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JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT
4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Explain thermal equilibrium

Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works

Thermal equilibrium
:Keseimbangan terma

Faster. rate of energy transfer


A

Hot
object

Equivalent to

Equivalent to

Cold
object
No net heat transfer

Slower rate of energy transfer

1. The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the
temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal
equilibrium.
2. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is
(zero, equal)
3. There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two objects
in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.
4. The liquid used in glass thermometer should
(a) Be easily seen
(b) Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature
(c) Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube
5. List the characteristic of mercury
(a) Opaque liquid
(b) Does not stick to the glass
(c) Expands uniformly when heated
(d) Freezing point -390C
(e) Boiling point 3570C

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

6. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.
7. The SI unit for ( heat , temperature) is Joule, J.
8. ( Heat , Temperature ) is the degree of hotness of a body
9. The SI unit for (heat , temperature) is Kelvin, K.
10. Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point
11. Upper fixed point( l

: the temperature of pure melting ice/00C

/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling

100)

under standard atmospheric pressure /1000C

Temperature, =
l0
l100
l

l - l

x 1000C

l100 - l0

: length of mercury at ice point


: length of mercury at steam point
: length of mercury at point

Exercise 4.1
Section A: Choose the best answer
1. The figure shows two metal blocks.
Which the following statement is false?

A. It warms the surroundings


B. It warms the water of the tea
C. It turns into heat energy and
disappears.
3. Which of the following temperature
corresponds to zero on the Kelvin scale?
A. 2730 C
B. 00C
C. -2730 C
D. 1000 C

A. P and Q are in thermal contact


B. P and Q are in thermal
equilibrium
C. Energy is transferred from P to Q
D. Energy is transferred from Q to P

4. How can the sensitivity of a liquid- in


glass thermometer be increased?
A. Using a liquid which is a better
conductor of heat

2. When does the energy go when a cup of


hot tea cools?

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

B. Using a capillary tube with a


narrower bore.
C. Using a longer capillary tube
D. Using a thinner-walked bulb

6. When shaking hands with Anwar, Kent


Hui niticed that Anwars hand was cold.
However, Anwar felt that Kent Hui hand
was warm. Why did Anwar and Kent
Hui not feel the same sensation?
A. Both hands in contact are in
thermal equilibrium.
B. Heat is flowing from Kent Huis
hand to Anawrs hand
C. Heat is following from Anwars
hand to Kent Hui hand.

5. Which instrument is most suitable for


measuring
a
rapidly
changing
temperature?
A. Alcohol-in glass thermometer
B. Thermocouple
C. Mercury-in-glass thermometer
D. Platinum resistance thermometer

Section B: Answer all the questions by showing the calculation


1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm
respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury
column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 23 5 x 1000C
40 - 5
= 51.430C
2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0 cm and
5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length of the
mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 27 5 x 1000C
65 - 5
= 36.670C

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

3. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker
of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What is the
temperature of the water?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 24.5 x 1000C
28
= 87.50C
4. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker of
water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the
temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at
temperatures i) 300C
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 16 x 1000C
25
= 64.00C
Temperature, = l l0 (1000C)
l100 l0
300C = x (1000C)
25
x = 7.5cm

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

SECTION C: Structured Questions


1. Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple
thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the can.

(a) Suggest a kind of liquid that expands linearly. (1m)


Alkohol

.
(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them.
(2m)
Lower fixed point = freezing point of water.

Upper
fixed point = boiling point of water

(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower
fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of
the liquid at 82.50C.

82.5 = l - 5 (100)
16 - 5
l = 14.08 cm

(d) Why should he use a drinking straw of small diameter?


To increases the sensitivity of the thermometer

(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his
thermometer?
Use a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal
conductor
5

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

2. What do you mean by heat and temperature?


Heat
is the energy that transfers from one object to another object because of a
....
temperature
difference between them.

Temperature
is a measure of degree of hotness of a body.

