Discrete Math Predicate Logic

© All Rights Reserved

17 views

Discrete Math Predicate Logic

© All Rights Reserved

- The Art of Withness
- Math Symbols Are Shorthand Marks That Represent Mathematical Concepts
- Ai Complete Notes
- P. T. Geach, Peter Thomas Geach-Reference and Generality_ an Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories (Contemporary Philosophy) (1980)
- CN_AI[1]
- Perelman Final (English)
- Experimental Architecture
- lecture1.pdf
- On Coming to Be and Passing Away
- _A Primer on Formal Metaphysicsphilo
- planner
- fuzzy logic concepts
- A truth
- Analysis as Applied to Problems.
- Issues in KR
- Q2 Ethical_Bases_of_Educational_Measurement.pdf
- Saharon Shelah and Joel Spencer- Can You Feel the Double Jump
- Reid - Wittgenstein's Ladder
- l04
- logic_research_tool.pdf

You are on page 1of 61

and Applications

COT3100

Prof: A. Ungor

Foundations of

Logic: Overview

COT3100

Basic definitions.

Predicates.

Quantified predicate expressions.

Equivalences & derivations.

Nested Quantifiers

2

Predicate Logic

Predicate logic is an extension of propositional logic

that permits concisely reasoning about whole classes

of entities.

E.g., x>1, x+y=10

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the values of the variables are not specified.

Applications of

Predicate Logic

clear, concise, and unambiguous

mathematical definitions, axioms, and theorems

for any branch of mathematics.

database query engines.

other Artificial Intelligence systems.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Subjects and

Predicates

The proposition

The dog is sleeping

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

that the sentence is about.

the subject can have.

Propositional

Functions

objects to propositions.

x=a is the proposition P(a).

then P(3) is the proposition 3 is greater than 1.

is not a proposition (not a complete sentence).

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Propositional

Functions

functions of any number of arguments.

! !

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Universe of

Discourse

is called xs universe of discourse.

we could define the course of universe as the set of

integers.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Quantifier

Expressions

Quantifiers allow us to quantify (count) how many

objects in the universe of discourse satisfy a given

predicate:

!

x P(x) means for all x in the u.d., P holds.

x P(x) means there exists an x in the u.d. (that

! is, one or more) such that P(x) is true.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Universal Quantifier

: Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Every parking space at UF is full. or

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Every parking space at UF is full. or

For each parking space at UF, that space is full.

10

The Universal

Quantifier

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

11

The Universal

Quantifier

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

11

Existential Quantifier

Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

There is a parking space at UF that is full. or

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

There is a parking space at UF that is full. or

At least one parking space at UF is full.

12

Quantifier

Equivalence Laws

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

used to prove this?

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

13

Quantifier

Equivalence Laws

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

used to prove this?

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

DeMorgan's

13

More Equivalence

Laws

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

x y P(x,y) y x P(x,y)

x y P(x,y) y x P(x,y)

x (P(x) Q(x)) (x P(x)) (x Q(x))

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

14

Scope of Quantifiers

quantifier is applied is called the scope of this

quantifier.

e.g., (x P(x)) (x Q(x))

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

15

Variables

variable x (meaning x is undefined).

expression having one or more free variables,

and binds one or more of those variables, to

produce an expression having one or more

bound variables.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

16

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

variable. [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

17

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

x P(x,y) has 1 free variable,y and one bound

variable. [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

17

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

x P(x,y) has 1 free variable,y and one bound

variable.x [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

17

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize (x P(x) Q(x))

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

(A __________ with ___ free variables.)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

Proposition

(A __________ with ___ free variables.)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

Proposition

0 free variables.)

(A __________ with ___

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

(including himself)!

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

himself).

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

Everyone hashimself).

someone who relies

upon them.

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

Everyone hashimself).

someone who relies

upon them.

Everyone relies upon everybody,

(including themselves)!

20

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

COT3100

x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Notational

Conventions

can be combined: x y z P(x,y,z)

x,y,z P(x,y,z) or even xyz P(x,y,z)

restricted within the quantification, e.g.,

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

For all x that are greater than zero, P(x).

There is an x greater than zero such that P(x).

22

Defining New

Quantifiers

As per their name, quantifiers can be used to express

that a predicate is true of any given quantity

(number) of objects.

Define !x P(x) to mean P(x) is true of exactly one x in

the universe of discourse.

!x P(x) x (P(x) y (P(y) y x))

There is an x such that P(x), where there is no y

such that P(y) and y is other than x.

