

e q u i p p i n g them w i t h new i d e a s and working s k i l l s .


R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t e a c h e r s were r e s e r v e d f o r

intellectual

matters,

They

and t h e r e f o r e remained i m p e r s o n a l .

i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Chinese c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s , b u t a d o p t e
a b i - c u l t u r a l o u t l o o k and l i v i n g s t y l e which was t h e
p r i m a r y g o a l of b o t h the home and t h e s c h o o l .

They l i v e d

b o t h i n t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e and were moulded by


a Confucian o u t l o o k which i s n o n - r e l i g i o u s in n a t u r e .
The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups wore n o t
u n i f o r m l y i n one d i r e c t i o n b u t formed

overlapping- t y p e s ,

a b l e n d i n g between t r a d i t i o n and i n n e r - d i r e c t e d as
opposed t o p r e d o m i n a n t l y o u t e r - o r

inner-directed.

The S o u r c e s of I n f l u e n c e s on t h e Anglo-Chinese Group


AC p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s were more emergent
t h a n t h e m s e l v e s i n e x p e c t i n g s t u d e n t s to r e c e i v e a
university education.

The p a r e n t s were more t r a d i t i o n a l

in v a l u i n g obedience, family-mindedness,

diligence,

s t r e n g t h in Chinese, s t r i v i n g for excellence,


good g r a d e s and r e s p e c t i n g Chinese

tradition.

getting

106
AC deemed t h e i r t e a c h e r s more emergent t h a n
t h e m s e l v e s i n e m p h a s i s i n g E n g l i s h and b e i n g a s c i e n t i s t
The t e a c h e r s were more t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e a r e a s of
o b e d i e n c e , w r i t i n g w e l l and s t r i v i n g f o r

excellence.

AC c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p e e r s more emergent
t h e m s e l v e s i n a c c e p t a n c e of w e s t e r n

than

influence.

Comparing p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , AC b e l i e v e d
t h a t p a r e n t s were more t r a d i t i o n a l than t e a c h e r s in the
a r e a s of f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s , s t r e n g t h i n C h i n e s e ,
c a u t i o n i n f r i e n d s h i p and r e s p e c t i n g Chinese

tradition;

t e a c h e r s were more emergent w i t h r e s p e c t to

creativity,

new i d e a s , s t r e n g t h i n E n g l i s h and

extra-curricular

activities.

A n g l o - C h i n e s e Group
The members of t h i s group v i s u a l i z e d

themselves

a s h a v i n g more u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r e n t s than t h e Chinese


g r o u p and b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n should be
of e q u a l s t a t u s .

They were more

individualistic,

i n d i c a t i n g r e s e r v a t i o n s about conforming to t h e p a r e n t s '


w i s h e s and t h e f a m i l i e s ' demands.

They s t r i v e d

improvement in l i f e and were m o t i v a t e d to l e a r n .


were p e e r - o r i e n t e d ,

for
They

working toward a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h

them, and viewed t h e m s e l v e s a s " j u s t one of the crowd"


and " a v e r a g e i n l o o k s " .

They c o n s i d e r e d

c r e a t i v i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in
activities desirable.

independence,

extra-curricular

These i d e a s were made p o s s i b l e by

t h e s c h o o l c l i m a t e and were r e i n f o r c e d by the p e e r g r o u p s .

107
They had v e r y l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s
the classroom.

outside

They i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Hong Kong a s

homeland and China a s t h e s o u r c e of t h e i r

their

cultural

h e r i t a g e , and a c c e p t e d t h e m s e l v e s as t r u l y

bi-cultural.

The s o u r c e s of i n f l u e n c e on the Chinese Group


C p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a s more emergent
than t h e m s e l v e s in the a r e a s of b e i n g
and b e i n g

ociontist

them

civic-minded

b u t more t r a d i t i o n a l in e x p e c t i n g

to be k i n d , f amily-mimdod , t o

a c h i e v e good

g r a d e s and t o be o r i e n t e d t o t h e p a s t .
C deemed t h e i r t e a c h e r s more emergent

than

t h e m s e l v e s i n v a l u i n g f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h , becoming a
scientist

and a c c e p t i n g

of w e s t e r n i n f l u e n c e .

Teachers

were more t r a d i t i o n a l i n e x p e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o be
o b e d i e n t and t o w r i t e w e l l .
C c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p e e r s to b e more emergent
t h a n t h e m s e l v e s i n s t r e s s i n g a c c e p t a n c e of w e s t e r n
i n f l u e n c e but more t r a d i t i o n a l i n e m p h a s i s i n g
good g r a d e s .
I n a comparison of p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , C
i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s were more t r a d i t i o n a l

in

e m p h a s i s i n g f a m i l y - m i n d e d n e s s and r e s p e c t f o r
t r a d i t i o n w h i l e t e a c h e r s were more emergent i n
c r e a t i v i t y , s o c i a b i l i t y , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r

Chinese
stressing
activities.

108

The Chinese Group

The Chinese g r o u p r e l i e d more on d i r e c t i o n

from

a u t h o r i t y and i t s t r a d i t i o n s than the A n g l o - C h i n e s e .


They were more f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d ,

asserting

positive

f e e l i n g s and w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e r v e t h e f a m i l y t o a
greater extent.

They t u r n e d m o s t l y to p a r e n t s and

o c c a s s i o n a l l y t o t e a c h e r s to d i s c u s s t h e i r p r o b l e m s .
Aside from v a l u i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l l y good v a l u e s such as
f r i e n d l i n e s s , h o n e s t y and d i l i g e n c e , t h e group a l s o
deemed d e s i r a b l e the a b i l i t y to w r i t e w e l l and b e i n g
strong in Chinese.

