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Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT

4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Thermal equilibrium

:Keseimbangan terma

A

Hot

object

Equivalent to

Equivalent to

Cold

object

No net heat transfer

1. The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the

temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal

equilibrium.

2. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is

(zero, equal)

3. There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two objects

in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.

4. The liquid used in glass thermometer should

(a) Be easily seen

(b) Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature

(c) Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube

5. List the characteristic of mercury

(a) Opaque liquid

(b) Does not stick to the glass

(c) Expands uniformly when heated

(d) Freezing point -390C

(e) Boiling point 3570C

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

6. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.

7. The SI unit for ( heat , temperature) is Joule, J.

8. ( Heat , Temperature ) is the degree of hotness of a body

9. The SI unit for (heat , temperature) is Kelvin, K.

10. Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point

11. Upper fixed point( l

100)

Temperature, =

l0

l100

l

l - l

x 1000C

l100 - l0

: length of mercury at steam point

: length of mercury at point

Exercise 4.1

Section A: Choose the best answer

1. The figure shows two metal blocks.

Which the following statement is false?

B. It warms the water of the tea

C. It turns into heat energy and

disappears.

3. Which of the following temperature

corresponds to zero on the Kelvin scale?

A. 2730 C

B. 00C

C. -2730 C

D. 1000 C

B. P and Q are in thermal

equilibrium

C. Energy is transferred from P to Q

D. Energy is transferred from Q to P

glass thermometer be increased?

A. Using a liquid which is a better

conductor of heat

hot tea cools?

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

narrower bore.

C. Using a longer capillary tube

D. Using a thinner-walked bulb

Hui niticed that Anwars hand was cold.

However, Anwar felt that Kent Hui hand

was warm. Why did Anwar and Kent

Hui not feel the same sensation?

A. Both hands in contact are in

thermal equilibrium.

B. Heat is flowing from Kent Huis

hand to Anawrs hand

C. Heat is following from Anwars

hand to Kent Hui hand.

measuring

a

rapidly

changing

temperature?

A. Alcohol-in glass thermometer

B. Thermocouple

C. Mercury-in-glass thermometer

D. Platinum resistance thermometer

1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm

respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury

column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 23 5 x 1000C

40 - 5

= 51.430C

2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0 cm and

5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length of the

mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 27 5 x 1000C

65 - 5

= 36.670C

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

3. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker

of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What is the

temperature of the water?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 24.5 x 1000C

28

= 87.50C

4. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker of

water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the

temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at

temperatures i) 300C

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 16 x 1000C

25

= 64.00C

Temperature, = l l0 (1000C)

l100 l0

300C = x (1000C)

25

x = 7.5cm

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1. Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple

thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the can.

Alkohol

.

(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them.

(2m)

Lower fixed point = freezing point of water.

Upper

fixed point = boiling point of water

(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower

fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of

the liquid at 82.50C.

82.5 = l - 5 (100)

16 - 5

l = 14.08 cm

To increases the sensitivity of the thermometer

(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his

thermometer?

Use a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal

conductor

5

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Heat

is the energy that transfers from one object to another object because of a

....

temperature

difference between them.

Temperature

is a measure of degree of hotness of a body.

4.2

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Heat capacity

Muatan haba

Specific heat capacity

Muatan haba tentu

1. The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the body to

increase its temperature by 10C.

2. The heat capacity of an object depends on the

Temperature of the body

(a) .

Mass of the body

(b) .

Type of material

(c)

3. The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to

increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. Unit Jkg-1 0C-1

Specific heat capacity , c =

Q__

m

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

5. High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a small temperature

increase such as plastics.

6. Conversion of energy

Heater

Electrical energy

Electrical

energy

Potential energy

Kinetic energy

Power = P

A high position

due to friction

Heat energy

Pt = mc

Heat energy

mgh= mc

Heat energy

mv2= mc

Power = P

Faster increase

in temperature

Small value of c

Slower increase

in temperature

Two object of

equal mass

Big value of c

Equal rate of

heat supplied

(a) Water as a coolant in a car engine

(i)

cooling agent to prevent overheating of the engine .Therefore, water acts as a

heat reservoir as it can absorb a great amount of heat before it boils.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1.

A metal has a low specific heat capacity.

2.

Its temperature increases easily when heated.

...

3.

The food or water can be heated faster.

...

4.

