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edu

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

University of Massachusetts Lowell

Presentation Topics

Intent

Things Shake and Break !

Modal Overview

TUTORIAL NOTES:

Structural Dynamics and

Experimental Modal Analysis

Analytical Modeling

SDOF Theory

MODE 1

MDOF Theory

MODE3

Measurement Definitions

Excitation Considerations

MPE Concepts

MODE 2

MODE 4

Linear Algebra

Structural Modification

Correlation/Updating

In Trouble !!!!!

Dr. Peter Avitabile

peter_avitabile@uml.edu

Structural Dynamics and Modal Analysis Overview

is to expose undergraduate engineering students

to some of the basic concepts and ideas concerning

analytical and experimental modal analysis for solving

structural dynamic problems.

It is NOT intended to be a detailed treatment of this material.

Rather it is intended to prepare the students for some basic

material to enhance their ability to solve some structural dynamics

problems that may be encountered during this summer session.

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

and how is it

used for solving

dynamic problems?

modal analysis

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

DISK DRIVE

INDUCED VIBRATIONS

RESPONSE

OUTPUT TIME RESPONSE

FFT

IFT

INPUT FORCE

BOARD

RESPONSE

CABINET

INPUT

FORCE

FAN INDUCED

VIBRATIONS

OUTPUT POWER SPECTRUM

system which is defined independently from the loads applied

to the system and the response of the system.

Structural dynamics is the study of how structures respond

when subjected to applied loads. Many times, in one form or

another, the modal characteristics of the structure is used to

determine the response of the system.

Overview of Structural Dynamic Modeling Techniques

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The raw time response of a structure may seem

complicated but it is really nothing more than the

linear combination of the effects of all the modes

that are excited by the specific input

showing drop load

(AVI file)

superimposed on a random excitation

(AVI file)

Overview of Structural Dynamic Modeling Techniques

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simple time-frequency response relationship

RESPONSE

FORCE

time

frequency

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

plate simultaneously to view

the actual response

Different deformation

patterns can be seen as the

excitation sweeps from low

frequency to high frequency

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sine Dwell to Obtain Mode Shape Characteristics

MODE3

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 4

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Equation of motion

Eigensolution

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Advantages

Models used for design

development

No prototypes are

necessary

Disadvantages

Modeling assumptions

Joint design difficult to model

Component interactions are

difficult to predict

Damping generally ignored

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical models are developed

to describe the system mass and

stiffness characteristics of a

component or system

The model is decomposed to

express the part in terms of its

modal characteristics - its

frequency, damping and shapes

The dynamic characteristics help

to better understand how the

structure will behave and how to

adjust or improve the component

or system design

Overview of Structural Dynamic Modeling Techniques

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

[Y]

MEASURED RESPONSE

[F]

APPLIED FORCE

fref1

fref2

[H]

FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

Advantages

Modal characteristics

are defined from actual

measurements

Damping can be

evaluated

Disadvantages

Requires hardware

Actual boundary conditions

may be difficult to simulate

Different hardware

prototypes may vary

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measured frequency response

functions from a modal test can

also be used to describe the

structures dynamic properties its frequency, damping and shapes

40

MODE # 1

MODE # 2

MODE # 3

DOF # 1

DOF #2

DOF # 3

COHERENCE

dB Mag

FRF

INPUT POWER SPECTRUM

-60

0Hz

800Hz

AUTORANGING

AVERAGING

h 13

1

2

1

3

2

h 23

3

h 33

h 31

h 33

h 32

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measured frequency response

functions from a modal test or

operating data can be used to

develop a model of the dynamic

characteristics of the system

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A simple inputoutput problem

8

5

2

8

3

0

-3

8

-7

Magnitude

Real

MODE # 1

MODE # 2

MODE # 3

DOF # 1

DOF #2

DOF # 3

1.0000

Phase

-1.0000

Imaginary

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

ANALOG SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

ANTIALIASING FILTERS

Analog anti-alias filter

AUTORANGE ANALYZER

ADC DIGITIZES SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

APPLY WINDOWS

INPUT

OUTPUT

COMPUTE FFT

LINEAR SPECTRA

LINEAR

OUTPUT

SPECTRUM

LINEAR

INPUT

SPECTRUM

Windowed time signals

Compute FFT of signal

AVERAGING OF SAMPLES

COMPUTATION OF AVERAGED

INPUT/OUTPUT/CROSS POWER SPECTRA

INPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

OUTPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

CROSS

POWER

SPECTRUM

Compute FRF and Coherence

COHERENC E FUNCTION

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MODE 2

2

1

MODE 1

5

2

4

1

3

6

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

a ij1

a ij2

a ij3

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

test engineer is to

determine the parameters

that make up the pieces

of the frequency response

function

Mathematical routines

help to determine the

basic parameters that

make up the FRF

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Why and How Do Structures Vibrate?

f(t)

y(t)

FFT

IFT

INPUT SPECTRUM

OUTPUT SPECTRUM

f(j )

h(j )

y(j )

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

If an excitation is applied close to a mode, then

that mode is excited - if not, then the response

is the linear combination of all the modes excited

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The modes of the structure act like filters

which amplify and attenuate input excitations

on a frequency basis

OUTPUT SPECTRUM

y(j )

f(j )

INPUT SPECTRUM

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The raw time response of the structure may seem

complicated but it is really nothing more than the

linear combination of the effects of all the modes

that are excited by the specific input

superimposed on a random excitation

(AVI file)

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

EXPERIMENTAL

MODAL

TESTING

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODELING

MODAL

PARAMETER

ESTIMATION

PERFORM

EIGEN

SOLUTION

Repeat

until

desired

characteristics

are

obtained

RIB

STIFFNER

MASS

DEVELOP

MODAL

MODEL

SPRING

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

REQUIRED

Yes

USE SDM

TO EVALUATE

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

No

DONE

DASHPOT

STRUCTURAL

DYNAMIC

The dynamic

model can be

used for studies

to determine the

effect of

structural

changes of the

mass, damping

and stiffness

MODIFICATIONS

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simulation, Prediction, Correlation, to name a few

FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

MEASUREMENTS

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODEL

CORRECTIONS

PARAMETER

ESTIMATION

EIGENVALUE

SOLVER

MODAL

PARAMETERS

MODEL

VALIDATION

MODAL

PARAMETERS

SYNTHESIS

OF A

DYNAMIC MODAL MODEL

MASS, DAMPING,

STIFFNESS CHANGES

STRUCTURAL

DYNAMICS

MODIFICATION

FORCED

RESPONSE

SIMULATION

MODIFIED

MODAL

DATA

REAL WORLD

FORCES

STRUCTURAL

RESPONSE

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

RVAC

Analytical and

experimental models

are correlated and

adjusted to

provide

better

component

and system

models

FINITE ELEMENT

CoMAC

VECTOR CORRELATION

) [U n ] , [ ]

+

g

[Tu ] = [Un ] [Ua ]

[M] , [K]

VECTOR CORRELATION

FINITE ELEMENT

MODE

SWITCHING

0.6

0.4

0.3

MAC

0.2

0.2

EXPERIMENTAL

[En ] = [T u ] [E a ]

0.5

0.4

FINITE ELEMENT

0.8

0.6

CORTHOG

Experimental Analytical

DOF CORRELATION

1.2

0.7

DOF CORRELATION

0.9

0.8

EXPERIMENTAL

DOF CORRELATION

MAC AND

ORTHOGONALITY

FRAC

0.1

GUYAN

MAC

FEM 5

FEM 4

0.6

POC

VECTOR CORRELATION

FEM 3

0.2

1

0.8

0.4

1.2

1.2

OR

FEM 2

0

EXP1 EXP 2

FEM 1

EXP 3 EXP 4

EXP 5

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

IRS

EXPERIMENTAL

SEREP

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

FINITE ELEMENT

CoMAC

MAC

MODE

SWITCHING

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

MATRIX

OR

COORDINATE

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

CORTHOG

COORDINATE

ORTHOGONALITY

CRITERIA

OR

1

FEM 5

0.8

FEM 4

0.6

0.4

VECTOR CORRELATION

FEM 3

0.2

Experimental

FEM 2

Analytical

PSEUDO

ORTHOGONALITY

CRITERIA

MATRIX

EXP1

FEM 1

EXP 2

EXP 3

EXP 4

EXP 5

DOF CORRELATION

POC

EXPERIMENTAL

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

Vector tools

RVAC

RESPONSE

VECTOR

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

FRAC

FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

DOF CORRELATION

Frequency tools

VECTOR CORRELATION

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

ANALYTICAL MODEL

MODEL

IMPROVEMENT

REGIONS

AMI

MODEL

IMPROVEMENT

REGIONS

SSO/MSSO

system characteristics

Joint stiffness can be more accurately identified

Simplistic modeling assumptions can be modified to reflect

the actual system

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Models

System models are developed

from component models which

can be obtained from physical

models, reduced models, modal

models or measurement models

All of these methods may be

used to develop a system model

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Assembly

Components may be

described by a variety

of different methods

depending on the

problem and results

necessary

Overview of Structural Dynamic Modeling Techniques

28

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Models

Modal Models

Reduced Models

CONNECTION

MODAL SPACE MODEL

FULL SPACE PHYSICAL MODEL

Modal/Physical Models

Impedance Models

TIE MATRIX

CONNECTION

FULL SPACE PHYSICAL MODEL

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Hybrid/Impedance Modeling

In addition to more conventional

system modeling approaches,

measured frequency response

functions can also be used to

assemble systems and provide more

realistic boundary conditions

MACHINE

CHUCK

CONNECTION IMPEDANCE

MEASURED AT MACHINE

CONNECTION IMPEDANCE

SYNTHESIZED FROM

FEM OF WORKPIECE

HYBRID MODELING

calc3_xyz

REFERENCE IMPEDANCE

SYNTHESIZED FROM

FEM OF WORKPIECE

UNIV:1974:+Z

10

10

120

-10

-10

HYBRID

-20

dB

-30

-20

-30

-40

100

-40

FEM

-50

(s2)/(kg)

-60

-50

-60

dB

-70

-70

5

100

200

255.75

Hz

Dof 15286 CALCULATED

(m/s2)/N

0

0

1000

2000

2550

Hz

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using both measured operating data and frequency response

function, estimates of the dynamic forces driving the system can

be estimated

OPERATIONAL

DISPLACEMENTS

[Y]

10-1

Reference

-2

10

Estimated

-3

10

-4

10

Lbf^2

-5

10

-6

10

10 -1

Reference

-7

10

10

10

10

-2

50

100

150

Hz

200

250

Estimated

300

-3

-4

Lbf^2

10

10

10

[H]

-5

-6

-7

50

100

150

Hz

200

250

300

[F]

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

FUNCTIONS

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Response

System response can be computed

for both linear and non-linear

systems by various methods.

f(t)

y(t)

FFT

IFT

INPUT SPECTRUM

OUTPUT SPECTRUM

f(j )

h(j )

y(j )

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

There are basically three different types of

models that are commonly used for solving

structural dynamic problems:

Physical or Spatial Models

Modal Space Models

Response Based Models

33

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

These models are developed from basic physical

characteristics describing the system mass,

damping and stiffness typically from a finite

element model description:

[M ]{&x&}+[C]{x& }+[K ]{x}={F( t )}

12 6L 12 6L

6L 4L2 6L 2L2

[k] = EI3

L 12 6L 12 6L

6L 2L2 6L 4L

i

i

Fi

E, I

L

j

Fj

22L 4L2 13L 3L2

[m] = AL

420 54 13L 156 22L

13L 3L2 22L 4L2

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

These models are developed from the modal

characteristics describing the frequency, damping

and mode shape:

[M ]{&x&}+[C]{x& }+[K ]{x}={F( t )}

ls

s

e

l

d

e

od

Mo

M

d

d

se

e

a

s

B

Ba

al

l

d

a

o

c

M

si

y

h

P

\

f1

p1

k1

m2

c1

MODE 1

f2

p2

m1

k2

m3

c2

MODE 2

f3

p3

k3

c3

\

{&p&} +

\

{p& } +

{p} = [U ]T {F}

MODE 3

35

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

These models are developed from characteristics

of the system response typically from frequency

response measurements:

ts

n

e

on

p

m

Co

ed

t

s

Te

r

ls

so

e

l

d

e

od

Mo

M

d

ed

ase

s

B

a

B

l

se

n

a

c

o

i

p

s

Res

Phy

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

and how is it

used for solving

dynamic problems?

modal analysis

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical Topics

for

Structural Dynamic Modeling

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Structures Vibrate

All structures vibrate to some degree

Objectionable vibrations range from annoying

items such as car vibration considerations to

catastrophic failures such as the famous

Tacoma Narrows Bridge

But there are also many good vibrations some designs incorporate vibrations to achieve the

desired level of performance

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Types of Models

Models are developed to assist in the design and

understanding of system dynamics

Analytical models (such as finite element models)

are utilized in the design process

Experimental models are also used for many

systems where modeling is not practical or models

are too difficult to develop

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Finite element models are commonly used

What are we trying to do when generating a model

CONTINUOUS

SOLUTION

Analytical Topics

DISCRETIZED

SOLUTION

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modeling Issues

continuous solutions work well with structures that are well behaved

and have no geometry that is difficult to handle

most structures don't fit this simple requirement

(except for frisbees and cymbals)

real structures have significant geometry variations that are

difficult to address for the applicable theory

a discretized model is needed in order to approximate the actual

geometry

the degree of discretization is dependent on the waveform of the

deformation in the structure

finite element modeling meets this need

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Finite element modeling involves the descretization of the structure

into elements or domains that are defined by nodes which describe

the elements.