They looked f o r c o n t e n t m e n t i n

and were c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h C h i n a , to i t s

life

race

and c u l t u r e r a t h e r t h a n i t s p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s .

They

were a l s o more t r a d i t i o n a l i n h a b i t s , customs and


religious

practices.

Value O r i e n t a t i o n
To t h e q u e s t i o n of human n a t u r e , F l o r e n c e
Kluckholn s u g g e s t e d t h r e e p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s : man i s
basically evil, neutral
e v i l ) , o r good.

( a combination

F u r t h e r m o r e , human n a t u r e can be viewed

as immutable o r s u b j e c t to c h a n g e .
repertoire

of good and

of v a l u e s

From t h e wide

c h o s e n , t h e s t u d e n t s a p p e a r e d to

b e l i e v e t h a t human n a t u r e i s a m i x t u r e of good and


e v i l and i t can be p e r f e c t e d .

Kluckholn a l s o

stated

t h a t t h i s i s t h e p o i n t of view most w i d e l y h e l d by
other

societies.
I n r e l a t i n g t o n a t u r e , man can s e e h i m s e l f

as s u b j u g a t e d by i t , a s a t t e m p t i n g t o l i v e i n harmony
with i t ,

or as e s t a b l i s h i n g mastery over

it.

109
Traditionally,
They h a v e ,

the Chinese b e l i e v e

for example, often

in n a t u r e ' s

refused

power.

to be t r e a t e d

a p h y s i c i a n b u t h a v e gone t o t e m p l e s t o p r a y f o r
b l e s s i n g or b l e s s e d medicine.

They b e l i e v e

and t o l i v e

in harmony w i t h

In medical treatments, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s
t h e y a p p e a r e d to
to n a t u r e .

For example,

and w e s t e r n f e s t i v a l s

for

another.

supernatural
Hungry

in n a t u r e ,

such as e x o r c i s i n g
their

the

students.

t h a t man h a s l i v e d i n t h e p a s t ,
live

in the f u t u r e .

underscored the d e s i r a b i l i t y
perceived

methods

popularity

A l l s o c i e t i e s h a v e had to a c c e p t

and w i l l

four

and r i t u a l s w h i c h a r e

Ghosts, had o b v i o u s l y l o s t

among t h e

Chinese

Chinese

one t y p e o f a i l m e n t a n d w e s t e r n
Certain festivals

nature.

pertaining

which a r e r e l a t e d t o the
They p r e f e r r e d

the

festivals,

the students celebrated

seasons with equal vigour.


treatments for

and

c h o o s e c r e e d s and c u s t o m s

and

However

showed an a t t e m p t t o move away f r o m

supernatural beliefs

illness

d e a t h t o b e t h e w i l l o f Heaven o r o n e ' s f a t e .
the students

by

is

This

t h e i r parents as past o r i e n t e d .

shrines

The

in evidence

students

Traditionally,

the s t u d e n t s perhaps

ritual,
still

The

and t h e

as

they

keen

v e r y much

Like youth in

expected change.

might n o t be as f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d

the

i n many h o u s e h o l d s ,

and customs a r e

in t h e community.

has

o r i e n t e d and deemed

the s e a s o n a l family g r a v e - v i s i t i n g
o b s e r v a n c e of c r e e d s

present,

time o r i e n t a t i o n

Chinese emphasize r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the p a s t .


presence of a n c e s t o r s '

fact

l i v i n g in the

of c h a n g e ,

themselves as future

the

general,

However

they

considered

1 10
t h e m s e l v e s to b e .

S i m i l a r l y , t h e p a r e n t s might

w e l l n o t be a s p a s t - o r i e n t e d a s t h e s t u d e n t s

reported.

I n a d d i t i o n to t h e o r i e n t a t i o n to time t h e r e
the orientation

t o a c t i v i t y , f. KluckhoIn i d e n t i f i e d

k i n d s of a c t i v i t y i n which man found h i s


as r a n g i n g from b e i n g to d o i n g .

is

the

self-expression

The s t u d e n t s t e n d e d to

v a l u e " g e t t i n g t h i n g s done" o r " d o i n g something" a b o u t


a problem o v e r a more p a s s i v e

attitude.

f. Kluckho In c l a s s i f i e d t h r e e t y p e s of

relationship

t o t h e q u e s t i o n of man's r e l a t i o n s to o t h e r men:
c o l l a t e r a l and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c .

To some e x t e n t

lineal,
every

s o c i e t y must c o n s i d e r a l l t h r e e forms of r e l a t i o n s h i p , .
The i n d i v i d u a l born i n t o a s o c i e t y i s always r e l a t e d
b i o l o g i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y a s l i n e a l d e s c e n d e n t of
o t h e r members o f t h a t s o c i e t y .

He i s a l s o r e l a t e d

c o l l a t e r a l l y t o o t h e r members of h i s g r o u p .

Beyond t h e s e

r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he i s a l s o an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a measure
of autonomy.

The s t u d e n t s ' k i n s h i p t i e s

relationships with ancestors.