4.2

: UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Define specific heat capacity (c)

State that c = Q/m

Determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid

Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid

Describe applications of specific heat capacity

Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

Heat capacity
Muatan haba
Specific heat capacity
Muatan haba tentu

1. The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the body to
increase its temperature by 10C.
2. The heat capacity of an object depends on the
Temperature of the body
(a) .
Mass of the body
(b) .
Type of material
(c)
3. The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to
increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. Unit Jkg-1 0C-1
Specific heat capacity , c =

Q__
m

4. The heat energy absorbed or given out by an object is given by Q = mc

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

5. High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a small temperature
increase such as plastics.

6. Conversion of energy
Heater

Electrical energy
Electrical
energy

Potential energy

Kinetic energy

Power = P

Object falls from


A high position

Moving object stopped


due to friction

Heat energy
Pt = mc

Heat energy
mgh= mc

Heat energy
mv2= mc

Power = P

7. Applications of Specific Heat Capacity


Faster increase
in temperature
Small value of c

Slower increase
in temperature
Two object of
equal mass

Big value of c

Equal rate of
heat supplied

Explain the meaning of above application of specific heat capacity:


(a) Water as a coolant in a car engine
(i)

Water is a good example of substance with a high specific capacity. It is used as a


cooling agent to prevent overheating of the engine .Therefore, water acts as a
heat reservoir as it can absorb a great amount of heat before it boils.

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(b) Household apparatus and utensils


1.
A metal has a low specific heat capacity.
2.
Its temperature increases easily when heated.
...
3.
The food or water can be heated faster.
...
4.
This is because only a little amount of heat is needed to heat the metal,
therefore more heat is transferred to the food.
...
5.
Examples : pot, frying-pan, filaments of kettles and others utensils
...
Think about it: Why the handles of utensils made of materials of high c
(c) Sea breeze
1. during a day, the land and the sea receive the

same amount of heat from the sun.


2.
The land has a lower c, and the temperature
higher than the sea water.

3. The air above the land to be hotter and flows up

and the cool air from the sea flows towards the
land.

4. The movement of air cause wind to blow from

the sea and produced a sea breeze.

1. At night, the land and the sea release heat to

atmosphere.
2. The sea water has a higher c, and release more
heat.
3.
The air above the sea water to be hotter and
flows up and the cool air from the land flows

towards the sea.

4. The movement of air cause wind to blow from


the land to the sea.

(d) Land breeze

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2
SECTION A : Choose the best answer
1. The change in the temperature of an
object does not depend on
A. the mass of the object
B. the type of substance the object is
made of
C. the shape of the object
D. the quantity of heat received

The temperature of the ethanol rises


faster. This is because the ethanol..
A. is denser than water
B. is less dense than water
C. has a larger specific heat capacity
than water
D. has a smaller specific heat capacity
than water

2. Which of the following defines the


specific heat capacity of a substance
correctly?
A. The amount of heat energy required
to raise the temperature of 1kg of the
substance
B. The amount of heat energy
required to raise 1kg of the
substance by 10C.
C. The amount of heat energy required
to change 1kg of the substance from
the solid state to the liquid state.

4. In the experiment to determine the


specific heat capacity of a metal block,
some oil is poured into the hole
containing thermometer. Why is this
done?
A. To ensure a better conduction of
heat
B. To reduce the consumption of
electrical energy
C. To ensure the thermometer is in an
upright position.
D. To reduce the friction between the
thermometer and the wall of the
block.

3. Heat energy is supplied at the same rate


to 250g of water and 250g of ethanol.

SECTION B: Answer all questions by showing the calculation


1. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from 320C to
520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).
Amount of heat energy required, Q = mc
= 4 x 452 x (52-32)
9

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

= 36 160 J
2. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.8 kg of copper from 350C
to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat required, Q = mc
= 0.8 x 400 x (60-35)
= 8 000J
3. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 2.5 kg of water from 32 0C
to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat required, Q = mc
= 2.5 x 4200 x (82-32)
= 525, 000J
4. 750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of heat is
released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat released, Q = mc
= 0.75 x 900 x (120-45)
= 50 625J
5. 0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 300C. Assuming that no heat is lost,
find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1)
Amount of heat released, Q = Amount of heat required, Q
mc = mc
0.2 x 4200 x ( 70- ) = 0.6 x 4200 x ( - 30)
= 400C
SECTION C: Structured questions

10

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

1. In figure below, block A of mass 5kg at temperature 1000C is in contact with another block B
of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.
5kg
2.25kg
A
B
1000C

200C

Assume that there is no energy loss to the surroundings.


(a) Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium. Given the
specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1 respectively.
Amount of heat released,by A = Amount of heat absorbed,by B
mc (A) = mc (B)
5.0x 900 x ( 100- ) = 2.25 x 400 x ( - 20)
= 86.670C
(b) Find the energy given by A during the process.
Energy given by A = mc (A)
= 5 x 900 x (100 86.67)
= 59 985 J
(c) Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.
Put them in a sealed polystyrene box.
..

11

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

4.3

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in temperature

Define specific latent heat

State that l = Q/m

Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation

Solve problem involving specific latent heat.