A field quantity such as displacement is approximated using polynomial

interpolation over each of the domains.

The best values of the field quantity at nodes results from a

minimization of the total energy.

Since there are many nodes defining many elements, a set of

simultaneous equations results.

Typically, this set of equations is very large and a computer is used to

generate results.

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Nodes represent geometric locations in the structure.

Elements boundary are defined by the nodes.

The type of displacement field that exists over the domain will

determine the type of element used to characterize the

domain.

Element characteristics are determined from

Theory of Elasticity

and

Strength of Materials.

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Structural element formulations use the same general

assumptions about their respective behavior as their respective

structural theories (such as truss, beam, plate, or shell)

Continuum element formulations (such as 2D and 3D solid

elements) comes from theory of elasticity

6L 12 6L

12

6L 4L2 6L 2L2

[k ] = EI3

L 12 6L 12 6L

6L 2L2 6L 4L

Analytical Topics

E, I

Fj

54

13L

156 22L

22L 4L2 13L 3L2

[m] = AL

13L 156

22L

420 54

13L 3L2 22L

4L2

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The basis of the finite

element method is

summarized below

v

u

t

s

each element is defined by a finite number of node points

assemble all elements to form the entire structure

within each element, a simple solution to governing equations

is formulated (the solution for each element becomes a

function of unknown nodal values

general solution for all elements results in algebraic set of

simultaneous equations

Analytical Topics

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

maximum 6 dof can be described at a point in space

finite element use a maximum of 6 dof

most elements use less than 6 dof to describe the element

TRUSS

TORSIONAL ROD

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

3D BEAM

PLATE

CONTINUUM ELEMENTS

Analytical Topics

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Advantages

development

No prototypes are

necessary

Disadvantages

Analytical Topics

11

Modeling assumptions

Joint design difficult to model

Component interactions are

difficult to predict

Damping generally ignored

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A TYPICAL FINITE ELEMENT USER MAY ASK

how many elements should I have?

where can the mesh be coarse; where must it be fine?

what simplifying assumptions can I make?

should all of the physical structural detail be included?

can I use the same static model for dynamic analysis?

how can I determine if my answers are accurate?

how do I know if the software is used properly?

Analytical Topics

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

ALL THESE QUESTIONS CAN BE ANSWERED, IF

the elements available are understood

the software operation is understood

(input procedures, algorithms,etc.)

IF A ROUGH BACK OF THE ENVELOP ANALYSIS

CAN NOT BE FORMULATED, THEN

MOST LIKELY THE ANALYST DOES NOT KNOW

ENOUGH ABOUT THE PROBLEM AT HAND TO

FORMULATE A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

Analytical Topics

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using standard finite element modeling techniques, the following steps

are usually followed in the generation of an analytical model

node generation

element generation

coordinate transformations

assembly process

application of boundary conditions

model condensation

solution of equations

recovery process

expansion of reduced model results

Analytical Topics

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Element Definition

Shape Functions

Linear

{} = [N ]{x}

where

{}

[N]

{x}

- shape function for selected element

- nodal variable

interpolation functions to higher order polynomial

functions.

Analytical Topics

15

Quadratic

Polynomial

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Strain Displacement Relationship

The strain displacement relationship is given by

{} = [B]{x}

where

{}

[B]

(proportional to derivatives of [N])

{x}

- nodal variable

Analytical Topics

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Mass and Stiffness Formulation

The mass and stiffness relationship is given by

[M ] = V [N][N]T V

where

[M]

[K]

[N]

{}

[B]

[C]

[K ] = V [B]T [C][B]V

- element mass matrix

- element stiffness matrix

- shape function for element

- density

- strain displacement matrix

- stress-strain (elasticity) matrix

Analytical Topics

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Coordinate Transformation

Generally, elements are formed in a local coordinate system which is

convenient for generation of the element.

Elemental matrices are transformed from the local elemental

coordinate system to the global coordinate system using

LOCAL SYSTEM

GLOBAL SYSTEM

Analytical Topics

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Assembly Process

Elemental matrices are then assembled into the global master matrices

using

{x k } = [c k ]{x g }

where

{xk} - element degrees of freedom

[ck] - connectivity matrix

{xg} - global degrees of freedom

The global mass and stiffness matrices are assembled and boundary

conditions applied for the structure

Analytical Topics

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Static Solutions

typically involve decomposition of a large matrix

matrix is usually sparsely populated

majority of terms concentrated about the diagonal

Eigenvalue Solutions

use either direct or iterative methods

direct techniques used for small matrices

iterative techniques used for a few modes from large matrices

Propagation Solutions

most common solution uses derivative methods

stability of the numerical process is of concern

at a given time step, the equations are reduced to an equivalent

static form for solution

typically many times steps are required

Analytical Topics

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Consider the 2 spring system shown below

u1

u2

1

u3

2

f

1

each element is defined by 2 nodes denoted by the circle with a

number assigned to it

the springs have a node at each end and have a common node point

the displacement of each node is denoted by u with a subscript to

identify which node it corresponds to

there is an applied force at node 3

Analytical Topics

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The first step is to formulate the spring element in a general sense

ui

uj

p

f jp

f ip

j

the element is bounded by node i and j

assume positive displacement conditions at both nodes

define the force at node i and node j for the p element

f ip = k p (u i u j ) = + k p u i k p u j

f jp = k p (u j u i ) = k p u i + k p u j

Analytical Topics

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

This can be written in matrix form to give

kp

k

p

k p u i f ip

=

k p u j f jp

k1 k1 u1 f11

=

k

1 k1 u 2 f 21

k2

k

2

k 2 u 2 f 22

=

k 2 u 3 f 32

The equilibrium requires that the sum of the internal forces equals

the applied force acting on each node

Analytical Topics

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The three equations can be written as

k1u1 k1u 2 = f1

k1u1 + k1u 2 + k 2 u 2 k 2 u 3 = f 2

k 2u 2 + k 2u 3 = f3

or in matrix form

k1

k1

k k + k

2

1 1

k2

Analytical Topics

u1 f1

k 2 u 2 = f 2

k 2 u 3 f 3

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Now applying a boundary condition of zero displacement at node 1 has

the effect of zeroing the first column of the K matrix which gives three

equations with 2 unknowns. Solving for the second and third equation

gives

k1

k1

k k + k

2

1 1

k2

u1 f1

k 2 u 2 = f 2

k 2 u 3 f 3

k1 + k 2

k

k 2 u 2 0

=

k 2 u 3 f 3

Analytical Topics

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Assembly of the stiffness matrix with more elements

k1

k1

k k + k + k

2

5

1 1

k2

k5

k2

k 2 + k3

k3

k3

k3 + k 4

k4

k5

k4

k 4 + k 5

Notice that the banded nature of the matrix is not preserved when

elements are arbitrarily added to the assembly

Analytical Topics

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Equation of Motion (n x n)

Eigensolution

Frequencies (eigenvalues) and Mode Shapes (eigenvectors)

Analytical Topics

12

22

and

27

[U] = [{u1} {u 2 }

L]

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modal transformation (n x m)

p1

L]p 2

M

Projection operation

Vector orthogonality

{u i }

mii i = j

[M ]{u j } =

0i j

Analytical Topics

{u i }

28

k ii i = j

[K ]{u j } =

0i j

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Since the mode shapes are linearly independent and

orthogonal w.r.t the mass and stiffness matrices

Modal Mass

\

[U1 ]T [M1 ][U1 ] =

Modal Damping

\

[U1 ]T [C1 ][U1 ] =

Modal Stiffness

\

[U1 ]T [K1 ][U1 ] =

Analytical Topics

29

M1

TRUE !!!

C1

???????

K1

TRUE !!!

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The damping matrix is only uncoupled for a special case

where the damping is assumed to be proportional to the mass

and/or stiffness matrices

\

[U1 ]T [[M ] + [K ]][U1 ] =

M + K

know what the actual damping is

This assumption began back when computational power was

limited and matrix size was of critical concern

But even today we still struggle with the damping matrix !!!

Analytical Topics

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

However, if we knew the damping matrix then a solution can

be obtained after rearranging the equations.

[0]

[M ]

1

=

[C1 ] x& [0] [ K1 ] x F

[0] [M1 ]

[B1 ] =

[M1 ] [C1 ]

[M ] [0]

[A1 ] = 1

[0] [ K1 ]

Analytical Topics

{Y} = [1 ]{p1}

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

COMPLEX MODES

The solution to the state space formulation will result in a

set of modes that are generally complex in form.

The mode shapes will have both real and imaginary parts.

The mode shapes will become much more difficult to

describe especially as the damping becomes significantly

different than the proportional damped form.

MAKE SURE YOU REALLY WANT COMPLEX MODES !!!

DO YOU REALLY BELIEVE THE DAMPING MATRIX ???

Analytical Topics

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Is there any reason to want to have a less complicated

representation of the detailed finite element model ?

Analytical Topics

33

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Many times it is necessary to formulate a reduced model of

a structure especially for correlation and updating models

Mapping Transformation Matrix

x a

{x n }= =[T ]{x a }

x d

Reduced System Matrices

[K a ] = [T ]T [K n ][T ]

[M a ] = [T ]T [M n ][T ]

Analytical Topics

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Guyan Reduction

Dynamic Condensation

[ I]

[I]

[Ts ]= =

1

[

K

]

[

K

]

[

]

t

da

s

dd

[ I]

[I]

[Tf ]= =

1

[

B

]

[

B

]

[

]

t

f

dd

da

IRS Reduction

[I]

[0]

[Ti ] =

+

1

[K dd ] [ K da ] [0]

SEREP Reduction

[Tu ] = [U n ][U a ]g

Analytical Topics

[0]

1

[

][

][

]

[K a ]

M

T

M

a

n s

[K dd1 ]

(

(

)

)

[ ] [ ]T [ ] 1[ ]T

Ua

U a U a U a

1

T

T

[U d ] [U a ] [U a ] [U a ]

35

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The type of reduction utilized can have a significant impact

on the accuracy of the resulting reduced model.

Much work has been done in this area to minimize the

distortion of the reduced model.

The same reduction matrices are also used for expansion of

reduced model information (ie, test data)

Strong differing opinions prevail on this subject !!!

Analytical Topics

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Numerical Methods

Many times the model may be needed to perform

dynamic response studies

Some traditional methods are:

Mode Superposition

Frequency Domain Solution

Direct Integration of Equations of Motion

Analytical Topics

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using the modal space formulation, a simple integration on

the SDOF system can be performed

m1

m

k

m2

c2

p& 1 k1

p& +

2

\ M

c1

MODE 1

p

m

k

c2

k2

T

p1 {u1} {F}

p ={u }T {F}

2 2

\ M M

&p&1 c1

&p& +

2

\ M

MODE 2

p

m

k

c3

MODE 3

Analytical Topics

38

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using the frequency domain input-output relationships,

Output Response = System Characteristic X Input Forces

No

yi ( j)= h ij ( j)f j ( j)

j=1

rij,k

rij*,k

h ij ( j)=

+

*

j k j k

k =1

m

Analytical Topics

39

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Frequency domain input-output schematic

OUTPUT SPECTRUM

rij,k

rij*,k

+

h ij ( j)=

*

j p k j p k

k =1

y(j )

No

f(j )

y i ( j)= h ij ( j)f j ( j)

INPUT SPECTRUM

Analytical Topics

j=1

40

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Response - 5Z

Response - 3Z

No

y i ( j)= h ij ( j)f j ( j)

j=1

Response - 2Z

Analytical Topics

41

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The equation of motion is integrated using numerical step-by-step

procedure for a number of t steps. The term 'direct' means that the

equations of motion are formulated in a physical space at Ndof without

any transformation to another space (ie,modal space).

The equation of motion is to be satisfied not at any time t but rather an

equivalent 'static' equilibrium is sought at discrete time intervals t

apart. Note that from this statement, the static solution techniques will

be employed for the system at many different t time steps. In essence,

'effective' loads are computed from the manipulation of the velocity and

acceleration terms of the equation of motion to reduce the problem to a

simple-to-solve static equivalent problem.

Analytical Topics

42

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Basically, numerical integration is a process of marching along in time

where response parameters (acceleration, velocity and displacement) at

time t are evaluated from their known historic values. Typically, three

values are needed for three unknowns. Two of these values are derived

from assumptions regarding the manner in which response parameters

vary during a time step. The third equation is the equation of motion

written at a selected point.

An important aspect of numerical integration is the selection of the time

step used in the integration process. If the time step is selected to be

too large then the computed response will suffer from the effects of

'numerical damping' that will distort the results even the scheme is

unconditionally stable.