Their

emphasized

family-mindedness

and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a u t h o r i t y s t r e s s e d

strong

t i e s w i t h n u c l e a r as w e l l a s e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members.
S t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d g r e a t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r
w a n t i n g b o t h t o s u p p o r t and t o
group.

friends,

bo s u p p o r t e d by t h e

peer

They and t h e i r p e e r g r o u p s p r o b a b l y p l a c e d

most v a l u e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of i n d i v i d u a l s
individuals.

as

T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be g r e a t v a r i a t i o n

v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n Hong Kong.

in

Although some

dominant v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d ,

many

v a r i a n t p a t t e r n s c o n c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d by t h e group could
p a s s t h e eyes of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s

unnoticed.

111

Cultural Values and Educational Goals

Svery culture lias its values and value systems.


In a simple society, cultural values are most likely to
be integrated and stable.

In an industrial society like

Hong Kong, the cultural value system is much more complicated.

There exists within the same society a wide

area of possible choices: desirable vs. undesirable,


Chinese vs. "/estern, emergent vs. traditional, personal
v s . school or cultural etc.

Mitchell (1969) in his study

of Hong Kong pupils, found that Chinese and Western values


need not be opposed to each other on many issues.

However

there are some issues where there are fairly obvious


alternatives such as music, movies and fashions in
clothing.

All of these involve family life styles and

they are clearly different in their Chinese and Western


manifestations.

Mitchell found that students gave top

priority to having "a good personality", placing academic


achievement second.

In these findings, the values relating personal


and social relationships received top ranking following by
school and cultural values.

Jeffreys (1972) considered

the aims of education to be nurturing personal growth,


conserving and transmitting and renewing culture.

Ho

commented that, in the west, the last twenty years have


seen established traditions and values disappearing
without much sign

as yet of their replacement by

anything constructive.

As a remedy, Bennis (1969)

suggested that an educational system should be designed to


help the individual to develop some permanent or abiding

112
commitment a greater fidelity to something or someone

to make a person more human.

Money is not the total solution to educational


problems.

Better paid teachers, and modern school building*

and equipment alone do not necessarily produce good quality


students;

there are many intangible qualities involved in

oducation.

An effective education could help

students to gain faith by which to live; to make efforts to


understand their world and their place in it; to recover
the sense of vocation and to rediscover the meaning and
importance of the family.

Urbanization and industrialization have split the


family unit and destroyed the communal living pattern.

It

has given to the community, slums, resettlement and highrise housing estates.

Family ties, clan relationships and

neighborliness have been shaken.

However, the family is

the natural context in which personal and social values are


learned and understood.

It is especially in the family

that relationships are essentially personal and each person


is valued as a person.
therefore, the

The integrity of the family is,

most important bulwark against the

destruction of personal values by other forces in modern


living.

In a changing community like Hong Kong, our


society, particularly our

educational system should be

involved in helping to develop the competence necessary in


interpersonal relationships.

Our school system should be

able to help us to develop and preserve certain permanent

113

v a l u e s ; t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n a b i d i n g commitments; t o l e a r n
what r o l e s a r e s a t i s f y i n g and how t o a t t a i n them; to a c c e p t
b i - c u l t u r a l l i v i n g p a t t e r n s and t o be a b l e t o p l a c e in
p e r s p e c t i v e v a r i o u s s e t s of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .

I t may be

d e s i r a b l e to re-emphasise the ancient p h i l o s o p h i c a l

concept

of " f a m i l y " t o embrace t h e whole of mankind a s was t h e c l e a r


i n t e n t i o n of Confucian t h i n k e r s f o r many c e n t u r i e s .
f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows t h a t i t was t h e n a t u r a l
of t h e s u p e r i o r man's a t t i t u d e , t h e c i r c l e of

The

sequence

relationships

r a d i a t i n g o u t from t h e p a r e n t s to the whole s o c i e t y .

In

r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s of a s t u d e n t , Chu Hsi
( 1 2 t h C e n t u r y ) s a i d , " I n t h e i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h f r i e n d s and
i n g o v e r n i n g t h e p e o p l e , one cannot s e e k f o r t h e
of f a i t h f u l n e s s

principles

and humanity i n f r i e n d s and t h e p e o p l e .

They

a r e a l l i n t h e mind, t h a t i s a l l , f o r t h e mind and p r i n c i p l e


are i d e n t i c a l .

When t h e mind i s f r e e from t h e

obscuration

of s e l f i s h d e s i r e s , i t i s t h e embodiment of t h e P r i n c i p l e
of N a t u r e , w h i c h r e q u i r e s n o t an i o t a added from t h e o u t s i d e .
When t h i s m i n d , which h a s become c o m p l e t e l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h
the P r i n c i p l e of N a t u r e , i s a p p l i e d and a r i s e s to s e r v e
p a r e n t s , t h e r e i s f i l i a l p i e t y ; when i t a r i s e s to s e r v e t h e
r u l e r , t h e r e i s l o y a l t y ; when i t a r i s e s to d e a l w i t h
or to govern t h e p e o p l e , t h e r e
humanity."

(Chan W i n g - t s i t ,

are faithfulness

1963).

and

friends

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allport, G.

"Attitudes" in Handbook of Social

Psychology, pp. 798-8^4.

Clark University

Press, Worcester, 1935.


.

Pattern and Growth in Personality.

R i e n h a r t & f i n s t o n , New Y o r k ,
.

, Vernon & Lindzey.

B e n n i s , J.

& Slater,
pp.

P.

114-128.

Chan, U i n g - T s i t .

1961.

S t u d y of V a l u e s :

A Scale for Measuring


in P e r s o n a l i t y .

Holt,

the Dominant

Interests

Houghton M i f f l i n ,
The Temporary

Manual,

Boston,

i960.