1. Four main changes of phase.


Gas
melting
Latent heat absorbed

Solid

Condensation
Latent heat released

Solidification
Latent heat released

evaporation
Latent heat absorbed

Liquid

2. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of
phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml
3. Complete the diagrams below and summarized.
(a) Melting

12

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

1. From P to Q the temperature does not

change
even though heat is still being
absorbed.

2. The temperature is the melting point of the

substance.
3. The
heat absorbed is used for breaking up

the bonds of molecules. Its not used to

increasing
the kinetic energy of the
molecules.

4. At the point P the solid begins to melt and


.
all
the solid has melted at point Q.

Temperature
Solid
liquid
P
Q
melting
[solid+liquid]

Time
(b) Boiling/evaporation
Temperature
Liquid
gas
R
S
boiling
[liquid+ gas]

Time
(c) Solidification
Temperature

Liquid
solid
R
S
solidification
[liquid+solid]

1. From
R to S the temperature does not

change even though heat is still being

absorbed.
2. The
temperature is the boiling point of the
substance.
3. The
heat absorbed is used for breaking up
the bonds
of molecules. Its not used to

increasing the kinetic energy of the

molecules.
4. At the
point R the liquid begins to boil and
.
all the liquid has boiled at point S.

1. From R to S the temperature does not

change even though heat is still being

released.
2. The temperature as same as the melting

point of the substance and call as freezing


point.
3. The heat released is used for rearranging the

molecules to form a solid.


4. At the
point R the liquid begins to freeze and
all the liquid has been solid at point S.
.
Time

(d) Condensation
Temperature

gas
R

liquid
S
condensation
[liquid+ gas]

13
Time

1. From

R to S the temperature does not


change even though heat is still being

released.
2. The

temperature as same as the boiling point


of the substance

3. The heat released is used for rearranging the


molecules

to form a liquid.
4. At the point R the gas begins to condense and

all the gas has been liquid at point S.


.

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

Latent heat of fusion


4. is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific latent
heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at its
temperature
melting point without any increase in .. The S.I unit of the specific
latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

Latent heat absorbed


( melting)

water

ice
heat lost
( solidification/freezing)

Latent heat of vaporisation


5. ...

is heat of vaporisation is heat absorbed during boiling.

The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg of liquid
temperature
into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in .. The S.I
unit is Jkg-1.
Latent heat absorbed
( boiling)

gas

water
heat lost
14
( condensation)

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

6. Explain the application of Specific Latent Heat above:


:
(d) Cooling of beverage
When ice melts, its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings. This property

makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a

low temperature. Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When the

ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the

temperature of the drink.

(e) Preservation of Food


The freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing

them in contact with ice. With its large latent heat, ice is able to absorb a large

quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts. Thus food can be kept at a low

temperature for an extended period of time.

15

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(f) Steaming Food


Food is cooked faster if steamed. When food is steamed, the condensed water

vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity. This heat flows to the

food. This is more efficient than boiling the food.

(g) Killing of Germs and Bacteria


Steam that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs

and bacteria on surgery equipment in hospitals.

EXERCISE 4.3
Section A:
1. The graph in figure below shows how
the temperature of some wax changes as
it cools from liquid to solid. Which

section of the graph would the wax be a


mixture of solid and liquid?

16

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

A.
B.
C.
D.

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

A. More heat energy can be supplied to


the pressure cooker
B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker
can be reduced.
C. Boiling point of water in the
pressure cooker is raised
D. Food absorbs more heat energy from
the high pressure steam

PQ
QR
RS
ST

2. Figure show a joulemeter used for


measuring the electrical energy to melt
some ice in an experiment. To find the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what
must be measured?

4. Which of the following is not a


characteristics of water that makes it
widely used as a cooling agent?
A. Water is readily available
B. Water does not react with many other
substance
C. Water has a large specific heat
capacity
D. Water has a large density

A. The time taken for the ice to melt


B. The voltage of the electricity supply
C. The mass of water produced by
melting ice
D. The temperature change of the ice.
5. Figure below shows the experiment set
up to determine the specific latent heat
of fusion of ice. A control of the
experiment is set up as shown in Figure
(a) with the aim of

3. It is possible to cook food much faster


with a pressure cooker as shown above.
Why is it easier to cook food using a
pressure cooker?

17

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

6. Scalding of the skin by boiling water is


less serious then by steam. This is
because
A. the boiling point of water is less than
the temperature of steam
B. the heat of boiling water is quickly
lost to the surroundings
C. steam has a high specific latent
heat.
D. Steam has a high specific heat
capacity.