This is because only a little amount of heat is needed to heat the metal,

therefore more heat is transferred to the food.

...

5.

Examples : pot, frying-pan, filaments of kettles and others utensils

...

Think about it: Why the handles of utensils made of materials of high c

(c) Sea breeze

1. during a day, the land and the sea receive the

2.

The land has a lower c, and the temperature

higher than the sea water.

and the cool air from the sea flows towards the

land.

atmosphere.

2. The sea water has a higher c, and release more

heat.

3.

The air above the sea water to be hotter and

flows up and the cool air from the land flows

the land to the sea.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2

SECTION A : Choose the best answer

1. The change in the temperature of an

object does not depend on

A. the mass of the object

B. the type of substance the object is

made of

C. the shape of the object

D. the quantity of heat received

faster. This is because the ethanol..

A. is denser than water

B. is less dense than water

C. has a larger specific heat capacity

than water

D. has a smaller specific heat capacity

than water

specific heat capacity of a substance

correctly?

A. The amount of heat energy required

to raise the temperature of 1kg of the

substance

B. The amount of heat energy

required to raise 1kg of the

substance by 10C.

C. The amount of heat energy required

to change 1kg of the substance from

the solid state to the liquid state.

specific heat capacity of a metal block,

some oil is poured into the hole

containing thermometer. Why is this

done?

A. To ensure a better conduction of

heat

B. To reduce the consumption of

electrical energy

C. To ensure the thermometer is in an

upright position.

D. To reduce the friction between the

thermometer and the wall of the

block.

to 250g of water and 250g of ethanol.

1. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from 320C to

520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).

Amount of heat energy required, Q = mc

= 4 x 452 x (52-32)

9

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

= 36 160 J

2. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.8 kg of copper from 350C

to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).

Amount of heat required, Q = mc

= 0.8 x 400 x (60-35)

= 8 000J

3. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 2.5 kg of water from 32 0C

to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).

Amount of heat required, Q = mc

= 2.5 x 4200 x (82-32)

= 525, 000J

4. 750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of heat is

released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).

Amount of heat released, Q = mc

= 0.75 x 900 x (120-45)

= 50 625J

5. 0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 300C. Assuming that no heat is lost,

find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1)

Amount of heat released, Q = Amount of heat required, Q

mc = mc

0.2 x 4200 x ( 70- ) = 0.6 x 4200 x ( - 30)

= 400C

SECTION C: Structured questions

10

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1. In figure below, block A of mass 5kg at temperature 1000C is in contact with another block B

of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.

5kg

2.25kg

A

B

1000C

200C

(a) Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium. Given the

specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1 respectively.

Amount of heat released,by A = Amount of heat absorbed,by B

mc (A) = mc (B)

5.0x 900 x ( 100- ) = 2.25 x 400 x ( - 20)

= 86.670C

(b) Find the energy given by A during the process.

Energy given by A = mc (A)

= 5 x 900 x (100 86.67)

= 59 985 J

(c) Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.

Put them in a sealed polystyrene box.

..

11

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

4.3

Chapter 4: Heat

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in temperature

Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation

Gas

melting

Latent heat absorbed

Solid

Condensation

Latent heat released

Solidification

Latent heat released

evaporation

Latent heat absorbed

Liquid

2. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of

phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml

3. Complete the diagrams below and summarized.

(a) Melting

12

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

change

even though heat is still being

absorbed.

substance.

3. The

heat absorbed is used for breaking up

increasing

the kinetic energy of the

molecules.

.

all

the solid has melted at point Q.

Temperature

Solid

liquid

P

Q

melting

[solid+liquid]

Time

(b) Boiling/evaporation

Temperature

Liquid

gas

R

S

boiling

[liquid+ gas]

Time

(c) Solidification

Temperature

Liquid

solid

R

S

solidification

[liquid+solid]

1. From

R to S the temperature does not

absorbed.

2. The

temperature is the boiling point of the

substance.

3. The

heat absorbed is used for breaking up

the bonds

of molecules. Its not used to

molecules.

4. At the

point R the liquid begins to boil and

.

all the liquid has boiled at point S.

released.

2. The temperature as same as the melting

point.

3. The heat released is used for rearranging the

4. At the

point R the liquid begins to freeze and

all the liquid has been solid at point S.

.

Time

(d) Condensation

Temperature

gas

R

liquid

S

condensation

[liquid+ gas]

13

Time

1. From

change even though heat is still being

released.