Society,

H a r p e r & Row, New Y o r k ,

Instructions for practical

1919.

lining

and

o t h e r N e o - C o n f u c i a n w r i t i n g s b y Wang Y a n g - M i n g ,
p.7.
C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 .
Coleman, J . S .
The A d o l e s c e n t S o c i e t y ; t h e S o c i a l L i f e
of t h e T e e n a g e r and i t s

Impact in

The F r e e P r e s s , New Y o r k ,
Coleman, J . S .

1967.

A d o l e s c e n t s and t h e S c h o o l s .

New Y o r k ,
Connell,

Education.

Basic Books,

1965.

.\T.F., F r a n c i s , S . P . & S i l b e c k ,

E.E.

Growing

up i n an A u s t r a l i a n C i t y ; A S t u d y of
Adolescents

in Sydney.

Australian

Council

for Educational Research, Victoria,


D a v i s , K.

19^3.

"The S o c i o l o g y o f P a r e n t - Y o u t h C o n f l i c t "
Education and S o c i e t y , p p .
M e r r i l l Books, Ohio,

D u k e s , . F . & Dempsey, P.

115-123.

C.E.

1 966.

" J u d g i n g Complex V a l u e

S t i m u l i : An E x a m i n a t i o n a n d R e v i s i o n of
P a t h s of L i f e "

in E d u c a t i o n a l and

T h e C h i l d and S o c i e t y :
Socialization,
York,

E r i kson, E.
pp.

the Process

pp. 25-35.

Morris'

Psychological

Measurement, Vol. 26, pp. 871-882,


Elkin, F.

in

1966.
of

Random H o u s e , New

1961.

C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y , p p . 219-231
235-265.

N o r t o n , New Y o r k ,

1950.

and

115
Green, B.

"Attitude. Measurement" in Handbook of Social


Psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 335-369.

Add ison-

tfesley, Cambridge, 195^.


Havighurst, 3.. J.

& Taba, li. Adolescent Character and

Personality, pp. 28-46.

John iiley & Sons,

New York, 19^9.


Henderson, IT.II.

Educational Problems and Research; A

Kong Kong Introduction, pp. 37-38.

University

of Hong Kong Research Unit, Hong Kong, 1973.


Hong Kong Annual Report 197^ ;

Hong Kong Government.

review of 1973 PP. 56-59.

Hong Kong

Government Printer, Kong Kong, 197^.


Jeffreys, M.Y.C.

The Aims of Bducation (Glaucou),

pp. 3-20.

Pitman Press, Bath, 1972.

King, S.H., Bidwell, C.E., Finnie, B. & Scarr, H.A.


"Undergraduate Careers: Alternative*and
Determinants", a report from the Harvard
Student Study read before the 56th Annual
Meeting of the American Sociological
Association.
King, S.H.

St. Louis, Missouri, 1961.

"Values and Personality Development Among


College lien" , a report from the Harvard
Student Study road before the annual meeting
of the American Psychological Association,
New York, 1961.

Kluckholn, C.

"Values and Value-orientations in the

Theory of Action: An Exploration in Definition


and Classification" in Toward a General Theory
of Action , pp. 409-^-1 1

Harvard University

Press, Cambridge, 1951.


Kluckholn, F. & Spiegal, J.P.

"Integration and Conflict

in Family Behaviour" in Committee on the


Family of the Group for the Advancement of
Psychiatry Report No. 27, pp. 7^-77.
Topeka, Kansas, 195^.

116
Lewin, H.

Dynamic Theory of P e r s o n a l i t y .
New York, 1935.

McGraw-Kill,

L i , A.H.F.

"A P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e S c a l e in Chinese" in
P a y c h o l o g i a An I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of
Psychology in the Orient, Vol. XVI, No. 3, 16,
pp. 174-176.

Linton, "_1.

The Cultural Background of Personality,

pp. 28-30.

P.outledge & Hegan Paul, London,

1964.
Liu, Hu-chi,

A Short History of Confucian Philosophy,

p. 9.
Mitchell, R.E,

Penguin Boolis, Middlesex, 1955.


Pupil, Parent and School; A Hong Kong

Study, Vol. I and II,

A project of the

Urban Family Life Survey, Hong Hong, 1969,


Morris, C.

Varieties of Human Value, pp. 20-66.

University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1968.


Rosenberg, M.

Society and the Adolescent Self-image,

PP. 3-5

Princeton University Press,

Princeton, 1965,
Sadler, 7.3.

Adolescence Problems, pp. 27-29.

The C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1943.


Stephenson, W.

The Study of Behaviour.

University of

Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953.

Westby-Gibson, D.

Social Perspectives on Education;

the Society, the Student, the School, p. 77.


John Wiley & Son, New York, 1965.
William, Tl.

"Value Orientation in American Society"

in Social Perspectives on Behaviour,


pp. 288-314.

Free Press, Illinois, 1950.

117
SELECTED ITEMS FROM THE COLEMAN STUDY
STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL CLIMATES

'Tame

Age

Sex

School

Form

This questionnaire is part of a study being carried out in secondary


schools to learn about the interests and attitudes of secondary school.
students in various kinds of school situations. We think you will find the
questions bel^w interesting to answer. Try to go through the questionnaire
quickly, without spending too much time on any single question* Answer the
questions in order, without skipping.
Feel free to answer exactly the way you feel, for no one in this school
will ever see the answers. This is an attitude questionnaire, and not a test.
There are no ri.ht or wrony answers.

1.

What subjects do you like best in school ?