A. determining the rate of melting of ice


B. ensuring that the ice does not melt
too fast.
C. determining the average value of the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
D. determining the mass of ice that
melts as a result of heat from the
surroundings

SECTION B: Answer the question by showing the calculation


Question 2-7 are based on the following information

Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1 C-1

Specific heat capacity of ice = 2 100 J kg-1 C-1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 X 105J kg-1

2. Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 X 10 6 J kg-1300g of ice at 00C melts. How
much energy is required for this
Q = ml
= 0.3 x 336 000 kJ kg-1
= 99 000kJ
3. An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 00C. How long does
it take to melt 1.5kg of ice?
Q = ml
Pt = 1.5 x 3.36 xx 105
500 x t
t

= 501 000
= 1008s

4. 300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 800C. The final temperature of the
mixture is 700C. Find the value of x
18

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(0.3)(4200)(700-400) = x(4200)(800-700)
x = 0.9 kg

[Note : Q absorbed by 300 g of water


= Q released by x g of water]

= 900 g
5. Calculate the amount of heat released when 2 kg of ice at 00C is changed into water at 00C.
Q = mLf
= (2)(336 000) = 672 000 J
6. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 3 kg of ice at 00C to water at 300C.
Q = mLf + mc
= (3) (336 000) + (3) (4200) (300)
= 1 386 000 J
7. Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at -150C into steam at 1000C
Q = (mc)ice + (mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam
= (0.5)(2100)(15) + (0.5)(336 000) + (0.5)(4200)(100) + (0.5)(2260 000)
= 1 523 750 J
8. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 00C into steam at 1000C.
Q = ( mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam
= (0.1)(336 000) + (0.1)(4200)(1000) + (0.1)(2260 000)
= 301 600 J
9. The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg -1. How much heat will be
absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.
Q = mLv
= (3.2)(2 300 000)
= 7 360 000 J

4.4

UNDERSTANDING THE GAS LAW

By the end of this subtopic; you will be able to :


19

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behavior of gas molecules.

Determine the relationship between


(i)

pressure and volume

(ii)

volume and temperature

(iii)

pressure and temperature

Explain absolute zero and the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature

Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

1. Complete the table below.


Property of gas
Volume,V

whole space in the container.

Temperature,T

K (Kelvin)

The volume of the gas is equal to the volume of the container


The molecules are in continuous random motion and have an
average kinetic energy which is proportional to the

Pressure,P

Explanation
The molecules move freely in random motion and fill up the

Pa(Pascal)

temperature.
The molecules are in continuous random motion.

When a molecules collides with the wall of the container and


bounces back, there is a change in momentum and a force is
exerted on the wall

The force per unit area is the pressure of gas

2. The kinetic theory of gas is based on the following assumptions:


(a) The molecules in a gas move freely in random motion and posses kinetic energy
(b) The force of attraction between the molecules are ignored.
(c) The collisions of the molecules with each other and with the walls of the container are
elastic collisions
4.4.1

Boyles Law

P1
V
That is PV = constant
Or P V = P V
1

20
Relationship between pressure and volume

Small volume
molecules hit wall
more often, greater
pressure

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

1. Boyles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely
proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant.
2. Boyles law can be shown graphically as in Figure above
P

(a) P inversely proportional to V

1/V

(b) P directly proportional to 1/V

3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the atmospheric
pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the surface of the
sea.
P2= 10m
PI=50m + 10m

4.4.2

P1V1 = P2V2
60m (250 x 10-6)m3 = 10m x V2
1.5 x 10-3 m3
= V2

Charless LawV1=250cm3

VT
that is V = constant
T
Relationship between
21
volume and temperature
Lower temperature

Higher temperature,
faster molecules,
larger volume to keep
the pressure constant

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

1. Charles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.
2. The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute zero
of temperature.
3. Fill the table below.
Temperature
Absolute zero
Ice point
Steam point
Unknown point

Celsius scale (0C)


-273
0
100

4. Complete the diagram below.

P/Pa

-273

4.4.3

Kelvin Scale(K)
0
273
373
( + 273 )

100

/0C

Pressures Law

PT
That is P = constant
T

22

Higher temperature
molecules move
faster, greater
pressure

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

Relationship between pressure


and temperature

1. The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.
EXERSICE 4.4Gas Law
1. A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when the
cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the mixture is
compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.
P1V1 = P2V2
(1.0)(100) = P2(20)
P2 = 5.0 atm
2. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m in deep is 200 cm 3. If the
atmospheric pressure is 10 m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the
surface of the sea.
P1V1 = P2V2
(50 +10)(200) = (10)V2
V2 = 1200 cm3