Analytical Topics

43

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Explicit Schemes

scheme is explicit when the equation of motion is written at time t

(which is the current time)

computationally efficient when compared to implicit schemes

these techniques are only conditionally stable

typically there is no factorization of [K] or [M] needed for most cases

Implicit Schemes

scheme is implicit when the equation of motion is written at next time

step (which is t + t)

requires more computation when compared to explicit schemes

these techniques are usually unconditionally stable

usually factorization of [K] or [M] is needed for most cases

Analytical Topics

44

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Some common integration techniques

Central diff

Houbolt

Wilson

Newmark

Newmark

Newmark

Analytical Topics

Explicit

Implicit

Implicit

Implicit

Implicit

Implicit

=0, =0

=1/2, =1/4

=1/2, =1/6

45

(constant acceleration)

(average acceleration)

(linear acceleration)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical Topics

46

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical Topics

47

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical Topics

48

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analytical Topics

49

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

f(t)

x(t)

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

R

e

a

l

k

100

Fr equency

T = 2 / n

=0.1%

=1%

X1

=2%

X2

=5%

10

=10%

=20%

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

-90

=20%

/n

=10%

t1

=5%

=2%

1

h (s) =

ms 2 + cs + k

=1%

=0.1%

-180

/ n

t2

Real

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SDOF Definitions

Assumptions

lumped mass

f(t)

x(t)

stiffness proportional

to displacement

damping proportional to

velocity

equations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SDOF Equations

Equation of Motion

d2x

dx

m 2 + c + kx = f ( t )

dt

dt

or

m &x& + cx& + kx = f ( t )

Characteristic Equation

ms 2 + cs + k = 0

s1, 2

c

=

2m

c + k

m

2m

3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SDOF Definitions

Poles expressed as

s1, 2 = n

(n )2 n 2 = jd

POLE

Damping Factor

= n

Natural Frequency

n = k

% Critical Damping

= c

m

n

cc

Critical Damping

c c = 2mn

Damped Natural

Frequency

d = n 1 2

CONJUGATE

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

As the damping is

varied from no

damping to critical

damping and

beyond, the poles

move as shown

FRF

TIME

FRF

FRF

TIME

TIME

= 0.1

frequency response

are shown as the

damping is varied

=0

= 0.3

FRF

TIME

= 0.7

= 1.0

TIME

> 1.0

TIME

STABLE

UNSTABLE

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Equation of Motion in Laplace Domain

(ms 2 +cs+k)x (s) = f (s)

with

b(s) x (s) = f (s)

and

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Transfer Function

1

h (s) =

ms 2 + cs + k

Complex valued

function defines the

surface shown

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Polynomial Form

1

h (s) =

ms 2 + cs + k

Pole-Zero Form

1/ m

h (s) =

(s p1 )(s p1* )

a1

a1*

h (s) =

+

(s p1 ) (s p1* )

Exponential Form

1 t

h(t) =

e sin d t

md

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Amplitude

Damping Decay

Period

h(t)

Basic Modal Analysis Theory

1

md

e t

9

sin d t

Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Residue

a1 =

h (s)(s p1 )

sp1

1

=

2 jmd

related to

mode shapes

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Frequency Response Function is the System

Transfer Function evaluated at s = j

h ( j) = h (s)

s = j

a1

a 1*

=

+

( j p1 ) ( j p1* )

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Coincident-Quadrature Plot

Bode Plot

Nyquist Plot

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

DYNAMIC COMPLIANCE

DISPLACEMENT / FORCE

MOBILITY

VELOCITY / FORCE

INERTANCE

ACCELERATION / FORCE

DYNAMIC STIFFNESS

FORCE / DISPLACEMENT

MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE

FORCE / VELOCITY

DYNAMIC MASS

FORCE / ACCELERATION

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Damping Effects

100

Damping Estimates

MAG

=0.1%

=1%

=2%

=5%

10

Q=

0.707

MAG

=10%

=20%

1

n

=

2 2 1

/n

T = 2 / n

-90

X1

=20%

X2

=10%

= ln

=5%

=2%

=1%

=0.1%

x1

2

x2

-180

/ n

t1

14

t2

Log Decrement

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

[B(s )]1 = [H(s )] = Adj[B(s )] = [A(s )]

det[B(s )] det[B(s )]

f1

p1

k1

f2

p2

c1

f3

p3

m2

m1

m3

k2

c2

k3

c3

R1

D1

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

R2

D2

\

{&p&} +

MDOF Overview

\

{p& } +

{p} = [U ]T {F}

R3

D3

F1

F2F3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF Definitions

Assumptions

f2

lumped mass

m2

stiffness proportional

k2

to displacement

damping proportional to

velocity

f1

c2

x1

m1

k1

x2

c1

equations

MDOF Overview

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF Equations

Equation of Motion - Force Balance

m1&x&1+(c1 + c 2 )x& 1c 2 x& 2 +(k1 + k 2 )x1k 2 x 2 =f1 (t )

m 2 &x& 2 c 2 x& 1+c 2 x& 2 k 2 x1 +k 2 x 2 =f 2 (t )

Matrix Formulation

m1

&x&1

m 2 &x& 2

(c1 + c 2 ) c 2 x& 1

+

x&

c

c

2

2 2

Matrices and

Linear Algebra

are important !!!

(k1 + k 2 ) k 2 x1 f1 ( t )

+

=

k

k

x

f

(

t

)

2

2

2 2

MDOF Overview

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF Equations

Equation of Motion

Eigensolution

Frequencies (eigenvalues) and

Mode Shapes (eigenvectors)

\

MDOF Overview

1

=

\

22

and [U ] = [{u1}

\

4

{u 2 } L]

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modal transformation

Projection operation

p1

L]p 2

M

Modal equations (uncoupled)

m1

m2

&p&1 c1

&p& +

2

\ M

MDOF Overview

c2

p& 1 k1

p& +

2

\ M

5

k2

T

p1 {u1} {F}

p ={u }T {F}

2 2

\ M M

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Diagonal Matrices Modal Mass

Modal Damping

{&p&} +

Modal Stiffness

{p& } +

{p} = [U ]T {F}

transformed into

k1

k2

m3

c2

MODE 2

f3

p3

m2

c1

MODE 1

f2

p2

m1

simple system

MDOF Overview

f1

p1

k3

c3

MODE 3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

PHYSICAL MODEL

..

.

[M]{x} + [C]{x} + [K]{x} = {F(t)}

=

f1

p1

m1

MODAL

]{p}

k1

SPACE

c1

MODE 1

f2

p2

m2

k2

..

.

T

[ M ]{p} + [ C ]{p} + [ K ]{p} = [U] {F(t)}

{x} = [U]{p} = {u 1 }p1 + {u 2 }p2 + {u 3 }p3

c2

MODE 2

f3

p3

m3

k3

c3

MODE 3

MDOF Overview

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Domain Equation of Motion

[[M]s

[[M]s +[C]s+[K ]] = 0

p k = k jdk

Damping

MDOF Overview

Frequency

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

System Equation

x (s )}

{

[B(s )]{x (s )} = {F(s )} [H(s )] = [B(s )] =

{F(s )}

1

[B(s )]

[

Adj[B(s )]

A(s )]

= [H(s )] =

=

det[B(s )] det[B(s )]

[A(s )]

Residue Matrix

det[B(s )]

Characteristic Equation

MDOF Overview

Mode Shapes

Poles

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Transfer Function evaluated at one pole

[H(s )]s=s

qk

T

{u k }

= {u k }

sp k

m

[H(s )] =

k =1

MDOF Overview

q k {u k }{u k }

q k {u }{u }

+

(sp*k )

(sp k )

T

10

*

k

* T

k

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Residues are related to mode shapes as

[A(s )]k

a11k

a

21k

a 31k

M

a12 k

a 22 k

a 32 k

M

MDOF Overview

a13k

a 23k

a 33k

M

= q k {u k }{u k }

L

u1k u1k

u u

L

=q k 2 k 1k

L

u 3k u1k

M

O

11

u1k u 2 k

u 2k u 2k

u 3k u 2 k

M

u1k u 3k

u 2 k u 3k

u 3k u 3k

M

L

L

L

O

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

h ij ( j ) =

a ij1

( j p1 )

+

( j p 2 )

MDOF Overview

( j p*2 )

( j p 3 )

a *ij 3

( j p*3 )

( j p1 )

q1 u i 1u j 1

( j p*1 )

q 2u i 2u j 2

( j p 2 )

+

a *ij 2

a ij 3

q1 u i 1u j 1

( j p*1 )

a ij 2

h ij ( j ) =

a *ij1

q 2u i 2u j 2

( j p*2 )

q 3u i 3u j 3

( j p 3 )

12

q 3u i 3u j 3

( j p*3 )

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

h ij ( j ) =

R1

+

( j p1 ) ( j p*1 )

+

D1

a*ij1

a ij1

a*ij 2

a ij 2

+

+ L

( j p 2 ) ( j p*2 )

R2

D2

R3

D3

F1

F2F3

a ij1

h ij ( j ) =

q1u i1u j1

* * *

1 i 1 j1

*

1

qu u

+

( j p1 ) ( j p )

+

q 2u i 2 u j 2

* * *

2 i2 j2

*

2

qu u

( j p 2 ) ( j p )

MDOF Overview

a ij2

a ij3

2

3

+ L

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

PHYSICAL

TIME

FREQUENCY

ANALYTICAL

MODAL

f1

p1

m1

k1

MODE 1

c1

MODE 1

+

p2

f2

m2

k2

MODE 2

c2

MODE 2

p3

f3

m3

k3

MODE 3

MODE 3

MDOF Overview

c3

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

LAPLACE

DOMAIN

TRANSFER

FUNCTION

[B(s)] -1 = [H(s)]

qk u j {u k}

[U]

[ A(s) ]

det [B(s)]

[U]

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODEL

[MA] = [T] T[M N] [T]

[K - M]{X} = 0

MODAL

PARAMETER

ESTIMATION

H(j )

LARGE DOF

MISMATCH

H(j ) =

Xj (j )

Fi (j )

CORRELATION &

MODEL UPDATING

[EN ]' = [TU ] [EA]

X j(t)

MDOF Overview

ANALYTICAL

MODEL

REDUCTION

FFT

Fi (t)

15

MODAL

TEST

EXPERIMENTAL

MODAL MODEL

EXPANSION

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Digitization,

Quantization,

Aliasing,

Leakage

T

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Objectives of this lecture:

Overview basic digital signal processing concepts

Discuss digitization and sampling

Discuss quantization

Discuss aliasing and anti-aliasing filters

Discuss leakage

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Each domain casts the same information from a different view

point. Many times things that are confusing or unclear in one

domain become easier to interpret in another domain.

* Time domain represents the

physics of the system

TIME DOMAIN

TRANSFORMATION

the system in terms of it's

periodicities

SUBSET

FREQUENCY

DOMAIN

the system in terms of its

poles and residues

TRANSFORMATION

PARAMETER ESTIMATION

LAPLACE

DOMAIN

FREQUENCY

AMPLITUDE

TIME

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Many times a transformation is performed to provide a better

or clearer understanding of a phenomena. The time

representation of a sine wave may be difficult to interpret. By

using a Fourier series representation, the original time signal

can be easily transformed and much better understood.

Transformations are also

performed to respresent the same

data with significantly less

information. Notice that the

original time signal was defined by

many discrete time points (ie,

1024, 2048, 4096 ) whereas the

equivalent Fourier representation

only requires 4 amplitudes and 4

frequencies.

Digitization, Quantization, Aliasing, Leakage

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The FFT Analyzer can be broken

down into several pieces which

involve the digitization, filtering,

transformation and processing of a

signal.

ANALOG

SIGNAL

ANALOG

FILTER

ADC

DISPLAY

DIGITAL

FILTER

FFT

DISCRETE

DATA

Digitization and Sampling

Quantization of Signal

Aliasing Effects

Leakage Distortion

Windows Weighting Functions

The Fourier Transform

Measurement Formulation

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Actual time signals

ANALOG SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

ANTIALIASING FILTERS

AUTORANGE ANALYZER

ADC DIGITIZES SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

APPLY WINDOWS

INPUT

OUTPUT

COMPUTE FFT

LINEAR SPECTRA

LINEAR

OUTPUT

SPECTRUM

LINEAR

INPUT

SPECTRUM

Windowed time signals

Compute FFT of signal

AVERAGING OF SAMPLES

COMPUTATION OF AVERAGED

INPUT/OUTPUT/CROSS POWER SPECTRA

INPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

OUTPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

CROSS

POWER

SPECTRUM

Compute FRF and Coherence

COHERENC E FUNCTION

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Analog Filter

The analog filter removes the portion of the data that can cause

aliasing.

dB

Rolloff

Fc

Frequency

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sinusoidal Terminology

The peak displacement, peak-to-peak displacement, average

value and rms value are shown below for a sinusoid.

PEAK

AVERAGE

RMS

PEAK TO PEAK

AVERAGE = 0.637 x PEAK

PEAK TO PEAK = 2 x PEAK

x AVG =

1 2

x RMS = x ( t )dt

To

1

x dt

To

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Notation

Real / Imaginary Representation

a + jb

a - real part

b - imaginary part

j = 1

= a tan (b / a )

(a + jb) = a 2 + b 2

Complex Conjugate

(a + jb)* = a jb

Complex Multiplication

(a + jb)(a jb) = a 2 + b 2

(a + jb)(c jd ) = (ac bd ) + j(bc + ad )

Digitization, Quantization, Aliasing, Leakage

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

With analog sampling devices, only the performance of the

analog instrumentation was of concern. With the use of digital

signal processing (DSP) techniques, additional consideration must

be given to the analog to digital conversion (ADC) process.

The analog signal must be digitized and several additional items

become important in order to minimize distortion of the original

signal. These are quantization, sampling, aliasing and leakage.

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sampling rate of the ADC is specified as a maximum that is

possible. Basically, the digitizer is taking a series of

snapshots at a very fast rate as time progresses

Digital

Analog Signal

Representation

ADC

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Quantization

Sampling refers to the rate at which the signal is collected.

Quantization refers to the amplitude description of the signal.