Check one
1.
2.
3.
4.
56.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

2.

a school very
a school with
a school with
a school with
other (What ?

mucli
more
good
good

like the one I am attending at present.


technical courses
standard of science courses
standard of arts courses
,
)

Thinking back to the days in primary 5 & 6, did you enjoy that period
more than you are enjoying secondary school now, or are you enjoying
secondary school more ?
1.
2.
3.

5.

3tay in school until Matriculation


stay in school until School Leaving
leave school before School Leaving
don1t know

If you had your choice of going to another school, whieh wmild you chooso ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4.

If you had your own choice, would you


1.
2.
3.
4.

3.

science subjects
mathematics subjects
social scionce subjects
Chinese
English
physical education
music
art
vocational courses
commercial courses
~thor (What ?

primary 5 * 6 more
secondary school more
both same

What would you most liice to get from secondary school ?

118
6.

Below is a list of items on which some parents have rules for their
children, while others don't. Cfeeck each item that your parents
have definite rules for.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
1516.
17.
18.

7.

Suppose you had an extra hour in school and could either take some
course of your own choosing, or use it for athletics or some other
activity, or use it for study. How would you use it ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

8.

by myself
with a boy/girl friend
with other friends
with a group of boys and girls
with members of my family

About how much time, on the average, do you spend watching television
on a weekday ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

11.

never, or almost never


about once a month or less
about once overy two or three weeks
about once a week
about twice a week
more than twice a week

With whom d~- you go most of ton ?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

10.

course
athletics
club or irtivity
study homework
to do something else, what ?

How often do ,y-u go to the movies ?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

9-

going out
time spent on home work
the type of friends that I am going around with
the amount of pocket monoy
the way I spend my pocket money
boy-girl relationship
leisure activities
the way I dress
my food habits
bed-time hours
cleanliness
religious belief
manners
use of telephones
listening to radio
watching T. V.
family relationships
other (What ?
)

none,
about
about
about
about

or almost none
hour a day
1 hour a day
1-- hours a day
2 hours or more a day

Different people strive for different things. Here are some things that
you have probably thought about. Among the things you strive for during
your school day, just how important is each of these to you-? (rank
from 1 to 5)
pleasing my parents
learning as much as possible in school

119
living up to my ideals
being accepted and liked by other pupils
excelling in my

work and being looked up to

in class
12.

? ow rank the following four items in terms of their importance to you :


groups and activities outside school
activities associated with school
having a good time
a good reputation

13.

What classmates herf)4n school do you &o around with most often ?
(Give names.)

14.

What do you and the friends you go around with hero at school have
most in common - what are the things you do together ?

15.

Among the popular places around here, which is the one you go to
together most often.

16.

Among the friends you go around with, which of the things below are
important to io in order to be popular in the group ?
1. know what'3 going on in the world of pop singers and movie stare
2. be a good danoer
3. have mod clothes
4. have a good reputation
5. have good mark3
6. have money
7. anything else?

17.

Among tho friend* you go around with what are the things that are
popular right now - that is, in your g^oup ?
style of clothing
hair-style
sports

musical talent
anything else ?
18.

Of a l l ~zvzor>~ . J i)U' r - i n a o

i s the best athlete ?


i s the beat pupil ?

which person

.,

120
would your classteacher most like to ask for his/her help ?
Who

would you most l-ike to be friends with ?

19.

How much time, on the average, do you spend doing homew.vrk

20.

1.

about 1 hour a day

2.

about 2 hours a day

3. about 3 hours or more a day


Name 3 persons in class you would most like to work with in a history/
maths project ?

21.

Thinking of all persons in this class, who would you want most to be
likr ?

22.

What does it tke to be one of the leading group in this class ?

23.

Would ycu say you are a part of the leading group ?


1. yes
2. no
If no, Would you like to be part of the leading group ?
3. yes
4. no
5. don't care

24.

If a person came here tn school and wanted to be associated with the


leading group, what persons should he get to be friends with ?

25.

What 13 your favourite way of spending your leisure time ?

26.

When- a new style of drss comes out, how soon do you change to the
new style ?
I'm usually one of the first
I change about the same time
I usually don't change until
I don't follow the change at
Clothing styles don't matter

27.

in my group to change.
that most other people in my group change.
moat of my friends have changed.
all.
to me.

Suppose you had money to buy a new sports jacket/dress for a party dance.
How would you decide what style or fashion to look for ?
I'd ask a friend of my own age for advice.
I'd ask a friend a little older than I am for advice.
I'd ask one of the members of my family for advice.
I'd find out what is in style from a magazine.
I wouldn't consult anything or anyone.

28.

What person in class would, be, best, able to keep you informed about
what the latest style is ?

121

29.

A situation like this might face anyone sooner or later. Suppose your
parents planned to attend a family wedding dinner,and thsy wanted to
take the whole family along.. But then it happens that your class has
a function on the same night. Your parents can't change their plans,
and they leave it up to you : to go with them or to go to the class
function. Which do you think you would do ?
go with parents
go to class function

30.

If you could be remembered here at school for one of three things below,
which one would you want it to be ?
brilliant student
athletic star
most popular

31.

Among the. items, below, what.does it take to get to be important and


looked up to by the other pupils here at school ?
coming from a comfortable home
leader in activities
having nice clothes
high grades, top of the class
being an athletic star
being in the leading group

32.

Let us assume that you had always wanted to belong to a particular


club in school, and then finally you were asked to join. But then you
found out that your parents didn.'t approve of the group. Do you think
you would
1.
2.
3.
4.