3. The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h m below the water surface.
Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 m, find the value of h.
(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)
P1V1 = P2V2
(h + 10)(5) = (2 + 10)(15)
5h + 50 = 180
h = 26 m

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Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

4. An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the water
surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure = 10
m of water)
P1V1 = P2V2
(45 + 10)(V) = (10)(V2)
V2 = 5.5 V cm3

5. A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at constant
pressure. What is the increase in volume?
V1 = V2
T1

20

370 + 273

T2

V2

870 + 273

V2 = 23.23 m3

6. The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1.4 X 1O5 N m-2. The container is heated until the
temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is fixed?
P1 = P2
T1

1.4 x 105

330 + 273

T2

P2

550 + 273

P2 = 1.5 x 105 N m-2


7. The volume of a gas is 1 cm3 at 150C. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the volume
becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.
V1 = V2
T1

T2

150 + 273

3
T2

T2 =864K
T2 =2 + 273

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

2 = T2 273
= 864 - 273

2 = 591 0C
8. An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 250C and at the atmospheric pressure.
The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 980C. Find the new pressure
of the gas if the volume of the container is

constant.(Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 X 105N

rn2)
P1 = P2
T1

1.0 x 105

250 + 273

T2

P2

980 + 273

P2 = 1.24 x 105 N m2

9. The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 105 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume of the
gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.
P1 = P2
T1

T2

1.2 x 105

9 x 105

1 + 273

400 + 273

1 = -231.3 0C
= 41.7K

PART A: CHAPTER 4
1. A 5kg iron sphere of temperature 500C is
put in contact with a 1kg copper sphere
of temperature 273K and they are put
inside an insulated box. Which of the

following statements is correct when


they reach thermal equilibrium?
D. A iron sphere will have a
temperature of 273K

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

E. The copper sphere will have a


temperature of 500C.
F. Both the sphere have the same
temperature.
G. The temperature of the iron
sphere will be lower than 500C

5. Given that the heat capacity of a certain


sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which of the
following is correct?
A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.
B. The energy needed to increase
the temperature of 1 kg of this
sample is 5000 J.
C. The energy needed to increase
the temperature of 0.5kg of this
sample is 2500J.
D. The temperature of this sample
will increase 10C when 5 000 J
energy is absorbed by this
sample.

2. In the process to transfer heat from one


object to another object, which of the
following processes does not involve a
transfer to material?
A. Convection
B. Vaporisation
C. Radiation
D. Evaporation

6. Which of the following statement is


correct?
A. The total mass of the object is
kept constant when fusion
occurs.
B. The internal energy of the object
is increased when condensation
occurs
C. Energy is absorbed when
condensation occurs.
D. Energy is absorbed when
vaporization occurs.

3. When we use a microwave oven to heat


up some food in a lunch box, we should
open the lid slightly. Which of the
following explanations is correct?
A. To allow microwave to go inside
the lunch box
B. To allow the water vapors to go
out, otherwise the box will
explode
C. To allow microwave to reflect
more times inside the lunch box
D. To allow microwave to penetrate
deeper into the lunch box.

7. Water molecules change their states


between the liquid and gaseous states
A. only when water vapour is
saturated
B. at all times because evaporation
and condensation occur any time
C. only when the vapour molecules
produce a pressure as the same as
the atmospheric pressure
D. only when the water is boiling

4. Water is generally used to put out fire.


Which of the following explanation is
not correct?
A. Water has a high specific heat
capacity
B. Steam can cut off the supply of
oxygen
C. Water is easily available
D. Water can react with some
material

8. Based on the kinetic theory of gas which


one of the following does not explain the

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

behaviour of gas molecules in a


container?
A. Gas molecules move randomly
B. Gas molecules collide elastically
with the walls of the container
C. Gas molecules move faster as
temperature increases
D. Gas
molecules
collide
inelastically with each other

10. A plastic bag is filled with air. It is


immersed in the boiling water as shown
in diagram below.

