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LN004 / JohnStone / 2013-02-20

V1

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Exzerpt
This document describes a fast switching FET driver circuit dedicated to asymmetric motors.

List of Contents
Scope of this document: ............................................................................................. 4
Basic Knowledge ........................................................................................................ 4
Overview..................................................................................................................... 6
Circuit ......................................................................................................................... 7
Opto (Section C)...................................................................................................... 7
Signal Conditioning & Power on Disable (Section D) .............................................. 8
FET driver (Section E) ........................................................................................... 10
FET Stage (Section F)........................................................................................... 12
Circuit Board ............................................................................................................. 15
Bread board .............................................................................................................. 17
Assembly .................................................................................................................. 17
Wiring Procedure ...................................................................................................... 18
Precautions at Different Circuit Areas ....................................................................... 19
Basic Testing of the Circuit ....................................................................................... 23
Some Hints out of the Forum .................................................................................... 23
Testing and Tuning ................................................................................................... 25
Further knowledge .................................................................................................... 25
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................... 26

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Author
Name:
Profession:
Location:

John Stone
Engineer in electronics and humble apprentice in radiant science
Somewhere in a rural area in the global village

The author performs this research in order to bring honor to the creator and help protect his creation.

Disclaimer
The contents described herein are for education only. You are not encouraged to replicate items
described herein. The author takes no responsibility for any damage, injury or other disadvantage
occurring.

Policies:
Anybody is encouraged to copy and forward this document at will as long as the content is not
modified.
Quotations are allowed unmodified only with added reference (title and version) and internet link if
possible.

Intellectual Properties
As far as the author is aware there are no facts described herein pending to any intellectual property
being protected.
All contents are open source and MUST NOT be patented or claimed to be private in any way.

Glossary
FET

field effect transistor

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Scope of this document:


Due to the fact that many members of energetic forum are not educated in electronic
matters this document shall help anybody to build a high quality driver dor own
experiments.

Basic Knowledge
The notions below were published in Energetic Forum by the author in Oct. 2012.
Everybody shall understand that the matter is far complicated but these notions may
suffice in order to get the basic understanding for building drivers like presented
herein.
1. FETs are modern electric valves with some very superior properties compared to
transistors. This makes them a primary choice in order to switch high currents along low
loss.
But FETs will perform well only if they are kept within their area of wellness.
Unfortunately many of you do not now these conditions and therefore you torture them
without any malicious intention.
2. Any valve performs well only if you switch it fast. Any intermediate state will perform
excessive losses. You experienced it before if a switch (valve) in your home does not
perform well and the contacts get hot - and possibly ignite your home. So the question
is: How do we get FETs hurry up in their switching time.
3. FETs are extremely fast electric valves. They can perform (but not easily) within ps
(picoseconds = 10 power -12 seconds) - But they show up some drawbacks we need to
take in account.
4. For better understanding let's recall the connections of a FET (exactly a N-FET). This is
the type we usually use. The leg being connected to electrical minus or GND or ground is
called the "source". The leg where you connect your load is called "drain". Where you
control the FET is the "gate".
5. The abbreviation FET stands for Field Effect Transistor. This term tells you that you
can change the state of ON /Off by controlling an electric field within the structure of the
FE-Transistor - see additionally This might give you the notion that a FET will not draw
current but the field will be sufficient. This notion is true and false at same time - sorry given at what time you look at your FET.
6. Gate capacitance: There is no FET (or transistor) without it (app. 1nF = 1 nanaofarad).
As you possibly know a capacitance is a bin for electrons where you can put them in and
extract them later on (in reality it is not - but let's take it as thinking model). We charge
a capacitor and discharge it. In this respect it behaves like a rechargeable battery. If you
have lots of current you can charge it within short time and if you have a weak power
supply you need to wait long time in order to use the charged object.
Now please understand that you can have no natural feeling of what is slow or fast for a
FET and what currents will flow. All this matter defies your daily experience and therefore
we need to talk about it.
7. Charging a capacitance is no linear job but the more charge you have gathered in the