33.

definitely join anyhow


probably join
probably not join
definitely not join

What if your parents approved, but the teacher ynu liked mst disapproved of the group. Would you
1. defintely join anyhow
2. probably join
3. probably not join
4. definitely not join

34.

But what if your parents and teachers approved of the group, but by joining
th club you would break with your closest friend, who wasn't asked to join,
Would you
1. definitely join anyhow
2. probably join
3. probably not join
4. definitely not join

35-

Which one of these things would be hardest for you to take - your parents*
disapproval, your teacher's disapproval, or breaking up with your friend ?
1. parents' disapproval
2. teacher's disapproval
3. breaking up with friend

122
36.

Just suppose you were chosen to join the extracurricular activity which
you most wanted to be in here at school
What club/group/society would it he ?
Do you already belong to this club/group/society ?
yes
no

37.

Do you belong to any clubs or groups outside of school, such as scouts,


guides, Duke of Edinburgh's Scheme, Junior Red Cross or a church young
people's group ?
yes
no
If yes : what are the names of the group(s) ?

38.

Which of the items below fit most of the girls here at school ?
(check as many as apply)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

39

) friendly
) disinterested in school
) hard to get to know
) crazy about mechnical things
) active around school
) studious
) sports-minded
others

Which of the items below fit most of the teachers here at school ?
(check as many as apply)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

41.

friendly
studious
hard to get to know
mad about clothes
active around school
boy-crazy
snobbish
spiteful
others

Which of the items below fit most of the boys here at school ?
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

40.

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

)
)
)
)
)
)
)

friendly
tno strict with school wrrk
not interested in teaching
understanding
not interested in pupils
willing to help out in activities
unapproachable

Do you agree or disagree that


agree

disagree

( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( )

The real qualities of a person come out in the group.


If I could make a change,I would be someone different
from myself.
I enjoy social gatherings just to be with people.
I am often not able to keep up with the rest.

123
agree
)
( )
42.

disagree
( )
I am not doing so well at school
( )
If a person want to be part of the leading group
around here, he sometimes has to go against his
principles.
( )
I often find myself day-dreaming.

Rank the following in terms of their attractiveness for you, if you


could be any of these
an executive in a large company
a respected leader in civic and political affairs in my
community.
a successful business man in my community

43.

Do ynu read any magazines regularly or fairly regularly ?


yes
nr>
If yes : which ones ?

44.

45-

46.

Which type(s) of books you read regularly ?


1. Chinese literature
6. Science fiction
2. English literature
"J. Detectives
3. Chinese fiction
8. Historical novels
4. Enfelish fiction
9. ^ ^ ,JN ^j
5. Science and technology
10. others
Do you read newspapers everyday ?
yes
no
if yes : which ones ?
Hank the following seven occupations in terms of their desirability
writer or journalist
scientist
business executive
medical doctor
engineer
solicitor
accountant
secondary ^choo!1. teacher
others

47.

Rank the following occupations in terms of their desirability


clerical staff
trained mechanic
proprietor of a store
owner-operator of a printing shop

124
primary school teacher
nurse
46.

Thinking realistically, do you think you will live and work in Hong Kong
when you leave school ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

definitely yes
probably yes
don't know
probaMy no
definitely no

49.

'hat kind of work do you plan to take up when you finish your schooling ?

50.

Rank the five itewis below in terms of their importance to you Concerning
a job
the security of steady work
the opportunity for rapid promotion
the enjoyment of the work itself
friendly people to work with

51.

a hi^h salary
If you had a hundred dollars, and you were completely free to do With
it whatever you wanted, what "would you do with it ?
1.
2.
3.
4.

52.

If you were goint to university and money were no problem, would you
rather go abroad to study or attend university here ?
1.
2.
3.

53.

3pend it all on
spend moet of it on
save most of it
save it all

&o abmad to 3tudy


3tudy here
don't know

Are you planning to go to university after secondary school if money


were no problem
1 yes
2. undecided because
3. no because

54.

Check the category which comes closest to your feelings about your self :1.
2.
3.

55.

I don't like myself the way I am, I'd like to change completely.
There are many things I'd like to ohange, but not completely.
I'd like to stay very much the same; there is very little I would like
to ohange.

The years in secondary school have been


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

full of fun and excitement


hard woTk but interesting
fairly pleasant
fairly dull
unhappy

125
56.

Complete the following sentences :

More than anything else, I'd like to

The best thing that could happen to me this year at school would be

The most important thing, in life is

I worry most about


o7 Where were you born ?
8.

How much formal education did your father and mother have ?
Father

Mother

59.

( )
(
( )
;
( )
(
( )
(
( )
(
( )
(
( )
(
( )
(
( )
(
What is your

)
no schooling
)
a few years of schooling
)
comppeted primary school
)
a few year3 of secondary schol
)
completed secondary school
)
attended professional training caurse
)
attended post-secondary education
)
completed university
)
don't know
father's occupation ? What does he do ?

eO.

Does your mother have a job outside the home ?


1. yes, full-tiem
2. ye3, part-time
3. no
4. If yes : what job ?

fcl. Do you get any money from your parents ?


1. no
2. I get money when I ask for it
3. I get a regular allowance
4. How much per week ?

G. L.

Oct. 1968.

126
A Study Project of the Department of Education, University of Hong Kong

This is not a test but a study project to get a picture


of your feelings concerning various matters.
The statements below describe various kinds of attitudes
and behaviour regarding '-ne's relationship towards others and
also about oneself.
There are no "right" or "wrong" answers. All the
information you provide here will be kept strictly confidential.
It is not necessary to sign your name on the answer sheets.
Please answer the items as quickly as you can, and do
not spend more than a few seconds on each items. All items can
be answered by simply ticking the box next to the appropriate
answer category.
( s/ )
If any of the stated alternative choices does not
describe your exact feeling or attitude, it does not matter,
but choose the one that is closest to what you believe is right.
All the following items must be answered
item only.