A 4 bit ADC has 24 or 16 possible values

A 6 bit ADC has 26 or 64 possible values

A 12 bit ADC has 212 or 4096 possible values

4bit = 0000 = 23 + 2 2 + 21 + 2 0 = 16levels

12bit = 000000000000= 211 + 210 + L + 21 + 20 = 4096levels = 72dBdynamicrange

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Quantization

Quantization errors refer to the accuracy of the amplitude

measured. The 6 bit ADC represents the signal shown much

better than a 4 bit ADC

A

D

C

A

D

C

M

A

X

M

A

X

R

A

N

G

E

R

A

N

G

E

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Quantization Error

Underloading of the ADC causes amplitude errors in the signal

All of the available

dynamic range of the

analog to digital

converter is not used

effectively

10 volt

range

on

ADC

This causes amplitude

and phase distortion of

the measured signal in

both the time and

frequency domains

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Quantization Error

A large DC bias can cause amplitude errors in the alternating

part of the signal. AC coupling uses a high pass filter to

remove the DC component from the signal

All of the available

dynamic range of the

analog to digital

converter is dominated

by the DC signal

10 volt

range

on

ADC

the signal suffers from

quantization error

This causes amplitude

and phase distortion of

the measured signal

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Quantization Error

Overloading of the ADC causes severe errors also

The ADC range is set

too low for the signal

to be measured and

causes clipping of the

signal

1 volt

range

on

ADC

A

D

C

M

A

X

R

A

N

G

E

and phase distortion of

the measured signal in

both the time and

frequency domains

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sampling

Each sample is spaced delta t seconds apart. Sufficient

sampling is needed in order to assure that the entire event is

captured. The maximum observable frequency is inversely

proportional to the delta time step used

Fs = 1 / t

Digital Sample

t spacing

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sampling Theory

In order to extract valid frequency information, digitization of

the analog signal must occur at a certain rate.

Shannon's Sampling Theorem states

fs > 2 fmax

That is, the sampling rate must be at least twice the desired

frequency to be measured.

For a time record of T seconds, the lowest frequency

component measurable is

f = 1 / T

With these two properties above, the sampling parameters can

be summarized as

fmax = 1 / 2 t

t = 1 / 2 fmax

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sampling Parameters

Due to the Rayleigh Criteria and Shannons Sampling Theorum,

the following sampling parameters must be observed.

T=N t

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sampling Parameters

Due to the Rayleigh Criteria and Shannons Sampling Theorum,

the following sampling parameters must be observed.

PICK

THEN

AND

fmax = 1 / (2 t)

T = N t

fmax

t = 1 / (2 fmax )

f = 1/(N t)

T = 1 / f

t = T / N

f =1 / T

fmax = N f / 2

T = 1 / f = 1 / 5 Hz = 0.2 sec

Then

fs = N f = (1024) (5 Hz) = 5120 Hz

fmax = fs = (5120 Hz) / 2 = 2560 Hz

Digitization, Quantization, Aliasing, Leakage

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

An inverse relationship between time and frequency exists

T

BW

Given delta t = .0019531 and N = 1024 time points,

then T = 2 sec and BW= 256 Hz and delta f = 0.5 Hz

TIME DOMAIN

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

BW

Given delta t = .000976563 and N = 1024 time points,

then T = 1sec sec and BW = 512 Hz and delta f = 1 Hz

TIME DOMAIN

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

BW

Given delta t = .0019531 and N = 512 time points,

then T = 1 sec and BW = 256 Hz and delta f = 1 Hz

TIME DOMAIN

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Aliasing

WRAP-AROUND

ACTUAL SIGNAL

OBSERVED

ACTUAL

ALIASED SIGNAL

f max

Aliasing results when the sampling does not occur fast enough.

Sampling must occur faster than twice the highest frequency

to be measured in the data - sampling of 10 to 20 times the

signal is sufficient for most time representations of varying

signals

However, in order to accurately represent a signal in the

frequency domain, sampling need only occur at greater than

twice the frequency of interest

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Anti-Aliasing Filters

Most good FFT analyzers have

anti-aliasing filters which

protect against aliasing.

WRAP-AROUND

OBSERVED

typically have a roll off rate and

are not ideal.

Usually only 80% of the antialiasing filter range is used to

provide additional protection

against aliasing.

ACTUAL

f max

BW

CF

800

23

1024

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Fourier Transform

+

Sx (f )= x ( t )e j2 ft dt

+

x ( t )= Sx (f )e j2 ft df

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Even though the actual time signal is continuous, the signal is

discretized and the transformation at discrete points is

+

Sx (mf )= x ( t )e j2 mf t dt

Sx (mf )t

x(nt )e j2mf nt

n =

the case), then the transformation becomes

N 1

Sx (mf )t x( nt )e j2 mf nt

n =0

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Actual Time

Signal

ACTUAL

DATA

Captured Time

Signal

CAPTURED

DATA

Reconstructed

Time Signal

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Frequency

Spectrum

Digitization, Quantization, Aliasing, Leakage

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Actual Time

Signal

ACTUAL

DATA

Captured Time

Signal

CAPTURED

DATA

Reconstructed

Time Signal

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Frequency

Spectrum

Digitization, Quantization, Aliasing, Leakage

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Leakage

F

R

E

Q

ACTUAL

DATA

CAPTURED

DATA

T

I

M

E

Periodic Signal

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Non-Periodic Signal

U

E

N

C

Y

ACTUAL

DATA

CAPTURED

DATA

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Leakage due to

signal distortion

28

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Leakage

When the measured signal is not periodic in the sample

interval, incorrect estimates of the amplitude and frequency

occur. This error is referred to as leakage.

Basically, the actual energy distribution is smeared across the

frequency spectrum and energy leaks from a particular f into

adjacent f s.

Leakage is probably the most common and most serious digital

signal processing error. Unlike aliasing, the effects of leakage

can not be eliminated.

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

0

-10

AMPLITUDE

-20

0

-30

-10

-40

-20

-50

-30

-60

dB

ROLLOFF

-40

-70

-50

- 80

-60

- 90

dB

-100

-16

-70

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

-100

-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

15.9375

- 80

- 90

WIDTH

Windows

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

15.9375

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

Objectives of this lecture:

Overview window concept

Discuss different windows

Discuss effects of windows

Windows

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

A window is a weighting function that is applied to the measured

signal. The function of the window is to make the measured

signal appear to look more periodic in the sample interval

thereby reducing the effects of leakage

Some common windows are

* Rectangular

* Hanning

* Flat Top

* Force / Exponential

Windows

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

In order to better satisfy the periodicity requirement of the

FFT process, time weighting functions, called windows, are used.

Essentially, these weighting functions attempt to heavily weight

the beginning and end of the sample record to zero - the middle

of the sample is heavily weighted towards unity

ACTUAL

DATA

CAPTURED

DATA

T

I

M

E

Periodic Signal

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Non-Periodic Signal

ACTUAL

DATA

CAPTURED

DATA

RECONTRUCTED

DATA

Windows

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

F

R

E

Q

U

E

N

C

Y

Windows - Rectangular/Hanning/Flattop

Rectangular - Unity gain applied to entire sample interval; this

window can have up to 36% amplitude error if the signal is not

periodic in the sample interval; good for signals that inherently

satisfy the periodicity requirement of the FFT process

Hanning - Cosine bell shaped weighting which heavily weights the

beginning and end of the sample interval to zero; this window

can have up to 16% amplitude error; the main frequency will

show some adjacent side band frequencies but then quickly

attenuates; good for general purpose signal applications

Flat Top - Multi-sine weighting function; this window has

excellent amplitude characteristics (0.1% error) but very poor

frequency resolution; very good for calibration purposes with

discrete sine

Windows

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows - Rectangular/Hanning/Flattop

Time weighting functions

are applied to minimize

the effects of leakage

AMPLITUDE

ROLLOFF

Rectangular

Hanning

WIDTH

General window

frequency characteristics

Flat Top

and many others

Windows

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows - Rectangular

The rectangular window function is shown below. The main lobe is narrow, but the side lobes are very large

and roll off quite slowly. The main lobe is quite rounded and can introduce large measurement errors. The

rectangular window can have amplitude errors as large as 36%.

-10

-20

Amplitude

-30

-40

-50

-60

dB

-70

- 80

- 90

-100

-16

-14

-12

Windows

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

15.9375

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows - Hanning

The hanning window function is shown below. The first few side lobes are rather large, but a 60 dB/octave

roll-off rate is helpful. This window is most useful for searching operations where good frequency

resolution is needed, but amplitude accuracy is not important; the hanning window will have amplitude errors

of as much as 16%.

0

-10

-20

Amplitude

-30

-40

-50

-60

dB

-70

- 80

- 90

-100

-16

-14

-12

Windows

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

15.9375

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The flat top window function is shown below. The main lobe is very flat and spreads over several frequency

bins. While this window suffers from frequency resolution, the amplitude can be measured very accurately

to 0.1%.

-10

-20

Amplitude

-30

-40

-50

-60

dB

-70

- 80

- 90

-100

-16

-14

-12

-10

Windows

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

-3

15.9375

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Windows

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Rectangular

Hanning

Flat Top

-10

-10

-10

-20

-20

-20

-30

-30

-30

-40

-40

-40

-50

-50

-50

-60

-60

-60

dB

dB

dB

-70

-70

-70

- 80

- 80

- 80

- 90

- 90

- 90

-100

-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

Windows

-2

10

12

14

15.9375

-100

-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

12

10

12

14

15.9375

-100

-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

10

12

14

15.9375

Window Effects

THEORETICAL WINDOW SHAPE

ACTUAL SIGNAL

0

-1 DELTA F

0 DELTA F

1 DELTA F

Windows

X

7

CONVOLUTION OF THE

THEORETICAL WINDOW

AND THE ACTUAL SIGNAL

IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Special windows are used for impact testing

Force

window

Windows

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Special windows are used for impact testing

Exponential

window

Windows

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurement Definitions

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

n(t)

x(t)

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

NOISE

MEASURED

y(t)

-10

-20

-30

-40

1.0000

-50

-60

-1.0000

dB

-70

- 80

- 90

-100

-16

Measurement Definitions

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

12

14

15.9375

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurement Definitions

Objectives of this lecture:

Define the basic measurements needed for

Include the effects of noise

Measurement Definitions

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurement Definitions

Actual time signals

ANALOG SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

ANTIALIASING FILTERS

AUTORANGE ANALYZER

ADC DIGITIZES SIGNALS

OUTPUT

INPUT

APPLY WINDOWS

INPUT

OUTPUT

COMPUTE FFT

LINEAR SPECTRA

LINEAR

OUTPUT

SPECTRUM

LINEAR

INPUT

SPECTRUM

AVERAGING OF SAMPLES

COMPUTATION OF AVERAGED

INPUT/OUTPUT/CROSS POWER SPECTRA

INPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

OUTPUT

POWER

SPECTRUM

CROSS

POWER

SPECTRUM

Measurement Definitions

COHERENC E FUNCTION

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

x(t)

INPUT

Sx(f)

h(t)

y(t)

TIME

SYSTEM

OUTPUT

H(f)

Sy(f)

FREQUENCY

x(t)

y(t)

Sx(f)

Sy(f)

H(f)

h(t)

Measurement Definitions

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

+

x ( t )= Sx (f )e j2 ft df

Sx (f )= x ( t )e j2 ft dt

y( t )= S y (f )e

j2 ft

S y (f )= y( t )e j2 ft dt

df

h ( t )= H (f )e

j2 ft

H (f )= h ( t )e j2 ft dt

df

Measurement Definitions

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Rxx(t)

INPUT

Gxx(f)

Ryx(t)

Ryy(t)

TIME

SYSTEM

OUTPUT

Gxy(f)

Gyy(f)

FREQUENCY

Ryy(t) - autocorrelation of the output signal y(t)

Ryx(t) - cross correlation of y(t) and x(t)

Gxx(f) - autopower spectrum of x(t)

G xx ( f ) = S x ( f ) S*x ( f )

G yy ( f ) = S y ( f ) S*y ( f )

G yx ( f ) = S y ( f ) S*x ( f )

Measurement Definitions

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

lim 1

R xx ()=E[ x ( t ), x ( t + )]=

x ( t )x ( t + )dt

T TT

+

lim 1

R yy ()=E[ y( t ), y( t + )]=

y( t )y( t + )dt

T TT

+

lim 1

R yx ()=E[ y( t ), x ( t + )]=

y( t )x ( t + )dt

T TT

+

Measurement Definitions

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S y =HSx

H1 formulation

- susceptible to noise on the input

- underestimates the actual H of the system

S y S*x G yx

H=

=

*

Sx Sx G xx

H2 formulation

- susceptible to noise on the output

- overestimates the actual H of the system

Other

formulations

for H exist

S y S*y G yy

H=

=

*

Sx S y G xy

COHERENCE

2

xy

Measurement Definitions

(Sx S*x )(S y S*y )

8

G yx / G xx

G yy / G xy

H1

H2

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurements - Noise

H=G uv /G uu

1

H1 =H

1+G nn

G uu

G mm

H 2 =H1+

vv

Measurement Definitions

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

n(t)

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

x(t)

ACTUAL

y(t)

NOISE

MEASURED

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurements - Noise

H1 FORMULATION - OUTPUT NOISE ONLY

Using the basic input-output model and adding noise Sm on

the output, gives

Sm + Sv = H Su

Post-multiplying by the conjugate of the input spectrum Su* ,

gives

( Sm + Sv ) Su* = H1 Su Su*

Sm Su* + Sv Su* = H1 Su Su*

If the output noise is incoherent with input signal

(uncorrelated), then SmSu* = 0 as more averages are taken.