2. The

of the substance

molecules

to form a liquid.

4. At the point R the gas begins to condense and

.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

4. is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific latent

heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at its

temperature

melting point without any increase in .. The S.I unit of the specific

latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

( melting)

water

ice

heat lost

( solidification/freezing)

5. ...

The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg of liquid

temperature

into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in .. The S.I

unit is Jkg-1.

Latent heat absorbed

( boiling)

gas

water

heat lost

14

( condensation)

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

:

(d) Cooling of beverage

When ice melts, its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings. This property

makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a

low temperature. Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When the

ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the

The freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing

them in contact with ice. With its large latent heat, ice is able to absorb a large

quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts. Thus food can be kept at a low

15

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Food is cooked faster if steamed. When food is steamed, the condensed water

vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity. This heat flows to the

Steam that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs

EXERCISE 4.3

Section A:

1. The graph in figure below shows how

the temperature of some wax changes as

it cools from liquid to solid. Which

mixture of solid and liquid?

16

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

A.

B.

C.

D.

Chapter 4: Heat

the pressure cooker

B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker

can be reduced.

C. Boiling point of water in the

pressure cooker is raised

D. Food absorbs more heat energy from

the high pressure steam

PQ

QR

RS

ST

measuring the electrical energy to melt

some ice in an experiment. To find the

specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what

must be measured?

characteristics of water that makes it

widely used as a cooling agent?

A. Water is readily available

B. Water does not react with many other

substance

C. Water has a large specific heat

capacity

D. Water has a large density

B. The voltage of the electricity supply

C. The mass of water produced by

melting ice

D. The temperature change of the ice.

5. Figure below shows the experiment set

up to determine the specific latent heat

of fusion of ice. A control of the

experiment is set up as shown in Figure

(a) with the aim of

with a pressure cooker as shown above.

Why is it easier to cook food using a

pressure cooker?

17

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

less serious then by steam. This is

because

A. the boiling point of water is less than

the temperature of steam

B. the heat of boiling water is quickly

lost to the surroundings

C. steam has a high specific latent

heat.

D. Steam has a high specific heat

capacity.

B. ensuring that the ice does not melt

too fast.

C. determining the average value of the

specific latent heat of fusion of ice.

D. determining the mass of ice that

melts as a result of heat from the

surroundings

Question 2-7 are based on the following information

2. Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 X 10 6 J kg-1300g of ice at 00C melts. How

much energy is required for this

Q = ml

= 0.3 x 336 000 kJ kg-1

= 99 000kJ

3. An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 00C. How long does

it take to melt 1.5kg of ice?

Q = ml

Pt = 1.5 x 3.36 xx 105

500 x t

t

= 501 000

= 1008s

4. 300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 800C. The final temperature of the

mixture is 700C. Find the value of x

18

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

(0.3)(4200)(700-400) = x(4200)(800-700)

x = 0.9 kg

= Q released by x g of water]

= 900 g

5. Calculate the amount of heat released when 2 kg of ice at 00C is changed into water at 00C.

Q = mLf

= (2)(336 000) = 672 000 J

6. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 3 kg of ice at 00C to water at 300C.

Q = mLf + mc

= (3) (336 000) + (3) (4200) (300)

= 1 386 000 J

7. Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at -150C into steam at 1000C

Q = (mc)ice + (mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam

= (0.5)(2100)(15) + (0.5)(336 000) + (0.5)(4200)(100) + (0.5)(2260 000)

= 1 523 750 J

8. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 00C into steam at 1000C.

Q = ( mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam

= (0.1)(336 000) + (0.1)(4200)(1000) + (0.1)(2260 000)

= 301 600 J

9. The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg -1. How much heat will be

absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.

Q = mLv

= (3.2)(2 300 000)

= 7 360 000 J

4.4

19

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behavior of gas molecules.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

Property of gas

Volume,V

Temperature,T

K (Kelvin)

The molecules are in continuous random motion and have an

average kinetic energy which is proportional to the

Pressure,P

Explanation

The molecules move freely in random motion and fill up the

Pa(Pascal)

temperature.

The molecules are in continuous random motion.

bounces back, there is a change in momentum and a force is

exerted on the wall

(a) The molecules in a gas move freely in random motion and posses kinetic energy

(b) The force of attraction between the molecules are ignored.