1.

I consider the head of my family to be


(

2.

one answer to each

grandfather

father

grandmother
or

step-father

mother or

step-mother

uncle

aunt

elder brother

elder sister

(
(

)
)

brother-in-law
sister-in-law

myself

The head of my family can best be describe as


(

kind

cheerful

dignified

fair

hardworking

understanding

honest

stern

obstinate

dishonest

unfa ir

old fashioned

uninteresting

la zy

127
Page 2
3.

4.

5,

6,

7i

8,

9.

I would most want to


(

obey the head of the family

help my family

plan my own life

take advice from my friends

take advice from my teachers

I think I should
(

chooso my own friends

keep to my relatives

have the friends approved by my par ents

When I start work I shall


(

give all my money to parents

share it with parents

keep my money all to myself

I think it most important to discuss my career plans with


(

parents
teachers

brothers/sisters

relatives

friend

no one

I most often discuss school problem with


(

parents

teachers

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

brothers/sisters
relatives
friend
no one

When the matter is about boy-girl relationship, I shall


discuss it with
(

parents

teachers

brothers/sisters

relatives

friend

When the matter is about health, I shall discuss it with


(

parents

teachers

(
(

)
)

brothers/sisters
relatives

friend

doctor

128

Page 3
10,

11,

12,

13

When it is a family problem, I shall discuss it with


(

parents

teachers

brothers/sisters

relatives

friend

no one

When it is a financial problem, I shall discuss it with


(

parents

teachers

brothers/sisters

relatives

friend

no one

When I marry I will


(

choose my own partner

do what my parents advise

expect my parents to find me a partner

In my spare time I prefer to


(

1^.

15.

16.

17.

help ny family at home

have a hobby

do homework.

take a job outside

I feel my father is
(

too old fashioned

quite understanding

modern in his outlook

I feel my mother is
(

too old fashioned

quite understanding

m o d e m in her outlook.

Regarding my family
(

I feci quite proud

I don't have any strong feeling

I don't want to think of it because it hurts

Concerning members of my family


(
(

)
)

I feel very relaxed


indifferent

rather uncomfortable

129

Page 4
18.

If money were no problem I would prefer to


(

19.

20.

21 .

22,

24,

25,

live with my family

live with relatives

live with friends

live alone

I think a parent needs


(

to appear dignified

to be a friend to his/her children

to allow his/her children to make their own


decisions

I think a teacher needs


(

to have dignity

to be a friend to his/her pupils

to allow the pupils to make their own decisions

male

female

I am a

I am a student in
(
(

23,

)
)

Arts stream
Science stream

In my family, I am the
(

only child

eldest child

middle child

youngest child

My nationality is
(

British

Chinese

uncertain

other

My religion is
(

Protestant

Catholic

Buddhist

Moslem

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

Ancestor-Worship
other
no i n t e r e s t
no r e l i g i o n

Page 5
26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

I consider my natiyo country to be


(

Hong Kong

China

Taiwan

Macao

other

I consider ir.y place of origin


(

Hong Kong

China

Taiwan

Macao

other

I consider my national anthum begins with


(

God saves the Queen

The East is aed

Sam Man Chu Yee

other

I consider my f amily bjsl-ong-e to the


(

upper class

middle class

lower class

In general I think. Chinese customs should be


(

fully preserved

partially perserved

largely discarded

In general I think Western customs should be


(

fully adopted

partially adopted

largely discarded

quite satisfied with myself as a person

that I still have a lot to learn

that I am a rather inadequate person

I feel

33

I think
(
(
(

34.

I prefer to be with friends of


(

playing games is
) a waste of time
) a good enjoyment
) nocessary for hetlth

my own sex

opposite sex

both sexes

130

131

Pago 6
35.

36.

37>

38.

39-

40.

kl,

42.

Most of my friends are


(

older than myself

of similar age

younger than myself

I consider the happiest period of my life to be


(

pre-school

kindergarten

lower primary

upper primary

lower secondary

upper

secondary

I consider the most unhappy period of my life to be


(

pre-school

kindergarten

lower primary

upper primary

lower

upper secondary

secondary

I consider myself
(

soinc thing of a leader

just one of the crowd

a follower

I believe it is best
(

to express opinions on social matters

to take a passive interest in social matter

to leave such matters to responsible person

I have in this class


(

no one I care for

a special friend

a fow good friends

a lot of frionds

With my situation in life I am generally


(

contented

striving for improvement

discontented

My personal appearance is, I believe


(

attractive

average

plain

132
Page 7
^3.

kk.

^5

I live in Hone ICong now because


(

it is my home

thure is nowhere else to go

I hope to go abroad

Chinese i3 the essential language

English is the essential language

Chinese and English are both essential

To me

To attempt to form a concept of myself is


(

uncomfortable

amusing

interesting.