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cap the slower it will increase its voltage. So please understand that it will be no good
idea to supply your FET driver with 12V while your FET needs 10V for full ON state.
Additionally your driver will eat up some voltage and supply somewhat less than your
battery supplies.
And beware of long thin wires - they will kill the rest of your switching quality.
For discharge you unfortunately have no negative voltage in order to speed up the cycle.
Then the low driver stage needs to be strong enough.
8. Oscillations are another enemy of your FETs. As you learned above every transition
generates losses and you can imagine that some additional oscillations (wires are
inductance, capacitance and act along FET capacitance) will add losses and eat up
performance of your PWM circuit. These oscillations may go up to MHz! But there is a
drug for this - an additional resistor (10....30 Ohm) - look forward to schematic coming
soon.
9. Now let's recall some usual nominal properties of a FET.
Threshold voltage for ON state : higher than ca. 10V
Threshold voltage for OFF state: lower than ca. 4V
This tells you that you need to travel as fast as possible through the lossy zone between
4V and 10V and vice versa and additionally exceed the thresholds by some volts in order
to stay in a secure zone.
The bad news is that you do not have a certain amount of loss once only but at every
transition ON/OFF and OFF/ON. The frequency of 10 KHz tells you i.e. that a FET will
experience 20000 times pulses of heat every second because of switching only. Imagine
these facts like driving your car without oil in the engine /gear -> friction + heat +
damage.
I do not want to derange you with math. If you want to know more see this calculator.
Any way you can understand that if we have a weak, slow current source as driver and
possibly no good conductors it will take longer time to switch a FET ON/OFF.
As you own no oscilloscope it is of no value for you to enter into calculations and figures.
Let's focus on what we can do in order to enhance your FET driving.
10. There are some other facts to be considered but stay with this knowledge for now.

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Overview
The FET driver described herein incorporates an opto coupler at input in order to
separate the PWM generator from the noisy driver circuit. A simple opto will not
transfer clean signals with steep edges. Therefore the opto output feeds aome gates
for signal conditioning along power on disable. Both measures are necessary in order
to prevent stress and damage of the FET stage itself.
An essential part of this circuit is the FET driver itself being able to charge and
discharge the gate capacitance very fast. This action requires high current flow and
builders shall provide conductors with corresponding diameter in this section.
The final FET stage contains some protection means from high voltage.
An overcurrent protection is not designed in this version of circuit but can be added
later on.

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Circuit
This circuit was tuned in order to serve as safe unit for research purpose at
asymmetric motors. Some simplifications can be performed before using it in real
use. Anybody untrained person is warned to modify it. Low performance might result.
Please consult the corresponding forum for further knowledge.

Opto (Section C)

The input connector at left hand side provides aresistor and opto with separated
leads on a post each in order to be easily adapted to the PMW generator. If this
circuit is not connected the FETs are for safety controlled to switched off.
Activating the opto at input will draw pin 3 at output to 5V performing as HIGH signal
to the signal conditioning stage.
Pin 6 at connector is not connected to the circuit. It sits there just in case you need to
connect PSU from generator.

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Signal Conditioning & Power on Disable (Section D)

The gates are of Schmitt trigger type. They prevent randomly switching at output if
noisy signals are fed at input.
The circuit serves as power on disable in order to protect the setup from unsolicited
switching. After switch on C18, R4, D3 disable the gate pin 10 up to the time when
the capacitor is being charged above the switching level of the gate. In case of power
off procedure the diode enables fast discharge of the capacitor in order to be
prepared soon for next switch on procedure.
Gate IC4d performs as simple inverter. There are two gates left in IC4.They can be
used for later additions. All inputs are tied to +5V in order to prevent unsolicited
switching and noise.

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Note: The voltage for this circuit is 5V fed by a separated voltage regulator LM7805.
This measure was chosen in order to prevent any crosstalk of the noisy circuitry
originating from FET switching.

Builders are advised to not omit capacitors shown in the diagram. They are essential
in order to provide smooth DC voltage. Every type of capacitor performs in a certain
proprietary frequency range. Thus a cluster of capacitors covers a wider range of
frequencies. They get charged / discharged at spikes and crosstalk and load
changes as well.

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FET driver (Section E)

FET drivers are designed for sudden source / sink of several amps. This special type
performs 12A within 50ns. Special precautions were taken by the manufacturer in
order to prevent crosstalk form output to input. Input section was separated from
output section.
C17 / C2 guarantee smooth DC voltage for input circuitry. This cluster is being fed
from 12V regulator and this is the only connection to the output cluster.
Same procedure at GND connections. input separated from output one single lead
in-between.
You are advised to solder this IC to PCB directly (no socket) in order to guarantee
maximum current flow.
The LED D1 performs as monitor for switching actions.

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The circuit gets 12V from a separated voltage regulator LM7812. It is advised to feed
this regulator by a galvanically separated PSU i.e. a simple socket charger.

This regulator feeds the 5V regulator as well (see baove).