Then the following can be written

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

n(t)

x(t)

Measurement Definitions

10

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

y(t)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

NOISE

MEASURED

Measurements - Noise

H2 FORMULATION - OUTPUT NOISE ONLY

Using the basic input-output model and adding noise Sm on the

output, gives

Sm + Sv = H Su

Post-multiplying by the conjugate of the output spectrum

( Sm* + Sv* ) , gives

( Sm + Sv ) ( Sm* + Sv* ) = H2 Su ( Sm* + Sv* )

Sm Sm* + Sv Sv* + Sv Sm* + Sm Sv* = H2 Su Sm* + H2 Su Sv*

If the output noise is incoherent with input and output signal

(uncorrelated), then as more averages are taken, the following can

be written

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

n(t)

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

NOISE

x(t)

H2 = H ( 1 + Gmm / Gvv )

Measurement Definitions

11

y(t)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MEASURED

Measurements - Noise

H1 FORMULATION - INPUT NOISE ONLY

Using the basic input-output model and adding noise Sn on the input,

gives

Sv = H ( Su + Sn )

Post-multiplying by the conjugate of the input spectrum ( Su* + Sn* ) ,

gives

Sv ( Su* + Sn* ) = H1 ( Su + Sn ) ( Su* + Sn* )

Sv Su* + Sv Sn* = H1 ( SuSu* + SnSn* + SnSu* + SuSn* )

If the input noise is incoherent with input and output signal

(uncorrelated), then as more averages are taken, the following can be

written

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

Gvu = H1 ( Guu + Gnn )

n(t)

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

NOISE

x(t)

H1 = H / ( 1 + Gnn / Guu )

Measurement Definitions

12

y(t)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MEASURED

Measurements - Noise

H2 FORMULATION - INPUT NOISE ONLY

Using the basic input-output model and adding noise Sn on

the input, gives

Sv = H ( Su + Sn )

Post-multiplying by the conjugate of the output spectrum

Sv* , gives

Sv Sv* = H2 ( Su + Sn ) Sv*

Sv Sv* = H2 ( Su Sv* + Sn Sv* )

If the input noise is incoherent with input and output signal

(uncorrelated), then as more averages are taken, the

following can be written

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

H2 = Gvv / Guv

n(t)

x(t)

Measurement Definitions

13

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

y(t)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

NOISE

MEASURED

Measurements - Noise

COHERENCE - OUTPUT NOISE

Using the basic input-output coherence model and adding

noise Sm on the output, gives

2 = ( Gyx 2 ) / Gxx Gyy

2 = ( H Guu )2 / [( Su Su* ) ( Sv + Sm ) ( Sv* + Sm* )

2 = ( H Guu )2 / [( Guu ) ( SvSv* + SmSm* + SmSv* + SvSm* )

2 = ( H 2 Guu 2 ) / [( Guu ) ( Gvv + Gmm )]

Recalling that

H2 =

Gvv / Guu

(since Sv = H Su)

INPUT

SYSTEM

u(t)

2 = Gvv / ( Gvv + Gmm )

n(t)

OUTPUT

v(t)

H

m(t)

ACTUAL

NOISE

2 = 1 / ( 1 + Gmm/Gvv )

x(t)

Measurement Definitions

14

y(t)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MEASURED

When considering both noise on the input and

output simultaneously, another frequency reponse

function can be computed from the total least

squares solution

This formulation is a better approximation of the

true frequency response of the system in the

presence of noise on both input and output

simultaneously.

Measurement Definitions

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

H 1 reduces noise on the output only

H 2 reduces noise on the input only

H v reduces noise on the input and output sim ultaneously

HV

OUTPUT

H1

H2

INPUT

Measurement Definitions

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

x(t)

y(t)

OUTPUT RESPONSE

INPUT FORCE

G xx (f)

G yy (f)

AVERAGED INPUT

AVERAGED OUTPUT

POWER SPECTRUM

POWER SPECTRUM

Measurement Definitions

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

AVERAGED INPUT

AVERAGED OUTPUT

POWER SPECTRUM

POWER SPECTRUM

G yy (f)

G xx (f)

AVERAGED CROSS

POWER SPECTRUM

G yx (f)

Measurement Definitions

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

AVERAGED INPUT

AVERAGED CROSS

AVERAGED OUTPUT

POWER SPECTRUM

POWER SPECTRUM

POWER SPECTRUM

G yx (f)

G yy (f)

G xx (f)

H(f)

Measurement Definitions

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Coherence

1

Real

0

0Hz

AVG:

200Hz

COHERENCE

Freq Resp

40

dB Mag

-60

0Hz

AVG:

200Hz

Measurement Definitions

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Excitation Considerations

1

h 13

1

2

1

h 23

3

h 33

h 31

h 33

h 32

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Impact Excitation

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Impact Excitation

Objectives of this lecture:

Overview impact excitation techniques

Review hammer/tip characteristics

Review special DSP considerations

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Impact Excitation

An impulsive excitation which is very short in the time window

usually lasting less than 5% of the sample interval.

ADVANTAGES

- easy setup

- fast measurement time

- minimum of equipment

- low cost

DISADVANTAGES

- poor rms to peak levels

- poor for nonlinear structures

- force/response windows needed

- pretrigger delay needed

- double impacts may occur

- high potential for signal overload and underload of ADC

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The force spectrum can be customized to some extent

through the use of hammer tips with various hardnesses.

A hard tip has a very short pulse and will excite a wide

frequency range. A soft tip has a long pulse and will excite

a narrow frequency range.

However, the hammer tip alone does not totally determine

the frequency range excited. The local flexibility of the

structure must also be considered.

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

METAL TIP

Real

Real

-976.5625us

TIME PULSE

123.9624ms

-976.5625us

dB Mag

TIME PULSE

123.9624ms

dB Mag

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

0Hz

6.4kHz

0Hz

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

6.4kHz

RUBBER TIP

Real

Real

-976.5625us

TIME PULSE

-976.5625us

123.9624ms

TIME PULSE

123.9624ms

dB Mag

dB Mag

0Hz

Excitation Considerations

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

6.4kHz

0Hz

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

6.4kHz

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Pretrigger delay is often used to minimize the distortion of

the triggering effect from the impact pulse

t=0

NO PRETRIGGER

USED

t=0

PRETRIGGER

SPECIFIED

Excitation Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Double impacts can occur due to a sloppy hammer swing or

many times due to the responsive nature of many structures.

They should be avoided wherever possible.

DOUBLE IMPACT

Real

DOUBLE IMPACT

-976.5625us

998.53516ms

TIME PULSE

Real

dB Mag

-976.5625us

0Hz

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

TIME PULSE

998.53516ms

800Hz

dB Mag

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

0Hz

Excitation Considerations

800Hz

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

40

COHERENCE

dB Mag

FRF

INPUT POWER SPECTRUM

-60

0Hz

800Hz

40

COHERENCE

FRF

dB Mag

INPUT POWER SPECTRUM

-60

0Hz

Excitation Considerations

200Hz

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SAMPLED SIGNAL

WINDOW WEIGHTING

Excitation Considerations

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

If the signal does not

naturally decay within the

sample interval, then an

exponentially decaying

window may be necessary.

T=N t

changing the signal

processing parameters such

as bandwidth and number of

spectral lines may produce a

signal which requires less

window weighting

Excitation Considerations

T=N t

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Mount a few accelerometers at key points on the structure

where the majority of the modes can be observed.

Impact ALL points in ALL directions.

Multiple reference data is then obtained.

Ref#1

Ref#2

Ref#3

Excitation Considerations

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Mount ALL the

accelerometers at ALL

points in ALL of the

required directions.

Impact a few key points

where most of the

desired modes can be

observed.

Multiple reference data

is then obtained.

Excitation Considerations

Ref#1

13

Ref#2

Ref#3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Shaker Excitation

Excitation Considerations

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Shaker Excitation

RESPONSE TRANSDUCER

Excitation device is

attached to the

structure using a long

rod called a stinger

or quill

FORCE TRANSDUCER

STINGER

SHAKER

stinger or quill

Its purpose is to provide input along the shaker excitation axis with

essentially no excitation of the other directions

It is also intended to be flexible enough to not provide any stiffness

to the other directions

The force gage is always mounted on the structure side of the quill

NOT ON THE SHAKER SIDE

Excitation Considerations

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Signal Types

Excitation techniques can be broken down into two categories:

Deterministic Signals

Non-Deterministic (Random) Signals

Deterministic Signals

conform to a particular mathematical relationship

can be described exactly at any instant in time

response of the system can also be exactly defined if the

system character is known

swept sine, sine chirp, digital stepped sine are examples

Non-Deterministic (Random) Signals

do not conform to a particular mathematical relationship

can not be described exactly at any instant in time

described by some statistical character of the signal

generally have varying amplitude, phase and frequency

content at any point in time

pure random, periodic random, burst random are examples

Excitation Considerations

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

INPUT EXCITATION

frequency

Excitation Considerations

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A slowly changing sine output sweeping from one frequency to

another frequency

ADVANTAGES

best peak to RMS level

best signal to noise ratio

good for nonlinear characterization

widely accepted and understood

DISADVANTAGES

slowest of all test methods

leakage is a problem

does not take advantage of speed of FFT process

Excitation Considerations

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

AUTORANGING

Typically, has frequency content at all frequencies.

Excitation Considerations

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

An ergodic, stationary signal with Gaussian probability distribution.

Typically, has frequency content at all frequencies.

ADVANTAGES

gives a good linear approximation for a system with slight nonlinearities

relatively fast

overlap processing can be used

relatively good general purpose excitation

DISADVANTAGES

even with windows applied to the measurement leakage

is a very serious problem

FRFs are generally distorted due to leakage with

(significant distortion at the peaks)

excessive averaging necessary to reduce variance on data

Excitation Considerations

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Time signal

Frequency Signal

0s

1.999s

0Hz

0s

1.999s

0Hz

Excitation Considerations

21

400Hz

AVG: 10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

400Hz

OVERLAP PROCESSING

Excitation Considerations

10

22

pure random excitations

Hanning window tends to weight

the first and last quarter of

the time block to zero and this

data is not effectively used in

the normal averaging process

effectively uses the portion of

the block that has been heavily

weighted to zero

overlap processing allows for

almost twice as many averages

with the same data when fifty

percent overlap is used

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

AUTORANGING

AVERAGING

A random excitation that exists over only a portion of the data block

(typically 50% to 70%).

Excitation Considerations

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A random excitation that exists over only a portion of the data

block (typically 50% to 70%)

ADVANTAGES

has all the advantages of random excitation

the function is self-windowing

no leakage

DISADVANTAGES

if response does not die out within on sample interval, then

leakage is a problem

Excitation Considerations

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Time signal

Frequency Signal

End of burst

0s

Shaker off

0Hz

1.999s

400Hz

0s

0Hz

1.999s

Excitation Considerations

25

AVG: 10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

400Hz

AUTORANGING

AVERAGING

A very fast swept sine signal that starts and stops within one sample

interval of the FFT analyzer

Excitation Considerations

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A very fast swept sine signal that starts and stops within one

sample interval of the FFT analyzer

ADVANTAGES

has all the same advantages as swept sine

self windowing function

good for nonlinear characterization

DISADVANTAGES

nonlinearities will not be averaged out

Excitation Considerations

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Time signal

Frequency Signal

0s

1.999s

0Hz

0s

1.999s

0Hz

Excitation Considerations

28

400Hz

AVG: 10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

400Hz

AUTORANGING

AVERAGE

AUTORANGING

IFT

IFT

AVERAGE

the digital values of the FFT analyzer for the frequency resolution

available. The system is excited with a single sine wave and steady

state response measured. Once one spectral line is obtained, the next

digital frequency is acquired until all frequencies have been measured.

Excitation Considerations

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Sine waves are generated at discrete frequencies which correspond

to the digital values of the FFT analyzer for the frequency

resolution available. The system is excited with a single sine wave

and the steady state response is measured. Once one spectral line is

obtained, the next digital frequency is acquired until all frequencies

have been measured.

ADVANTAGES

excellent peak to RMS level

excellent signal to noise ratio

good for nonlinear characterization

leakage free measurements obtained

DISADVANTAGES

slowest of all test methods

Excitation Considerations

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

RANDOM

BURST RANDOM

SINE CHIRP

Excitation Considerations

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Frequency Response Function

Coherence

RANDOM

RANDOM

BURST RANDOM

BURST RANDOM

notice that the random excitation peaks are lower and appear to be

more heavily damped when compared to the burst random. - also notice

the coherence improvement at the resonant peaks.

Excitation Considerations

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

RANDOM

COH

FRF

BURST RANDOM

Excitation Considerations

33

BURST RANDOM

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

AUTORANGING

Random

with

Hanning

Burst

Random

AUTORANGING

AVERAGING

AUTORANGING

Special excitation

techniques can be

used which will result

in leakage free

measurements without

the use of a window

AVERAGING

Sine

Chirp

1

Excitation Considerations

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Multiple referenced FRFs are

obtained from MIMO test

Energy is distributed

better throughout the

structure making

better measurements

possible

Ref#1

Excitation Considerations

35

Ref#2

Ref#3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Large or

complicated

structures

require

special

attention

Excitation Considerations

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

[G XF ]=[H][G FF ]

H11

H

[H]= 21

M

H

No ,1

H12

H 22

M

H No , 2

[H ]=[G XF ][G FF ]1

Excitation Considerations

H1, Ni

L H 2, Ni

M

L H No , Ni

L

Measurements are

developed in a

similar fashion to

the single input

single output case

but using a matrix

formulation

where

No - number of outputs

Ni - number of inputs

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Measurements on the same structure can show

tremendously different modal densities depending

on the location of the measurement

Excitation Considerations

38

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

j

[

[

A k ] [A*k ]

A k ] [A*k ] upper [A k ] [A *k ]

[H(s )]=

+

+

+

+

+

*

*

*

terms (ss k ) (ss k )

k =i (ss k ) (ss k ) terms (ss k ) (ss k )

lower

SYSTEM EXCITATION/RESPONSE

SDOF POLYNOMIAL

PEAK PICK

MULTIPLE REFERENCE FRF MATRIX DEVELOPMENT

INPUT FORCE

RESIDUAL COMPENSATION

INPUT FORCE

INPUT FORCE

LOCAL CURVEFITTING

IFT

GLOBAL CURVEFITTING

POLYREFERENCE CUVREFITTING

COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL

MDOF POLYNOMIAL

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

NO COMPENSATION

Y

y=mx

X

COMPENSATION

Y

y=mx+b

Y

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

HOW MANY POINTS ???