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

23

Some Number

Theory Examples

of two non-unity numbers.

equal to 2 times some other number.

x (E(x) (y x=2y))

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

24

Calculus Example

quantifiers:

(limxa f (x) = L)

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

25

Reading

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Sections 1.6-1.8

- The Art of WithnessUploaded bychristopherkinman
- Math Symbols Are Shorthand Marks That Represent Mathematical ConceptsUploaded byDave
- Ai Complete NotesUploaded byjayjayjayendra
- P. T. Geach, Peter Thomas Geach-Reference and Generality_ an Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories (Contemporary Philosophy) (1980)Uploaded byru
- CN_AI[1]Uploaded byapi-3696990
- Perelman Final (English)Uploaded byRoman Kunin
- Experimental ArchitectureUploaded byadinsmaradhana
- lecture1.pdfUploaded byAwais Chaudhry
- On Coming to Be and Passing AwayUploaded byBrian Smith
- _A Primer on Formal MetaphysicsphiloUploaded byT Patrick Murray
- plannerUploaded bytexasrachel
- fuzzy logic conceptsUploaded byDrGopi Krishna
- A truthUploaded bypassword1345828
- Analysis as Applied to Problems.Uploaded byCorbo Kamé
- Issues in KRUploaded bySenthil Murugan
- Q2 Ethical_Bases_of_Educational_Measurement.pdfUploaded byLaarni Quibuyen
- Saharon Shelah and Joel Spencer- Can You Feel the Double JumpUploaded byHutsDM
- Reid - Wittgenstein's LadderUploaded byJoséRamónOrrantiaCavazos
- l04Uploaded byNghia Nguyen
- logic_research_tool.pdfUploaded bydoctoera
- Negotiation StylesUploaded byAkshit Nagpal
- Syllogisms in the CETUploaded byRobomateplus
- (1.2) Why Do We Need Logic CopyUploaded byZakariya El Houbba
- Lesson Plan for DeUploaded byudaya57
- Un Diveloppement de La Logique Des Questions.Uploaded byVladimirPo
- Corcoran Hare and Others on the PropositionUploaded byGustavo Vilar
- Semantic Interpretation by Shayeez AhamedUploaded byMehaboob Basha
- satire syllabusUploaded byapi-216208844
- MATH3150 Fa15 Hmw1 SolutionsUploaded byJustin Baars
- Q4realsolUploaded bysyed yaqub

- 2010 Solo Ensemble Master ListUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- CDA3101 L01 Introduction MSSUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Lab3Uploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Eel 3923 c Spring 2018 SylUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- ABE2062 SyllabusUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Jazz History Syl Lab Us Fall 2014Uploaded byRosemond Fabien
- EEE 4373 and EEL 5934 Radio Frequency Electronics Syllabus Fall 2017Uploaded byRosemond Fabien
- EEL 4657 Linear Control SystemsUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Biology PPTUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- good+life+spring+2015+syllUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- RF Class Notes 2 MOS Basic AnalysisUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Intro to ECE Fall 2016 ScheduleUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Agricultural and Environmental Quality_Fall2014Uploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Unix-Linux Commands Quick ReferenceUploaded bySepehr Lajevardi
- Micro-P SyllabusUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Digital Logic SyllabusUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- NOTES 1 PropositionalLogicUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- 2013 2014 Scholarship GuideUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Neruda - Trumpet Concerto in E-FlatUploaded byMarcos Hill
- Haydn - Trumpet Concerto in E-FlatUploaded byMatthew Dunlop
- Programming Fundamentals BasicsUploaded byRosemond Fabien
- Hummel - Trumpet Concerto in E-flatUploaded byRosemond Fabien

- The Standard Solar Model, Its Content and Meaning PDFUploaded byadambruce93
- Danfoss_Drives.pdfUploaded byCristian Paraschiv
- 1002.2269 CEO EntropyUploaded byYùht Hna
- Moon (Tides and the Moon)Uploaded byWael Zak
- Chapter 1Uploaded byRita Lau
- Eddy UsbUploaded byYash Dhabalia
- Reliability Assesement of Rolling Piston Rotary TypeUploaded bySundaraPandiyan
- musical notes lab 4Uploaded byapi-263251621
- DocUploaded byBernardo121351
- Design of Accelerated Corrosion Tests for ElectronicUploaded byOnil
- 9702_s15_qp_21Uploaded bywnwd97
- Add MathUploaded bynabiella92
- 8 1a a miniaturetrainoptionalUploaded byapi-291536844
- Ketac Molar (1)Uploaded byKa Nordenström
- 0-5239-1Uploaded byAshish Malik
- Inherent Processing in Service DefectsUploaded byrandz8
- TS7LuminosuUploaded byBycus22
- nl060185tUploaded byAbhishek Singla
- Nyquist Sampling Rate 2fmaxUploaded byXuan Bei Oh
- TB018 Predicting the Remaining Life of Vacuum Interrupters in the FieldUploaded bybaoHVLAB
- DSS-1stUploaded bysirfmein
- Arsenio MontaleUploaded by1inutil
- DSSC DetailUploaded byUdai Singh
- Limits and Fits Pr1171_1172Uploaded byTeguh Nugraha Kusnan
- phy 15 notesUploaded byapi-248642018
- TEST States3Uploaded byRaaidhAhmed
- Statics of Rigid BodiesUploaded byruel_galutan
- Rotordynamics.pdfUploaded byhihou
- Studies on Bound Water in PvaUploaded bysggdgd
- 264293582-Heat-Transfer-Example.pdfUploaded byKaiser Angelo G. Ladores