133

13**

A atudy

Project.

of

the

Department

of

E d u c a tion,

University

of

Hong

Kong

In a aeco.idary school, there are many different expectations


about what a pupil ought to do and how he ought to spend his time.
We are presenting you here with a list of differing expectations and
we are interested in your opinions about them.
Read over the list and place a tick (s/)
i*1 * n e box next to
the item which you consider describes something a pupil in a
secondary school should be, Check as many of the following items
as apply to your expectation.
He or she should :
1.

be kind

2.

be friendly

3.

be tolerant

4.

be obedient

5.

be independent

6.

be honest

7.

be family-minded

8.

be civic-minded

9.

be hardworking

10.

be creative

11.

be sociable

12.

be an individual

13.

be curious and inquiring

14.

write well

15-

be strong in English and have a reasonable command


of Chinese

16.

be strong in Chinese and have a reasonable command

17.

be cautious in forming friendships

18.

strive for excellence in all he/she does and says

19.
20.

(
(

)
)

emphasize knowingn'ot doing


not be afraid of new ideas

21.

participate

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)

receive a university education


have acceptable manners and appearance
balance vork and leisure
be a scientist
be a humanist
be responsible and whole hearted

of English

in

extra-curricular

activities

28.

get good grades

29.

be at easo with members of the opposite sex

30.
31
32.

(
(
(

)
)
)

respect the Chinese tradition


respect the privacy of others
totally accept Western influence

33

maintain the Chinese tradition but be prepared to


accept Western influence

34.

live in harmony with nature

35.

emphasize

the past and present

36.

emphasize

the present and future

136

Page 2
The same list is repeated below. This time consider
what your parents would expect of a secondary pupil. Check
as many of the following items as apply to your parents'
expectations.
He or she should!
1.

bo kind

2.

be friendly

3.

be tolerant

k,

be obedient

5.

bo independent

6.

be honest

7.

be

family-minded

8.

bo

civic-minded

9.

be

hardworking

10.

be

creative

11.

be

sociable

12.

bo an

13.

be c u r i o u s and

\U.

write

15.

16.

be s t r o n g i n E n g l i s h and have a r e a s o n a b l e
of C h i n e s e
be s t r o n g i n Chinese and have a r e a s o n a b l e
of E n g l i s h

17.

18.

strive for excellence in all he/she does and says

19.

emphasize knowing not doing

20.

not be afraid of new ideas

21.

participate in extra-curricular activities

22.

receive a university education

individual
inquiring

well
command
command

be cautious in forming friendships

23.

have acceptable manners and appearance

24.

balance work and leisure

25.

be a scientist

26.

be a humanist

27.

be responsible and whole hearted

28.

get good grades

29.

be at ease with members of the opposite sex

30.

respect the Chinese tradition

31

respect the privacy of others

32.
33

(
(

)
)

34.

totally accept Western influence


maintain the Chinese tradition but be prepared
to accept Western influence
live in harmony with nature

35.

emphasize

the past and present

36.

emphasize

the present and future

137
Page 3
The same list is repeated below* This tirne consider
what teachers in your school would expect of a secondary p u p i l .
Check as many of the following items as apply to your teachers'
expectations,
H e o r she s h o u l d :
1.

b>^ kind

2.

be friondly

3.

be tolerant

4.

be obedient

5.

be independent

6.

be honest

7.

be

fanily-mindod

8.

be

civic-minded

9.

be

hardworking

10.

be

creative

11.

be

sociable

12.

be an

13.

be

14.

write

15.

16.

be strong in English and have a reasonable


of Chinese
be strong in Chinese and have a reasonable

individual

c u r i o u s and

inquiring

well
command
command

of English
17

be cautious in forming friendships

18.

strive for excellence in all he/she does and says

19.

emphasize knowingnot doing

20.

not be afraid of new ideas

21.

participate in extra-curricular activities

22.

receive a university education

23.

have acceptable manners and appearance

2k.

balance work and leisure

25.

be a scientist

26.

be a humanist

27.

be responsible and whole hearted

28.

get good grades

29.

be at ease with members of the opposite sex

respect the Chinese tradition

respect the privacy of others

32.

totally accept Western influence

33.

maintain the Chinese tradition but be prepared

34.

live in harmony with nature

35.

emphasize

the past and present

36.

emphasize

the present and future

to accept Western influence

Page

4
138

The same list is repeated b e l o w . T h i s time consider


what your own group of close friends in school w o u l d expect
of a secondary p u p i l . Check a s many of the following items
as apply to your group of close friends' e x p e c t a t i o n s .
He or she should :
1.

(,

bo

kind

2.

be

friendly

3.

be

tolerant

4.

be

obedient

5.

be

independent

6.

be

honest

7.
8.

(
(

)
)

be
bo

family-minded
civic-minded

9.

be

hardworking

10.

bo

creative

11.

bo

sociable

12.

be an

13.

be

14.

write

15.

be
of

16.

be strong in Chinese and have a reasonable command

individual

curious

and

inquiring

well

strong in
Chinese

English

and have a

reasonable

command

of English
17.

be

18.

strive

cautious

19.

emphasize

20.

not

21.

participate

22.

receive

23.

have

for

in

of

in

all

he/she

new

d o e s and

says

ideas

extra-curricular

university

acceptable

24.

balance

25.

be a

scientist

26.

be a

humanist

27.

be

28.

get

29.

be a t

30.

(.

respect

31.

32.

33.

34.

live

35.

emphasize

36.

responsible

activities

education

manners and

work and

good

friendships
in

k n o w i n g no.t d o i n g

be; a f r a i d
a

forming

excellence

appearance

leisure

and whole

hearted

grades

ease with

members of

the

Chinese

respect

the

privacy

totally

accept

maintain

the

to accept

of

Chinese

sex

others
influence

tradition

but be

prepared

influence

in harmony w i t h

nature

the past
the

opposite

tradition

Western

Western

the

and

present

present
and

future

G.L.