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

AMOUNT OF DATA TO

BE USED

COMPENSATION FOR

RESIDUALS

NOT THE SOFTWARE !!!

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

HOW MANY POINTS ???

lower

[Ak ]

[A ]

terms

*

k

*

k

[H( s) ] = ( s s ) + s s

( )

j

[Ak ]

[A ]

*

k

*

k

( s s ) + (s s )

k=i

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

upper

[Ak ]

[A ]

terms

*

k

RESIDUAL

EFFECTS

*

k

( s s ) + (s s )

HOW MANY MODES ???

[

[

Ak ]

A*k ]

[H(s )] = lower residuals +

+

+ upper residuals

*

(ss k )

k =i (ss k )

j

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Classification of Modes

Well separated - lightly damped

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The basic equations can be cast in either the

time or frequency domain

a1

a1*

h (s)=

+

(s p1 ) (s p1* )

1 t

h ( t )=

e sin d t

md

equations from a theoretical standpoint

provided there is an infinite amount of

amplitude and frequency resolution

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Polynomial Form

1

h (s) =

ms 2 + cs + k

Pole-Zero Form

1/ m

h (s) =

(s p1 )(s p1* )

a1

a1*

h (s) =

+

(s p1 ) (s p1* )

Exponential Form

1 t

h(t) =

e sin d t

md

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Time Domain

Frequency Domain

has the most data

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

h ij ( j ) =

R1

+

( j p1 ) ( j p*1 )

+

D1

a*ij1

a ij1

a*ij 2

a ij 2

+

+ L

( j p 2 ) ( j p*2 )

R2

D2

R3

D3

F1

F2F3

a ij1

h ij ( j ) =

q1u i1u j1

* * *

1 i 1 j1

*

1

qu u

+

( j p1 ) ( j p )

+

q 2u i 2 u j 2

* * *

2 i2 j2

*

2

qu u

( j p 2 ) ( j p )

a ij2

a ij3

2

3

+ L

9

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The FRF is made up

from each individual

mode contribution

which is determined

from the

a ij1

a ij2

a ij3

frequency,

damping,

residue

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF

SDOF

determine the parameters that make up the pieces

of the frequency response function

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The FRF matrix contains

redundant information

regarding the system

frequency, damping and

mode shapes

Multiple referenced data

can be used to obtain

better estimates of

modal parameters

12

LOCAL CURVEFITTING

GLOBAL CURVEFITTING

POLYREFERENCE CUVREFITTING

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Local Curvefitting

- Each measurement is curvefit to estimate

the frequency, damping and residue for

each FRF

- The frequency and damping is allowed to vary for each measurement

and may not be the same for every measurement

ADVANTAGES

- Good for systems where the poles are not global

DISADVANTAGES

- Frequency and damping is different for the system

- Local modes/node points are not characterized well

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Global Curvefitting

- A set of measurements are curvefit to

estimate the frequency and damping

- The residue is estimated in a second pass

ADVANTAGES

- Good for systems where the poles are global

- Better estimate of the frequency and damping

- Local modes are better characterized

DISADVANTAGES

- Frequency and damping must be global in FRFs

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Polyreference Curvefitting

- A set of measurements are curvefit to

estimate the frequency and damping

- The residue is estimated in a second pass

and is based on redundant FRF matrix information

ADVANTAGES

- Good for systems where the poles are global

- Better estimate of the frequency and damping

- Repeated roots can be identified

DISADVANTAGES

- Frequency and damping must be global in FRFs

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Selection of Bands

Select bands for possible SDOF or MDOF

extraction for frequency domain technique.

Residuals ???

Complex ???

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Summation

MIF

and selection of modes in the structure

1 Point Each From Panels 1,2, and 3 (37,49,241)

4

10

10

10

10

CMIF

10

-1

10

-2

10

0

50

100

150

CMIF

200

250

Frequency (Hz)

300

350

400

450

500

Stability Diagram

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Circle Fitting

Peak Picking

SDOF Polynomial

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

Real

IFT

Complex Exponential

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

18

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Model Validation

Synthesis

to assure that an

accurate model has

been extracted from

measured data

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

MAC

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modal Parameter Estimation

Circle Fitting

Peak Picking

SDOF Polynomial

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

Real

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MODE # 1

MODE # 2

MODE # 3

DOF # 1

DOF #2

DOF # 3

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simple Peak Picking

MODE 2

2

1

MODE 1

5

2

4

1

3

6

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Substitute the pole into the SDOF FRF equation

h ( j)

a1

a1*

=

+

( jn + jd ) ( jn + + jd )

a1 =h ( j)

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Substitute the first pole into the FRF equation

h ( j)

a1

a1*

a2

a *2

=

+

+

+

( j1 + 1 jd ) ( j1 + 1 + jd ) ( jn + 2 jd 2 ) ( jn + 2 + jd 2 )

MODE 1 CONTRIBUTION

MODE 2 CONTRIBUTION

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Peak pick is a quick and simple check

Modes must be well spaced

frequency resolution

parameter estimation

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

response can be

used to extract

parameters

Amplitude

Time domain

Damping Decay

technique is

generally used on

multiple mode time

response data

Period

response extraction

h(t)

26

1

md

e t

sin d t

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simple symmetric

characteristics of

SDOF system

distorted by

adjacent modes

Nyquist circle is

displaced and

rotated

Remove effects of

adjacent modes or

add compensation to

basic equations

Source: Ewins - Modal Testing, 2nd Edition

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simple equation of a

in the Nyquist

a pronounced effect on

circle

egg-shaped

to the availability of

many MDOF methods

h ( j)=

=

28

U + jV

+ R + jI

r + j( r )

U2 +V2

; tan() = U V

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simple equation of a

used to fit the function

h (s)=

1

ms 2 + cs + k

for effects of adjacent or

out-of-band modes

Inappropriate for use with

account for out of band effects

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Simply the ratio of two

polynomials

its real benefits are for

multiple modes

numerical processing

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modal Parameter Estimation

IFT

Complex Exponential

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Exponential

One of the first mdof estimators was the complex exponential which uses

the Prony Algorithm to solve the set of equations. The Toeplitz equations

are used to form the characteristic polynomial followed by the mode

shape extraction using Vandemonde Equation formulation.

m

1

h ( t )=

e kt sin dk t

k =1 m k dk

ADVANTAGE

numerically fast and stable

handles many modes

IFT

DISADVANTAGE

time domain leakage is a concern

must overspecify modes to handle residuals

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF Polynomial

This method uses a Rational Fraction polynomial form of the FRF in order

to extract modal parameters. Both the numerator and denominator

polynomials are used in a least squares fit to extract the polynomial

coefficients.

h ij ( j) =

a ij2

a *ij2

( j p 2 ) ( j p*2 )

+

a ij3

a *ij3

( j p 3 ) ( j p*3 )

that the effects of out-of-band modes can be easily accounted for by

adding extra terms to the numerator polynomial.

33

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Other time domain techniques exist which extend the Complex

Exponential technique described above.

Techniques such as Ibrahim Time Domain and Polyreference LSCE

utilize some variant of the equation below to formulate the problem

O

[L]

[h ( t )] = [V] e t

uses MIMO time data for the estimation process

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Other frequency domain techniques exist which extend the

polynomial technique described above.

Techniques such as Least Squares Frequency Domain, Orthogonal

Polynomial, Frequency Domain Parameter Identification utilize some

variant of the rational fraction, partial fraction or reduced equation

of motion to formulate the problem

LR ij

u ik L kj

[h ij ( j)] =

+ * + UR ij + 2

k =1 ( j p k )

LSFD nonlinear problem solved iteratively

RFP - ill-conditioning possible for higher order polys

use of orthogonal poly to minimize numerical problems

35

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MODAL PARAMETER ESTIMATION MODELS

Time representation

h ij ( n ) ( t ) + a1h ij ( n 1) ( t ) + L + a 2 n h ij ( n 2 N ) ( t ) = 0

Frequency representation

[( j)

2N

+ a1 ( j) 2 N 1 + L + a 2 N ]h ij ( j) =

[( j)

2M

+ b1 ( j) 2 M 1 + L + b 2 M ]

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Numerical Considerations

Generally the time domain is numerically more

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Bandwidth Considerations

The time domain is best suited for wide

estimation process

the band

38

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Out-of-Bandwidth Considerations

The frequency domain is best suited for

residuals in the mathematical formulation

more poles in the estimation process

39

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Damping Considerations

The time domain is generally well suited for

of data available in the time domain

represented in the frequency domain

40

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Best Combination

The MPE process can be broken down into two

stages

- poles extraction

- residue estimation

technique

include in the estimation process

Modal Parameter Estimation Concepts

41

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

[A] = [{u1} {u 2 } {u 3}

x . . . x

0 x . . .

[U ]= . 0 x . .

. . 0 x .

0 . . 0 x

s3

T

{v1}

T

{v 2 }

{v 3 }T

O M

[A]nm{X}m ={B}n

[A]nm =[V]nn [S]nm [U]Tmm

{X}m =[[U ]mm [S]gnm [V]Tnn ]{B}n

[A ]1=[Adjo int[A]]

Det[A ]

s1

s2

L]

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Linear Algebra

The analytical treatment of structural dynamic

systems naturally results in algebraic equations

that are best suited to be represented through

the use of matrices

Some common matrix representations and linear

algebra concepts are presented in this section

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Linear Algebra

Common analytical and experimental equations

needing linear algebra techniques

[G ] = [H][G ]

yf

[H ] = [G yf ][G ff ]

ff

det[B(s )]

or

O

[H(s )] = [U] S [L]T

O

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Matrix Notation

A matrix [A] can be described using row,column as

a 11

a

21

[A ] = a 31

a

41

a 51

a 12

a 22

a 13

a 23

a 14

a 24

a 32

a 42

a 52

a 33

a 43

a 53

a 34

a 44

a 54

( row , column )

[A]H - Hermitian - conjugate transpose

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Matrix Notation

A matrix [A] can have some special forms

Diagonal

Square

a 11

a

21

[A ] = a 31

a

41

a 51

a 12

a 22

a 13

a 23

a 14

a 24

a 32

a 42

a 52

a 33

a 43

a 53

a 34

a 44

a 54

a 15

a 25

a 35

a 45

a 55

a 11

a 22

[A ] =

a 33

a 44

a 55

Toeplitz

Symmetric

a 11

a

12

[A ] = a13

a

14

a 15

Triangular

a 12

a 22

a 13

a 23

a 14

a 24

a 23

a 24

a 25

a 33

a 34

a 35

a 34

a 44

a 45

a 15

a 25

a 35

a 45

a 55

a 5

a

4

[A ] = a 3

a

2

a 1

a11

0

[A ] = 0

0

a 12

a 22

a 13

a 23

a 14

a 24

0

0

0

a 33

0

0

a 34

a 44

0

Vandermonde

a6

a5

a7

a6

a8

a7

a4

a3

a2

a5

a4

a3

a6

a5

a4

a9

a8

a7

a6

a 5

1

[A ] =

1

a1

a2

a3

a4

a 12

a 22

a 32

a 24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

a 15

a 25

a 35

a 45

a 55

Matrix Manipulation

A matrix [C] can be computed from [A] & [B] as

a 11

a

21

a 31

a 12

a 22

a 32

a 13

a 23

a 33

a 14

a 24

a 34

b11

a 15 b 21

a 25 b 31

a 35 b 41

b 51

b12

b 22 c11

b 32 = c 21

c

b 42

31

b 52

c12

c 22

c 32

c 21 = a 21b11 + a 22 b 21 + a 23 b 31 + a 24 b 41 + a 25 b 51

c ij = a ik b kj

k

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A common form of a set of equations is

[A ] {x} = [b]

Underdetermined

# rows < # columns

more unknowns than equations

(optimization solution)

Determined

# rows = # columns

equal number of rows and columns

Overdetermined

# rows > # columns

more equations than unknowns

(least squares or generalized inverse solution)

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

This set of equations has a unique solution

2x y = 1

x + 2 y 1z = 2

y+z =3

2 1 0 x 1

1 2 1 y = 2

0 1 1 z 3

2x y = 1

x + 2 y 1z = 2

4x 2 y = 2

2 1 0 x 1

1 2 1 y = 2

4 2 0 z 2

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Static Decomposition

A matrix [A] can be decomposed and written as

[A ] = [L][U ]

Where [L] and [U] are the lower and upper

diagonal matrices that make up the matrix [A]

x

x

[L] = x

x

0

x

x

x

x

0 0

0 0

x 0

x x

x x

0

0

0

0

x

0

[U] = 0

0

0

9

x

x

0

0

0

x

x

x

0

0

x

x

x

x

0

x

x

x

x

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Static Decomposition

Once the matrix [A] is written in this form then

the solution for {x} can easily be obtained as

[A ] = [L][U ]

[U ] {X} = [L]1 [B]

Applications for static decomposition and inverse

of a matrix are plentiful. Common methods are

Gaussian elimination

Crout reduction

Gauss-Doolittle reduction

Cholesky reduction

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Eigenvalue Problems

Many problems require that two

matrices [A] & [B] need to be reduced

[[B] [A ]] {x} = 0

plentiful. Common methods are

Jacobi

Givens

Subspace Iteration

Householder

Lanczos

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Any matrix can be decomposed using SVD

[A ] = [U ][S][V ]T

[U] - matrix containing left hand eigenvectors

[S] - diagonal matrix of singular values

[V] - matrix containing right hand eigenvectors

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SVD allows this equation to be written as

[A] = [{u1} {u 2 } {u 3}

s1

s2

L]

{v1}

T

{v 2 }

{v 3 }T

O M

T

s3

terms of linearly independent pieces which form

the matrix [A]

[A ] = {u1}s1{v1}T + {u 2 }s 2 {v 2 }T + {u 3 }s 3 {v3 }T +

Linear Algebra Concepts

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Assume a vector and singular value to be

1

u1= 2

3

and

s1 = 1

1

1 2 3

= 2 [1] {1 2 3} = 2 4 6

3

3 6 9

There is only one linearly independent

piece of information in the matrix

Linear Algebra Concepts

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Consider another vector and singular value to be

1

u 2= 1

1

and

s2 = 1

[A 2 ] = {u 2 } s 2 {u 2 }T

1

1 1 1

= 1 [1] {1 1 1} = 1 1 1

1

1 1 1

Clearly the rows and columns

are linearly related

Linear Algebra Concepts

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Now consider a general matrix [A3] to be

2 3 2

[A 3 ] = 3 5 5 = [A1 ] + [A 2 ]

2 5 10

obvious at first glance.