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FET Stage (Section F)

R8, R9 shall prevent spurious oscillations at FET side. They grow up along gate
capacitance and inductivity of the leads between driver and FET. Therefore it is
essential to have them as short as possible. The resistor values need to be
determined at the setup itself. You are advised to check before with wire jumpers
only.
The drawback of these resistors is -> they prevent high currents to flow and thus
reduce the switching speed. The resistors should be of metal film type or SMD.
Normal carbon resistors contain a helical structure and thus add inductance to the
gate (danger of oscillations)
C9 / D2 and C15/D7 perform as overvoltage protection for the gate. In order to
separate the capacitance and its influence to switching speed, overvoltage is being
fed through low capacitance diodes 1N4148 (D1, D6). Once C9 or C15 is charged

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there is no further interaction with the gate, except in case of overvoltage. Then D2
will conduct and prevent damage to the gate.
D4, D5, D8, D9 perform as overvoltage protection for the DS junction. They conduct
in case of overvoltage and feed charge to the gate. Thus the FET will open again for
short time and conduct the overvoltage to GND. The double diode design is intended
in order to reduce capacitance by series connection of the diode capacitance.
NOTE: This protection was designed for these specific FETs in diagram (600V). The
values for these diodes need to be adapted to about 80% of maximum voltage drain /
source.
K2, K3 are contacts for connecting meters.
This circuit shows no high current contacts because builders will have very different
arrangements for FETs along heat sinks. The FETs were prepared to be assembled
on bottom side in order to give space for extensive heat sinks if requested.
Mounting FETS off PCB is not recommended because the wiring from driver to gates
and source pins needs to be AS SHORT AS POSSIBLE.
NOTE:
It is essential to perform the connections from driver to FETS exactly like shown
below. Else low switching performance will be observed.

Please note this current path marked in red and blue will perform up to 12A for short
time. It needs to be performed EXACTLY like in layout below. Wires need to be
covered with massive solder.

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Circuit Board

As component placing and wiring are in some extent essential, this setup shall serve
as template for easy building and proper function.
The circuit board below was setup primary for replicating the circuit on a breadboard
(instruction below) but may be built as true PCB.

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Please note the FETs are positioned mirrored in order to get gate pins as close
together as possible. Thus heat sinks shall be applied on both sides.

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Bread board
The board was developed in 1/10 (2.54mm) pitch. Thus any commercial breadboard
(pad per hole) board may be used.
The dimensions are about 94mm x 64mm

Assembly
Step 1:

Print the assembly print in scale 1:1 on paper. (template in correct size-> see
appendix)
Check if dimensions ore OK, else correct your printer setup.
Adjust the printout on the breadboard: holes in board shall fit to fiducial marks.
Fix paper with pins on corners through holes first and then with glue.
Puncture the assembly holes.
Assemble a cluster of components at a time (not all at once) i.e. 12V voltage
regulator along related components.
Ceramic 100nF capacitors were used of different pitch. You may use all the
same and bend wires conforming the corresponding hole distance.
Proceed with wiring (see next paragraph).
After wiring finished proceed with next cluster.

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Wiring Procedure
The wiring was performed like a single sided circuit board. The position of
components was guided by having short and well-arranged wiring. The layout may be
used as printed template for marking wires soldered. (see pic below bottom view)
Perform short wires first. Blank wires may be used there.
For some longer wires insulated ones may be advised.

Wiring: bottom view

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Precautions at Different Circuit Areas


Some circuit areas need to be wired with massive wire in order to allow high
amperage to flow in time.
GROUNDs
The GND wires related to gate drive are marked in pink color. Be advised to perform
those wires at left hand side from driver as massive wires in order to let up to 12A
flow.

The gate resistors shall be accompanied by ground lines in order to prevent


oscillations and spurious nose.
Hint: Solder thin blank wires and cover them with solder later on in order to get
massive metal connections. Pause in-between in order to not kill components by
heat.
Remember the jumper (grey line above)

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GATE DRIVE

Same procedure like above

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DIGITAL GROUND

This part may be wired without covering with solder like above.

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FET (SOURCE / DARIN)
Source and drain pins are prepared for high curents up to 300A peak. Conducting
such current can not be performed by simple PCB or wiring. Thus the wiring for
source and drain will be done differently off PCB surfce at top side.
Note: Soldering needs to be done hot and fast in order to prevent damage inside the
FETS ba heat.

It is essential to perform this triangle for drain wires (connected to load later on)
symmetrically in order to load both FETs equally.

Same procedure for wires to source pins at FET. Keep both triangles well insulated.
The circuit might be loaded up to 650V.