Which of the following statements is


false?
A. The volume of the plastic bag
increases.
B. The pressure of air molecules
increases
C. The air molecules in the bag
move faster
D. The repulsive force of boiling
water slows down the movement
of air molecule

9. A cylinder which contains gas is


compressed at constant temperature of
the gas increase because
A. the average speed of gas
molecules increases
B. the number of gas molecules
increases
C. the average distance between the
gas molecules increases
D. the rate of collision between the
gas molecules and the walls
increases

PART B;
1. A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the
substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the
temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Thermometer
Liquid
Freezing point of liquid (0C)
Boiling point of liquid (0C)
Diameter of capillary tube
Cross section

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

A
Mercury
-39
360
Large

B
Mercury
-39
360
Small

C
Alcohol
-112
360
Large

D
Alcohol
-112
360
Small

Table 1
(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in glass thermometer.(1m)
Principle of thermal equilibrium
........................................................................................................................................
(ii)

Briefly explain the principle stated in (a)(i) (3m)


A system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between
.
the component of the system is zero. This means that the component of the system
.
are at the same temperature
.

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis
of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable
thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)

Alkohol freezing point is less than -50C, boiling point higher than 50C.Thus the

alcohol will not boil.

Capillary tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus

making the change clearly visible.

Small diameter increases sensitivity of the thermometer

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

..
(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at
00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of
the mercury column is 14.0cm
(i)

Calculate the temperature of the liquid


The temperature of the liquid = 8.0 x 100
12.5
= 64 0C

(ii)

State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)

Change of volume of gas with temperature


Change of electrical resistance with temperature

2. A metal block P of mass 500 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of 1000C. Block P
is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup. The mass of
water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature rises to 420C.

Figure 2

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the
surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)
Calculate
(a) the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup
Q = mc
= 0.250 x 4200 x (42-30)
= 12 600J
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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(b) the rate of heat supplied to the water


Rate of heat supplied to the water = 12 600J
120s
= 105 Js-1
(c) the specific heat capacity of the metal block P
Heat supplied by metal block P = heat gained by water
0.500 x c x(100 -42)

= 12 600J
c

= 434 J kg-1 C-1

3. A student performs an experiment to investigate the energy change in a system. He prepares a


cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of mass 500 g is
placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper. The height of the
lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then holds both ends of
the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

(a) State the energy change each time the tube is inverted.
Gravitational potential energy kinetic energy heat energy
..
..
(b) What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is inverted?
45.0 cm

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(c) Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the bottom of the tube.
S = ut + at2
0.45 = 0 + (10)t2
t = 0.3s
(d) After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is found to have
increased by 30C.
i.

Calculate the work done on the lead shot.


Work done = (100) mgh
= 100 x 0.500 x 10 x 0.45
= 225 J

ii.

Calculate the specific heat capacity of lead.


mc = 225 J
c =

225
(0.500 x 3)
= 150 Jkg-1 C-1

iii.

State the assumption used in your calculation in (d)ii.

...
No heat loss to the surroundings/All the gravitational potential energy is converted

into heat energy


.
PART C: EXPERIMENT
1. Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of his car as
shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa. After the journey,
Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure (b) He found that the
air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the tyre was hotter after the
journey although the size of the tyre did not change.
Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the
tyre of his car:

Figure (a)

Figure (b)
31

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

(a) State one suitable inference that can be


made. [1 mark]
(b) State appropriate hypothesis for an
investigation.

[1 mark]

(c) Design an experiment to investigate the


hypothesis stated in (b).

Choose suitable apparatus


such as pressure gauge, a

round-bottomed flask and any other apparatus that may he necessary. In your description,
state clearly the following:
i.

Aim of the experiment,

ii.

Variables in the experiment,

iii.

List of apparatus and materials,

iv.

Arrangement of the apparatus,

v.

The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the


manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,

vi.

The way you would tabulate the data,

vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

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JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

Inference
Hypothesis

At constant volume, the air pressure depends on the temperature


At constant volume, the air pressure increase as the temperature

Aim

increases
To investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the

Variable

temperature at constant volume.


Constant variable : Air temperature
Manipulate variable : Air pressure

Material and Apparatus

Responding variable : Volume of air


Round-bottom flask, rubber tube, Bourdon gauge, beaker, stirrer,
thermometer, wire gauze, tripod stand and Bunsen burner.

Arrangement of
apparatus

Procedure

The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above.

The beaker is filled with ice-cold water until the flask is


completely immersed.

The water is stirred and the initial temperature reading


taken. The pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also
taken.

The water is heated and constant stirred. When the water


temperature increases by 100C, the Bunsen burner is
removed and the stirring of water is continued. The
temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are
recorded in the table

The above procedure is repeated until the water temperature

33

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 4: Heat

almost reaches boiling point.


Tabulation of Data

Analysis of Data

34