Singular valued decomposition can be used to

determine the characteristics of this matrix

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The SVD of matrix [A3] is

1

[A] = 2

3

or

1

1

1

0 1

{1 2 3}

{1 1 1}

0

1

0

0 {0 0 0}

1

0

1

[A] = 21{1 2 3}T + 1 1{1 1 1}T + 00{0 0 0}T

3

1

0

make up the matrix which has a rank of 2

Linear Algebra Concepts

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The basic solid mechanics formulations as well as

the individual elements used to generate a finite

element model are described by matrices

6L 12 6L

12

6L 4L2 6L 2L2

[k ] = EI3

L 12 6L 12 6L

6L 2L2 6L 4L

E, I

Fj

x C11

C

y 21

C

{} = [C]{} z = 31

xy C 41

xz C51

yz C 61

54

13L

156 22L

22L 4L2 13L 3L2

[m] = AL

420 54

22L

13L 156

13L 3L2 22L

4L2

C12

C 22

C13

C 23

C14

C 24

C15

C 25

C32

C33

C34

C35

C 42

C52

C 43

C53

C 44

C54

C 45

C55

C 62

C 63

C 64

C 65

18

C16 x

C 26 y

C36 z

C 46 xy

C56 xz

C 66 yz

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Finite element model development uses individual

elements that are assembled into system matrices

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Structural system equations - coupled

Eigensolution - eigenvalues & eigenvectors

Modal space representation

of equations - uncoupled

\

\

{&p&} +

\

{p& } +

20

{p} = [U ]T {F}

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Multiple Input Multiple Output Data Reduction

[G ] = [H][G ]

yx

[H ] = [G yx ][G xx ]1

xx

[Gyx]

[H]

[Gxx]

RESPONSE

(MEASURED)

(UNKNOWN)

FORCE

(MEASURED)

matrix [Gxx] has linearly independent inputs

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Principal Component Analysis using SVD

[G xx ] = [{u1} {u 2 } {0}

[Gxx]

s1

s2

L]

{v1}

T

{v 2 }

0

{0}T

O M

T

rank of the matrix - that is an indication of how

many linearly independent inputs exist

Linear Algebra Concepts

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SVD of Multiple Reference FRF Data

[H] = [{u1} {u 2 } {u 3}

[H]

{v1}

T

{v 2 }

{v 3 }T

O M

T

s1

s2

L]

s3

50

100

150

200

250

Frequency (Hz)

300

350

400

450

500

of how many modes exist in the data

Linear Algebra Concepts

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Least Squares or Generalized Inverse for

Modal Parameter Estimation Techniques

[

[

Ak ]

A*k ]

[H(s )] =

+

*

(

s

s

(

)

s

s

k =i

k

k)

j

measured data to an analytical function

Linear Algebra Concepts

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Extended analysis and evaluation of systems

[K ][U] = [M I ][U][`2 ]

[K ] = [K ] + [V] [` + K ][V]

T

] [

T

generally require matrix manipulation of some type

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Many other applications exist

Correlation

Model Updating

Operating Data

Nonlinearities

Rotating Equipment

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

EXPERIMENTAL

MODAL

TESTING

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODELING

MODAL

PARAMETER

ESTIMATION

PERFORM

EIGEN

SOLUTION

TWENTY YEARS OF

STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC

MODIFICATION

FULL SPACE PHYSICAL MODEL

RIB

STIFFNER

MASS

DEVELOP

MODAL

MODEL

Repeat

until

desired

characteristics

are

obtained

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

REQUIRED

Yes

SPRING

No

DONE

DASHPOT

USE SDM

TO EVALUATE

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis and Controls Laboratory

University of Massachusetts Lowell

(Excerpt of slides used for presentation at IMAC20 in Los Angeles, California February 2002)

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Objectives of this lecture -->> 20 years in 20 minutes:

Describe the basic types of mathematical models used in

modification studies

Modal Space Models -or- Impedance Models

Simplistic Modifications -or- Realistic Modifications

Structural Dynamic Modification -or- System Modeling

Truncation Effects ! ! !

Rotational Degrees of Freedom ! ! !

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Structural Dynamic Modification:

Introduced in the late 70s

Desktop computers were lacking in computational power

Local Eigenvalue Modification Technique allowed for

change at a time was possible

quickly evaluated

Structural changes or resonant specification allowed

Tuned absorber studies allowed

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Structural Dynamic Modification - Complex Modes:

The proportional mode approximation works well with mass

to address non-proportional modes

approach

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Local Eigenvalue Modification Procedure:

Due to the significant computational advantage and lack of

Modification Procedure (LEMP) was the method used in

early approaches

decreased

more readily available

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Realistic Structural Changes:

Early implementations only allowed for simple changes in

only contained translational DOF - no rotational DOF

characteristics for structural changes

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Estimation of Rotational DOF:

The lack of rotational DOF spurred the development of

FEM shape expansion approaches were developed

Experimental approaches were attempted to attempt to

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modal Truncation Effects:

The most serious of all effects is related to the lack of all

the model

process

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Impedance Modeling as an Alternative:

At approximately the same time, structural modifications

measured functions

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The first 10 years of IMAC were seen to be the birth

and development of Structural Dynamic Modification.

The Eigenvalue Modification and LEMP. This was followed

by the development of more realistic structural elements.

Issues pertaining to RDOF and truncation were addressed.

The next 10 years leaned towards the utilization of the

SDM Technique and development of System Modeling

tools. There was also a trend towards using frequency

based modification and system modeling techniques.

Even today, the two most important issues still pose

problems for the modal and frequency based techniques.

Rotational DOF

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

Truncation

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

These models are developed from the modal

characteristics describing the frequency, damping

and mode shape:

[M ]{&x&}+[C]{x& }+[K ]{x}={F( t )}

ls

s

e

l

d

e

od

Mo

M

d

d

se

e

a

s

B

Ba

al

l

d

a

o

c

M

si

y

h

P

\

f1

p1

k1

m2

c1

MODE 1

f2

p2

m1

k2

m3

c2

MODE 2

f3

p3

k3

c3

\

{&p&} +

\

{p& } +

{p} = [U ]T {F}

MODE 3

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MDOF Equations

Equation of Motion (n x n)

Eigensolution

Frequencies (eigenvalues) and Mode Shapes (eigenvectors)

\

2

1

=

\

22

and

Modal transformation (n x m)

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

12

[U] = [{u1} {u 2}

L]

p1

L]p 2

M

Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Projection operation

Modal equations (uncoupled)

m1

m2

&p&1 c1

&p& +

c2

2

\ M

Modal Mass

\

[U1 ]T [M1 ][U1 ] =

p& 1 k1

p& +

k2

2

\ M

T

p1 {u1} {F}

p ={u }T {F}

2 2

M

\ M

Modal Damping

M1

\

[U1 ]T [C1 ][U1 ] =

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

13

Modal Stiffness

C1

\

[U1 ]T [K1 ][U1 ] =

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

K1

Diagonal Matrices (m x m) Modal Mass

Modal Damping

{&p&} +

Modal Stiffness

{p& } +

{p} = [U ]T{F}

transformed into

simple system

f1

p1

k1

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

14

k2

m3

c2

MODE 2

f3

p3

m2

c1

MODE 1

f2

p2

m1

k3

c3

MODE 3

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Mass and Stiffness Changes (n x n)

[K 2 ] = [K1 ] + [K12 ]

[M 2 ] = [M1 ] + [M12 ]

Some advantages can be obtained if the existing

modal space solution is used to estimate the changes

to the system

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The modal projection is used to recast the equations as

O

+ [K ]{p } = [0]

+ [M ]{&p& } +

M

K

1

12

1

1

12 1

O

O

where

uncouple the set of equations

O

+ [U ]T [K ][U ]

+ [U ]T [M ][U ] {p } = {0}

K

M

1

1

12

1

1

1

12

1 1

O

O

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The mode shapes are updated using

resulting in

[U 2 ] = [U1 ][U12 ]

linear combinations of the original modes of the

unmodified system

For the ith mode of the system, the following

describes the modified mode

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

17

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The process is best shown in the schematic below

ORIGINAL

STATE

PHYSICAL

SPACE

[M ],[K ]

1

1

MODAL

TRANSFORMATION

{ x } = [ U 1 ] { p 1}

MODAL

SPACE

2

[ ],[U ]

1

1

[ M

12

] , [ K 12 ]

{ p } = [U

]{ p }

1

12

2

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

18

MODIFIED

STATE

[M ],[K ]

2

2

'N'

PHYSICAL

DOF

{ x } = [ U 2 ] { p 2}

M<<N

2

[ ],[U ]

2

2

'M'

MODAL

DOF

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Additional computation advantages are obtained through

singular value decomposition of the changes to the system

O

r

T

i =1

O

r

T

i =1

O

O

r

T

T

i =1

O

O

r

T

T

i =1

O

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

If only one change of mass or stiffness is considered then

these equations can be reduced to

O

+ {v } {v }T

{p } = {0}

K

M

1

1k 1k 1k

1

O

O

O

O

+ {v } {v }T {p } = {0}

K

M

1

1

1m 1m 1m 1

O

O

each of the m modes of the system

{ }

u (i ) T {t }

m

k

1

=

k i =1 22 i2

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

1

2 m

20

{ }

u (i ) T {t }

m

m

=

22 i2

i =1

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A system model can be developed using the same approach

for individual modal components

UA

MA

&p& A

T

[

]

[

][

]

+

U

M

U

&p&B

M

KA

O

+

O

KB

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

{ }

[U ] = [

[U ]

B

{ }

21

pA

T

[

]

[

][

]

+

U

K

U

pB

= {0}

{ }

{ }

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Structural Dynamic Modification process can also be

applied to systems with nonproportional modes.

[0]

[M ]

1

=

[C1 ] x& [0] [ K1 ] x F

[0] [M1 ]

[B1 ] =

[M1 ] [C1 ]

[M ] [0]

[A1 ] = 1

[0] [ K1 ]

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

{Y} = [1 ]{p1}

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Considering changes to the system as

[M 2 ] = [M1 ] + [M12 ]

[C2 ] = [C1 ] + [C12 ]

[K 2 ] = [K1 ] + [K12 ]

[A 2 ] = [A1 ] + [A12 ]

[B2 ] = [B1 ] + [B12 ]

[0]

[B12 ] =

[M12 ]

[M12 ]

[0]

[M12 ]

[

]

=

A

12

[0]

[C12 ]

[ K12 ]

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

23

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The eigensolution can be obtained

O

+ [B ]{p& }

+ [A ]{p} = {Q ( t )}

I

1

12

1

12

O

O

applied to the complex mode solution

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

These models are developed from characteristics

of the system response typically from frequency

response measurements:

ts

n

e

on

p

m

Co

ed

t

s

Te

r

ls

so

e

l

d

e

od

Mo

M

d

ed

ase

s

B

a

B

l

se

n

a

c

o

i

p

s

Res

Phy

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Impedance Modeling

Frequency Response Functions can also be used to investigate

structural modifications. The FRF can be written as

m

Hij ( j) =

q k u ik u jk

k =1 ( j p k )

q k u ik*u jk*

( j p k * )

of a modification can be written in terms of the unmodified

system as

x a = H ab Fb + H aa Fa

Fa =

1

H aa

x

~

1

H cb = c = H cb H ca H aa

H ab

Fb

H ab Fb

x c = H ca Fa + H cb Fb

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A system model can be developed using the impedance

modeling approach

h Cij = h Aij H A iS ([H A ]SS + [H B ]SS )1{H A }Sj

FRFs

describing

connection

points

FRFs

describing

output response

points

FRFs

describing

input force

points

COMPONENT A

CONNECTION POINTS

COMPONENT B

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

Generally, the lower order modes are sufficient to describe

a structural dynamic problem

However, the SDM process

may require modes that are

not included in the frequency

range of response interest

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

28

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

A single structural change can have the effect of recoupling

all the uncoupled modal DOF. Truncation effects are quite

different for the modified and unmodified models

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

A free-free beam is subject to 2 changes in stiffness to

develop a simple support beam and a cantilever beam.