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Basic Testing of the Circuit


After assembly and wiring thorough testing shall be performed. It is advised to do
testing step by step. The input needs to be controlled either by a frequency generator
or by a simple toggle switch. All sections shall be tested.

12V regulator (note: regulators of type 78xx need minimum 2 volts higher at
input than their output rating)
5V regulator
Opto part
Signal conditioning / power on disable
FET driver
FET stage (add a resistive load (i.e. 20W bulb / 12V) and do not exceed 12V
voltage at load for safety of the circuit in case of malfunction) Check for steep
edges and missing oscillations at switching time. In case of oscillations gate
resistors need to be added and increases up to smooth switching.

Some Hints out of the Forum


Link
1. Action: Do not use coils in the very first switch on but a resistor or car lamp or
similar ohmic load. Calculate the max. current at permanently switched on stat to not
be grater than 80 % of the max. current out of data sheet. Mount your FETs on a
heatsink.
Check: At every test check temperature.
2. Action: Attatch the overvoltage protection to FETs
3. Action: Start with 12V first.
4. Action: Operate the FET stage manually first - disconnect from generator. Thus
you can measure with simple DVM and thoroughly.
5. Action: Connect input lead to GND.
Check: Measure if your FETs have less than 1 V on gate. Light at output OFF! If not:
measure where the the voltage originates.
6. Action: Connect input lead to 12V
Check: Measure if FETs have 10V minimum at gate. Light at output ON! If not:
search for the loss of voltage.
7. Action: Connect generator with low frequency ca. 1Hz
Check: Watch function: on / off / on ......
8. Action: Add in series to bulb at output a coil. Replace the output load by a
moderate coil. Attach a neon (overvoltage protection) across SD of the FET.
9. Action: Operate generator faster i.e. 100Hz. Connect a home brew peak detector,

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connect DVM.
Check: If neon lights at this step you have too big coil or too low frequency.
Wait DVM reading being stable. Now you have the exact peak voltge less 0.6V
beacuse of the diode.
Action: Discharge the cap from peak detector after every check.
10. Action: Remove the bulb at output. and connect coil between Battery and FET
directly. Repeat #9.

11. Action: Increase battery voltage or use bigger coil (or motor).
Repeat #8
Check. Neon on? procede with #12. If you have now not your final load increse load
step by step until neon gets on dimmly.
12. Action: Neon is now on dimmly while FET stage running. Note the peak voltage.
13. Action: Check the data sheet for max. voltage DS. Take 80% of this voltage and
devide it by the neon voltage + 1V noted before. The integer number is the number of
SAME neons you can connect in series between DS of FET in order to get a reliable
protection from overvoltage.
Check. Neons shall not light up at all while normal operation. Measure the peak
voltage to be below 80% of FET voltage and note the voltage red.
14. Action: Discionnect overvoltge protection (cap/resistor)
Check: Recheck like #13.
15: Increase freqeuncy step by step.
Check: Temperature, neons to be off, voltge at peak detector....
Hint:
- When operating assymetric motors high voltage spikes are intended. Therefore
neones shall light for exceptional protection only. If the lihgt up you should replace
FETs by higher rated components. Calculate the cont of neons again (#13)
- Recheck overvoltage protection if you make your FETs switch faster as well. The
calculation for voltage spikes depends on switching speed as well. They are build up
by load voltge, amps being switched off and switching speed.
Small 12V motors can develop spikes up to 150V and more. An ignition coil being fed
with 12V / 3A will produce up to 300V spikes.
- Your setup will not be protected while you read this text. YOU MUST DO IT
YOURSELF!

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Testing and Tuning


Once the driver board proved to perform basic functions it needs to be tested at
dedicated load. Remember the advice to start tuning with removed gate resistors and
added wire jumpers.
It is essential to test the driver board with resistive load only because any inductivity
oscillates at switching time and will override deadly self-oscillations at gates.
Resistive load: Get a bulb from car head lamp H4 (or two H7), parallel filaments and
connect as load with short wires. You can pulse it at 36V with 40% duty and get
plenty of amps for testing while not overloading the bulb.
Check for smooth switching like above.
Recheck if the overvoltage diodes fit to max. voltage of the FETs used.

Further knowledge
This driver is being discussed in Energetic Forum my-motors-got-me-tap-intoradiant-energy starting with post # 1745.