(c) The collisions of the molecules with each other and with the walls of the container are

elastic collisions

4.4.1

Boyles Law

P1

V

That is PV = constant

Or P V = P V

1

20

Relationship between pressure and volume

Small volume

molecules hit wall

more often, greater

pressure

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1. Boyles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely

proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant.

2. Boyles law can be shown graphically as in Figure above

P

1/V

3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the atmospheric

pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the surface of the

sea.

P2= 10m

PI=50m + 10m

4.4.2

P1V1 = P2V2

60m (250 x 10-6)m3 = 10m x V2

1.5 x 10-3 m3

= V2

Charless LawV1=250cm3

VT

that is V = constant

T

Relationship between

21

volume and temperature

Lower temperature

Higher temperature,

faster molecules,

larger volume to keep

the pressure constant

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1. Charles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional

to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.

2. The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute zero

of temperature.

3. Fill the table below.

Temperature

Absolute zero

Ice point

Steam point

Unknown point

-273

0

100

P/Pa

-273

4.4.3

Kelvin Scale(K)

0

273

373

( + 273 )

100

/0C

Pressures Law

PT

That is P = constant

T

22

Higher temperature

molecules move

faster, greater

pressure

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

and temperature

1. The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly

proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.

EXERSICE 4.4Gas Law

1. A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when the

cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the mixture is

compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.

P1V1 = P2V2

(1.0)(100) = P2(20)

P2 = 5.0 atm

2. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m in deep is 200 cm 3. If the

atmospheric pressure is 10 m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the

surface of the sea.

P1V1 = P2V2

(50 +10)(200) = (10)V2

V2 = 1200 cm3

3. The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h m below the water surface.

Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 m, find the value of h.

(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)

P1V1 = P2V2

(h + 10)(5) = (2 + 10)(15)

5h + 50 = 180

h = 26 m

23

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

4. An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the water

surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure = 10

m of water)

P1V1 = P2V2

(45 + 10)(V) = (10)(V2)

V2 = 5.5 V cm3

5. A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at constant

pressure. What is the increase in volume?

V1 = V2

T1

20

370 + 273

T2

V2

870 + 273

V2 = 23.23 m3

6. The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1.4 X 1O5 N m-2. The container is heated until the

temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is fixed?

P1 = P2

T1

1.4 x 105

330 + 273

T2

P2

550 + 273

7. The volume of a gas is 1 cm3 at 150C. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the volume

becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.

V1 = V2

T1

T2

150 + 273

3

T2

T2 =864K

T2 =2 + 273

24

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

2 = T2 273

= 864 - 273

2 = 591 0C

8. An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 250C and at the atmospheric pressure.

The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 980C. Find the new pressure

of the gas if the volume of the container is

rn2)

P1 = P2

T1

1.0 x 105

250 + 273

T2

P2

980 + 273

P2 = 1.24 x 105 N m2

9. The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 105 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume of the

gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.

P1 = P2

T1

T2

1.2 x 105

9 x 105

1 + 273

400 + 273

1 = -231.3 0C

= 41.7K

PART A: CHAPTER 4

1. A 5kg iron sphere of temperature 500C is

put in contact with a 1kg copper sphere

of temperature 273K and they are put

inside an insulated box. Which of the

they reach thermal equilibrium?

D. A iron sphere will have a

temperature of 273K

25

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

temperature of 500C.

F. Both the sphere have the same

temperature.

G. The temperature of the iron

sphere will be lower than 500C

sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which of the

following is correct?

A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.

B. The energy needed to increase

the temperature of 1 kg of this

sample is 5000 J.

C. The energy needed to increase

the temperature of 0.5kg of this

sample is 2500J.

D. The temperature of this sample

will increase 10C when 5 000 J

energy is absorbed by this

sample.

object to another object, which of the

following processes does not involve a

transfer to material?

A. Convection

B. Vaporisation

C. Radiation

D. Evaporation

correct?

A. The total mass of the object is

kept constant when fusion

occurs.

B. The internal energy of the object

is increased when condensation

occurs

C. Energy is absorbed when

condensation occurs.

D. Energy is absorbed when

vaporization occurs.

up some food in a lunch box, we should

open the lid slightly. Which of the

following explanations is correct?