While one modification has accurate predictions with only 5

modes, the other modification does not

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

Simple support and cantilever modification

Modal transformation from modal space 1 to modal space 2

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

Simple support modification - Modal truncation is not a

problem since the available unmodified modes are adequate

to span the space of the problem

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

Cantilever modification - Modal truncation is a problem since

the available unmodified modes are not adequate to span the

space of the problem

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

33

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Truncation

All final modified system modes are NOT affected the same

Just because one ingredient is missing doesnt

mean that you cant make any other recipes

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Rotational DOF

Adding additional Translation DOF (residual terms) does not

improve the modification - Extra Rotational DOF are needed

CANTILEVER BEAM

1

2

3

Ref.

Freq.

(Hz)

5 Modes

(1-5 TDOF)

(1-5 RDOF)

(Hz)

10-5 Modes

(1-10 TDOF)

(1-5 RDOF)

(Hz)

10 Modes

(1-10 TDOF)

(1-10 TDOF)

(Hz)

21.6

139.6

398.6

24.8

162.8

476.0

24.8

162.6

473.7

22.2

144.9

411.4

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

35

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Rotational DOF

Rotational DOF are needed for Impedance Methods also

CANTILEVER BEAM

TDOF

RDOF

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Many experimental modal test databases do not contain the

rigid body modes of the free-free system.

In any modifications that tie an unconstrained component to

ground or to another substructure, the rigid body modes

must be available as part of the modal data base.

If they are not available, then some other approximation

of them must be included or the modification process will

be missing a key ingredient.

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

A proportional based approximation is generally acceptable

if the original modal database is proportional and the

modifications to be studied do not significantly disrupt the

proportionality of the system.

However, if the starting modal database is complex or the

changes to be investigated will disrupt the proportionality

of the system, then a complex mode formulation is

recommended.

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

38

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

10 Geometry not accurate (rib modifications)

9

TRUNCATION

Twenty Years of Structural Dynamic Modification

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

39

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Summary

A brief review of the

Structural Dynamic

Modification process

was given to summarize

the past twenty years.

The paper has a

significant amount of

material that cannot be

covered in this short

presentation.

EXPERIMENTAL

MODAL

TESTING

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODELING

MODAL

PARAMETER

ESTIMATION

PERFORM

EIGEN

SOLUTION

MASS

DEVELOP

MODAL

MODEL

Repeat

until

desired

characteristics

are

obtained

RIB

STIFFNER

SPRING

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

REQUIRED

Yes

USE SDM

TO EVALUATE

STRUCTURAL

CHANGES

No

DONE

DASHPOT

STRUCTURAL

DYNAMIC

MODIFICATIONS

IMAC20 Los Angeles, California February 2002

40

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Test-Analysis

Correlation-Updating

Considerations

Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis and Controls Laboratory

University of Massachusetts Lowell

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MAC AND ORTHOGONALITY

1

0.9

1.2

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.8

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1

MODEL

IMPROVEMENT

REGIONS

MAC

GUYAN

1.2

[U n ] , [ ]

+

g

[Tu ] = [Un ] [U a ]

[M] , [K]

RVAC

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

IRS

FRAC

SEREP

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

DOF CORRELATION

FINITE ELEMENT

VECTOR CORRELATION

MAC

DOF CORRELATION

CoMAC

[En ] = [T u ] [E a ]

MODE

SWITCHING

VECTOR CORRELATION

CORTHOG

Experimental Analytical

OR

1

FEM 5

0.8

FEM 4

0.6

0.4

0.2

POC

VECTOR CORRELATION

FEM 3

FEM 2

0

EXP1 EXP 2

FEM 1

EXP 3 EXP 4

EXP 5

DOF CORRELATION

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

EXPERIMENTAL

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Objectives of this lecture:

Briefly describe the different correlation tools

available

Briefly overview the model updating process

available

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Correlation Techniques

Correlation between analytical and experimental

data is an important part of the structural

dynamic characterization and updating of systems

FINITE ELEMENT

CoMAC

MAC

COORDINATE

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

MODE

SWITCHING

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

MATRIX

CORTHOG

COORDINATE

ORTHOGONALITY

CRITERIA

OR

OR

FEM 5

0.8

FEM 4

0.6

0.4

VECTOR CORRELATION

Experimental

FEM 3

0.2

Analytical

FEM 2

PSEUDO

ORTHOGONALITY

CRITERIA

MATRIX

EXP1

FEM 1

EXP 2

EXP 3

EXP 4

EXP 5

DOF CORRELATION

POC

RVAC

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

RESPONSE

VECTOR

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

EXPERIMENTAL

FRAC

FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

DOF CORRELATION

VECTOR CORRELATION

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Vector correlation provides global indicator:

Modal Assurance Criteria

Orthogonality Checks

Coordinate Modal Assurance Criteria

Coordinate Orthogonality Check

Frequency Response Assurance Criteria

Other tools:

MAC Contribution

Force Unbalance

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Two basic levels of correlation are considered:

Modal vector correlation provides a

correlation achieved

individual dofs contribute to the overall

modal vector correlation

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Vector Correlation Techniques:

Modal Assurance Criteria (MAC):

Simple dot product

independent of mass weighting

mass reduced for a space calc

shape expanded for n space calc

reduction/expansion has an effect

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

DOF Correlation Techniques:

Coordinate Modal Assurance Criteria (CoMAC):

Simple dot product

correlation on dof basis for correlated

mode pairs

independent of mass weighting

Extension of CoMAC

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

DOF Correlation Techniques:

Frequency Response Assurance Criteria (FRAC):

simple dot product

correlation of FEM and Test FRFs

Identified correlation on a dof basis

mass matrix used for weighting

similar to CoMAC in concept except

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Originally formulated for the test engineer to

determine the degree of correlation between

vectors from different tests, MAC between two

vectors is defined as:

(

{V } {V })

MAC =

({V } {V })({V } {V })

2

ij

approaching zero indicates no similarity

approaching one indicates high similarity

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

10

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MAC was extended to allow an assessment

between analytical and experimental modal

vectors:

MACij

MAC

[

{u } {e }]

=

[{u } {u }][{e } {e }]

2

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

MATRIX

FINITE ELEMENT

MODE

SWITCHING

VECTOR CORRELATION

1

FEM 5

0.8

FEM 4

0.6

0.4

FEM 3

0.2

FEM 2

0

EXP1

FEM 1

EXP 2

EXP 3

EXP 4

EXP 5

EXPERIMENTAL

11

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Orthogonality Check

For modal vectors scaled to unit modal mass, the

vectors must satisfy the orthogonality condition:

[ U ]T [M ] [ U ] = [I]

[ U ]T [K ] [ U] = [ 2 ]

12

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Pseudo Orthogonality Check relating the

correlation between the analytical and

experimental modal vectors with the analytical

mass matrix is

?

T

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

1.2

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

1.2

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

MAC

GUYAN

IRS

SEREP

off-diagonal terms the better correlation that

exists. However, these terms may be small

and vectors may still be relatively uncorrelated

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

13

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Pseudo Orthogonality Check is an assessment

as to how close the experimental vectors are

aligned with the analytical vectors

?

[E ] [M ] [ U ] = [I]

T

[E ] [K ] [ U ] = [ 2 ]

T

FEM Space - requires expansion

Reduced Space - requires reduction

Intermediate space - requires both

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

14

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Expansion to

Full Space

may smear

and distort

mode shapes

Reduction to

Test Space

may result

in distorted

mass and

stiffness

matrices

15

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Cross Orthogonality Check is also used for

correlation purposes

?

[E ] [M ] [E ] = [I]

T

[E ] [K ] [E ] = [ 2 ]

T

FEM Space - requires expansion

Reduced Space - requires reduction

16

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The CoMAC gives an indication of the contribution

of each dof to the MAC for a given mode pair

(c)

(c)

u k e k

c=1

CoMAC(k ) =

(u ) (e )

c=1

indicate little correlation

whereas high values of

CoMAC indicate very

high correlation

(c) 2

k

c=1

CoMAC

COORDINATE

MODAL

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

17

Experimental

Analytical

DOF CORRELATION

FINITE ELEMENT

(c) 2

k

EXPERIMENTAL

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Modulus Difference

The Modulus Difference was developed to

supplement the results from CoMAC

ModulusDifference( k ) = u (kc ) e (kc )

Assists in identifying

discrepancies

between analytical

and experimental

vectors

DOF CORRELATION

FINITE ELEMENT

18

EXPERIMENTAL

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The CoMAC gives an indication of the contribution

of each dof to the MAC for a given mode pair

m (c) (c)

u k e k

ECoMAC(k ) = c=1

2m

whereas high values of CoMAC indicate very low

correlation

Very sensitive to phasing of vectors - which

makes it more sensitive

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

19

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The FRAC is used to identify similarity between a

measured and analytical FRF - formed like MAC

{H( ) } {H( ) }

FRAC( j) =

({H( ) } {H( ) } ) ({H( ) } {H( ) } )

a

i j

a

i j

2

x *

i j

a *

i j

x

i j

indicate little

correlation whereas

high values of FRAC

indicate very high

correlation

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

x *

i j

FRAC

FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

DOF CORRELATION

20

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The RVAC is used to identify the degree of

similarity that exists at a particular frequency

RVAC() = MAC({E test ()}, {U fem ()})

indicate little

correlation whereas

high values of RVAC

indicate very high

correlation

RVAC

RESPONSE

VECTOR

ASSURANCE

CRITERIA

FINITE ELEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL

VECTOR CORRELATION

21

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Coordinate Orthogonality Check helps to

identify the contribution of individual dofs to

each of the off-diagonal terms of the POC

matrix

Identifies which dof are most discrepant between

the analytical and experimental vectors on a mass

weighted basis

POC

Orthogonality

ORTHOG ijk = u ki m kp u pj

POC ijk = e ki m kp u pj

22

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

The Coordinate Orthogonality Check is simply the

comparison of what should have been obtained

analytically for each dof in an orthogonality check

to what was actually obtained for each dof in a

pseudo-orthogonality check from test

SD = CORTHOG ijk = e ki m kp u pj u ki m kp u pj

p

Variety of different

formulations with

different scaling

approaches

-4

-3

-2

dof 3

23

emu

umu

dof 1

dof 2

-1

emu

Experimental

Analytical

umu

umu

emu

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MAC Contribution

The MAC Contribution is a relatively simple and

straightforward technique to determine the degree

of contribution of each dof to the MAC value

achieved

pick a mode pair of interest

select a target MAC value

delete dof until target MAC value achieved

24

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Force Unbalance

The Force Balance is a simple calculation to

determine the inequality that exists in the

equation of motion

?

[[K ] [M ]]{x}={0}

uses experimental frequencies and mode shapes

compute the inequality that exists

25

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Model Updating techniques can be broken down

into two categories:

Direct Techniques

Indirect Techniques (Sensitivity based)

Response Based Techniques

Some basic theory of analytical model

improvement and localization of model change are

described

Test/Analysis Correlation/Updating Considerations

26

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

27

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

28

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

29

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

30

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

31

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

32

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

33

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

34

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Direct Techniques

Usually a one step process that does not require iteration

to obtain a solution

Usually based on equation of motion and orthogonality

conditions

Exact results obtained (in the sense that the target modes

are reproduced

Generally updated matrices are difficult to interpret and

smearing of results occurs

of the system assembly

Reduction and expansion have a dramatic effect on results

35

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Skyline containment

Matrix smearing

36

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Differences that are typically minimized:

Frequency differences

Mode shape differences

Frequency response differences

mass/stiffness of groups of elements

parameters associated with individual elements

parameters associated with groups of elements

37

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Indirect Techniques - Sensitivity approach

Modal Based Techniques

Frequency differences

Shape differences

Response differences

38

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Indirect Techniques -Sensitivity -Modal Approach

Frequency differences

Likely to be the most accurate parameter

measured

No spatial information needed

Relatively simple calculations

No reduction/expansion problems

39

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Indirect Techniques -Sensitivity -Modal Approach

Shape differences

Spatial information included

Mode pairing necessary

Calculations more complicated

Reduction/expansion is a problem

40

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Indirect Techniques - Sensitivity approach

Response Based Techniques

Contains complete information in frequency range

No need to estimate modal parameters

FRFs are more accurate than modal parameters

Response may be item of interest

Damping may be difficult to determine

Selection of certain spectral lines may cause

numerical difficulties

Using only a few FRFs may distort the results

Difficult to identify parameters for change

Measured FRFs must be acquired with high accuracy

41

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

General Comments

42

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

General Comments

Use of all the correlation tools necessary to

interpret the data available

Both modal and response based techniques should be

used together for the updating

One technique alone may not be sufficient to

adequately update the model

analytically and experimentally and the correlation

process repeated to assure that meaningful

parameters have been obtained from the updating

process

43

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

General Comments

obtain reliable results

A firm understanding of the modeling techniques

employed are necessary in order to adequately adjust

the finite element model

A thorough understanding of the experimental data

used for the updating process is critical

A clear definition of what is meant by an improved

model is necessary

The analyst has a tremendous responsibility in

identifying which areas of the model are to be

updated and which sets of modes are the best modes

to use in the updating process

44

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

macl.caeds.eng.uml.edu

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

University of Massachusetts Lowell

Presentation Topics

Intent

Things Shake and Break !

Modal Overview

TUTORIAL NOTES:

Structural Dynamics and

Experimental Modal Analysis

Analytical Modeling

SDOF Theory

MODE 1

MDOF Theory

MODE3

Measurement Definitions

Excitation Considerations

MPE Concepts

MODE 2

MODE 4

Linear Algebra

Structural Modification

Correlation/Updating

In Trouble !!!!!

Dr. Peter Avitabile

peter_avitabile@uml.edu

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