~o0o~

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APPENDIX

D10 1N4007

K1X04

K8

V_GEN
Rin
Rout
OPTO_A
OPTO_K

K1
K1X06

AUX_PWR

C8

100nF

IN

V_GEN

GND

GND

1F

E
C

SFH617A-3

A
K

IC3

Section C:
Opto coupler

GND

R2

1K

+ C11

Section A:
12V supply

OUT

+5V

R4

+
C5
Section D:
Digital gates

74HC132N

IC4d
IN

Section B:
5V supply

1F

V5.1

GND

OUT

7805

74HC132N

IC4c

IN

IC5
GND

7812

C14
+

C6

10F

C4

100nF

R1

D3
1N4148

C12
100nF

IC6

470

1F

1F
C18

08.02.13
08.02.13

Change:
Version:

...

1K

D11

23:27

20:15

LED red 3mm

D1

D5
R3

R7
C9

D8

74HC132N

IC4b

+5V

File: Monster Driver - V5.1 - 20130208 prerelease.T3001

130,00%

IC4a

+5V

74HC132N

Section E:
FET driver

MIC4452YN

VCC
OUT1
OUT2
GND

+12V

Scale:

GND

1K

R8

VCC
IN
NC
GND

IC7

GND

IC4

+5V

C1
100nF

+5V

C7 100nF

C13
100nF
10K

100nF

C2

1F

C17
+

1F

C10
+

10F

C3
+

P6KE250CA

1K

R5

IPW60R041C6

D7

K2

K1X02

K3

K1X02

1K

R6

T2

Project: Asymetric Ufo Motor

Sheet: 1/1
500V
100A continuous
300A singel pulse

Section F:
Power FETs

GND

D6

D4
R9

C15

T1

D9

...
Item: Monster Driver

D2

1R
100nF

P6KE250CA
1N4148
P6KE15

P6KE250CA
1R

P6KE250CA
1N4148
P6KE15

+12V

100nF

IPW60R041C6

MD5.1 - BOM prerelease


Pos Cont
Name
Value
Case
DATASHEET
1
5 R2,R5,R6,R7,R8
1K
0207
2
1 D10
1N4007
D_RM12,7_DM3
3
3 D1,D3,D6
1N4148
DO35
http://datasheet.octopart.com/1N4148-Fairchild-datasheet-521777.pdf
4
2 R3,R9
1R
0204_MET
for tuning only
5
6 C5,C10,C11,C14,C17,C18
1F
C_ELKO_RM5,08_DM6 pitch 5.08 mm / diameter 6mm / voltage > 20V
6
1 R4
10K
0207
7
2 C3,C6
10F
D6R2,54_ELKO
pitch 2.54 mm / diameter 6mm / voltage > 20V
8
1 IC4
74HC132N
DIL14
http://focus.ti.com/lit/ml/mpdi002c/mpdi002c.pdf
9
2 C2,C7
100nF
3X13R7,62
same like next line! but bent for pitch 7.62 mm for use at MIC4452YN
10
7 C1,C4,C8,C9,C12,C13,C15 100nF
6X3R5,08
pitch 5.08 mm / diameter 6mm / voltage > 20V
11
1 R1
470
0207
12
1 IC5
7805
TO220
http://datasheet.octopart.com/L7812CV-STMicroelectronics-datasheet-10835933.pdf
13
1 IC6
7812
TO220
http://datasheet.octopart.com/L7812CV-STMicroelectronics-datasheet-10835933.pdf
14
2 T1,T2
IPW60R041C6 TO247
http://datasheet.octopart.com/IPW60R041C6-Infineon-datasheet-10026896.pdf
15
2 K2,K3
K1X02
1X02
16
1 K8
K1X04
1X04
17
1 K1
K1X06
1X06
18
1 D11
LED red 3mm LED_3MM_RED
19
1 IC7
MIC4452YN
DIL8
http://datasheet.octopart.com/MIC4452YN-Micrel-datasheet-12335.pdf
20
2 D2,D7
P6KE15
DO15
http://datasheet.octopart.com/P6KE15A-STMicroelectronics-datasheet-14475.pdf
21
4 D4,D5,D8,D9
P6KE250CA
DO15
http://datasheet.octopart.com/P6KE250CA-Fairchild-datasheet-3040.pdf
Please buy diodes above fitting to the Vds of your FETs. These ones refer to T1/T2 . Both diodes in series shall be well below the max. Voltage of your FETs!
22
1 IC3
SFH617A-3
DIL4
http://datasheet.octopart.com/SFH617A-3-Vishay-datasheet-8399721.pdf

63,5 mm

93,98 mm

63,5 mm

93,98 mm