A. To allow microwave to go inside

the lunch box

B. To allow the water vapors to go

out, otherwise the box will

explode

C. To allow microwave to reflect

more times inside the lunch box

D. To allow microwave to penetrate

deeper into the lunch box.

between the liquid and gaseous states

A. only when water vapour is

saturated

B. at all times because evaporation

and condensation occur any time

C. only when the vapour molecules

produce a pressure as the same as

the atmospheric pressure

D. only when the water is boiling

Which of the following explanation is

not correct?

A. Water has a high specific heat

capacity

B. Steam can cut off the supply of

oxygen

C. Water is easily available

D. Water can react with some

material

one of the following does not explain the

26

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

container?

A. Gas molecules move randomly

B. Gas molecules collide elastically

with the walls of the container

C. Gas molecules move faster as

temperature increases

D. Gas

molecules

collide

inelastically with each other

immersed in the boiling water as shown

in diagram below.

false?

A. The volume of the plastic bag

increases.

B. The pressure of air molecules

increases

C. The air molecules in the bag

move faster

D. The repulsive force of boiling

water slows down the movement

of air molecule

compressed at constant temperature of

the gas increase because

A. the average speed of gas

molecules increases

B. the number of gas molecules

increases

C. the average distance between the

gas molecules increases

D. the rate of collision between the

gas molecules and the walls

increases

PART B;

1. A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the

substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the

temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.

27

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Thermometer

Liquid

Freezing point of liquid (0C)

Boiling point of liquid (0C)

Diameter of capillary tube

Cross section

Chapter 4: Heat

A

Mercury

-39

360

Large

B

Mercury

-39

360

Small

C

Alcohol

-112

360

Large

D

Alcohol

-112

360

Small

Table 1

(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in glass thermometer.(1m)

Principle of thermal equilibrium

........................................................................................................................................

(ii)

A system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between

.

the component of the system is zero. This means that the component of the system

.

are at the same temperature

.

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis

of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable

thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)

Alkohol freezing point is less than -50C, boiling point higher than 50C.Thus the

Capillary tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus

28

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

..

(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at

00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of

the mercury column is 14.0cm

(i)

The temperature of the liquid = 8.0 x 100

12.5

= 64 0C

(ii)

State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)

Change of electrical resistance with temperature

2. A metal block P of mass 500 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of 1000C. Block P

is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup. The mass of

water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature rises to 420C.

Figure 2

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the

surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)

Calculate

(a) the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup

Q = mc

= 0.250 x 4200 x (42-30)

= 12 600J

29

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Rate of heat supplied to the water = 12 600J

120s

= 105 Js-1

(c) the specific heat capacity of the metal block P

Heat supplied by metal block P = heat gained by water

0.500 x c x(100 -42)

= 12 600J

c

cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of mass 500 g is

placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper. The height of the

lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then holds both ends of

the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

(a) State the energy change each time the tube is inverted.

Gravitational potential energy kinetic energy heat energy

..

..

(b) What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is inverted?

45.0 cm

30

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

(c) Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the bottom of the tube.

S = ut + at2

0.45 = 0 + (10)t2

t = 0.3s

(d) After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is found to have

increased by 30C.

i.

Work done = (100) mgh

= 100 x 0.500 x 10 x 0.45

= 225 J

ii.

mc = 225 J

c =

225

(0.500 x 3)

= 150 Jkg-1 C-1

iii.

...

No heat loss to the surroundings/All the gravitational potential energy is converted

.

PART C: EXPERIMENT

1. Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of his car as

shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa. After the journey,

Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure (b) He found that the

air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the tyre was hotter after the

journey although the size of the tyre did not change.

Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the

tyre of his car:

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

31

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

made. [1 mark]

(b) State appropriate hypothesis for an

investigation.

[1 mark]

hypothesis stated in (b).

such as pressure gauge, a

round-bottomed flask and any other apparatus that may he necessary. In your description,

state clearly the following:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,

vi.

vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

32

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Inference

Hypothesis

At constant volume, the air pressure increase as the temperature

Aim

increases

To investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the

Variable

Constant variable : Air temperature

Manipulate variable : Air pressure

Round-bottom flask, rubber tube, Bourdon gauge, beaker, stirrer,

thermometer, wire gauze, tripod stand and Bunsen burner.

Arrangement of

apparatus

Procedure

completely immersed.

taken. The pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also

taken.

temperature increases by 100C, the Bunsen burner is

removed and the stirring of water is continued. The

temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are

recorded in the table

33

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Tabulation of Data

Analysis of Data

34

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