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Arthritis

Description: Inflammation of the joints (the junctures where the ends of two or more bones meet).

Persons most commonly affected: Women are at a greater risk than men.
Organ or part of body involved: Joints
Symptoms and indications: Swelling, tenderness, pain, stiffness, and redness in the joints. Pain is often
worse in the morning than in the day. Damp weather and emotional stress do not cause arthritis, but they
can make symptoms worse. With rheumatoid arthritis, there may also be feelings of fatigue and fever.
Causes and risk factors: Poor diet, age older than 50, history of immobilization, injury to the joint, joint
hypermobility or instability, obesity (weight-bearing joints), prolonged occupational or sports stress,
congential or developmental disorders, endocrine problems (hypothyroidism, excess estrogen, insulin
sensitivity, increased growth hormone levels, low somatomedin levels), hereditary factors, and nutrient
deficiencies are all causes of arthritis.
Prevention: Moderate daily excercise, such as swimming, walking, or physical therapy, is critical to
maintain mobility in arthritic joints. Maintain correct posture and body weight. Eat a lot of fiber in the
form of raw vegetables and whole grains. It will help sweep away mineral and acid build-up and keep
your digestive system free of harmful bacteria. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower
also have anti-inflammatory properties. Foods high in sulphur will help repair cartilage and bone. Try
eating some asparagus, cabbage, garlic, or onion every day. Avoid acid-promoting foods such as red
meat. eggs, oils, fried foods, sugar, dairy products, refined carbohydrates, foods high in gluten (such as
breads, pasta, and pastries), alcohol and caffeine.
Back Pain

Description: Griping pain in the back, especially in the lower part of the back.
Persons most commonly affected: Overweight persons, pregnant and menstruating women
Organ or part of body involved: Back
Symptoms and indications: A sharp jab or a dull ache at the back. The pain sometimes becomes so
piercing that a person who is bending over may not be able to straighten up.
Causes and risk factors: Back pain results from a variety of causes. Strains are especially common when
overworked or under exercised back muscles perform beyond their normal capacity. Strain of back
muscles can be due to participation in a sport, a sudden jerking motion (such as a car braking) or reflex
actions like sneezing. Overweight is a leading factor in back pain because it increases the stress on back
muscles. Similarly, pregnancy can result in back pain because of the weight or position of the fetus. For
some women, menstruation is also associated with back discomfort. Psychological tension, stress or
anxiety about everyday problems can also lead to back pain. In addition, back pain can result from
diseases of the kidney, heart, lungs, intestinal tract or reproductive organs.
Prevention: Stress to the spine should be avoided. Good posture, when awake and asleep, relieves tension
on the spinal column. Wearing properly fitted shoes encourages good postures, as does sleeping on a
semifirm bed. Good posture is also important when performing daily activities. Bending at the knees,
rather than from the waist, when lifting large, heavy objects places the stress on the legs and helps prevent
back injury. Constipation makes back pain worse, so eat plenty of fibre, preferably in the form of
vegetables. Consume foods that are rich in essential fatty acids (salmon, mackerel, almonds, walnuts, and
ground flaxseeds). Stay away from products that are high in saturated fat and sugar, especially if you are
overweight. Avoid caffeine and alcohol products, which are known to worsen inflammation.
Bruises
Description: Also called a contusion or an ecchymosis, happens when a part of the body is struck and the
muscle fibers and connective tissue underneath are crushed but the skin does not break. When this occurs,
blood from the ruptured capillaries (small blood vessels) near the skin

Persons most commonly affected: All age groups and both sexes.
Organ or part of body involved: Blood Vessels
Symptoms and indications: Pain, swelling, and skin discoloration. The bruise begins as a pinkish, red
color that can be very tender to touch. It is often difficult to use the muscle that has been bruised.
Causes and risk factors: Bruises can happen for a lot of reasons, but are mostly the result of bumping and
banging into things - or having things bump and bang into you. Sometimes, unexplained bruising can be a
clue that a person's blood vessel walls are brittle or that a child has insufficient blood-clotting factors.
Bruising can also signal the onset of serious illnesses such as leukemia or haemophilia.
Prevention: Because bruises are usually the direct result of an injury, the following are important safety
recommendations: Teach children how to be safe. Be mindful to avoid falls around the house. For
example, be careful when climbing on ladders or other objects. Avoid standing or kneeling on counter-
tops. Wear seat belts in motor vehicles. Wear proper sports equipment to pad those areas most frequently
bruised (thigh pads, hip guards, and elbow pads in football and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in
soccer and basketball). Reduce or eliminate sugars, as they interrupt the healing of tissue. Avoid
saturated, hydrogenated, and trans-fatty acids found in meat and packaged processed foods, as there
interfere with the healing of cells. Dark-green leafy vegetables provide many minerals that help heal
bruising, such as vitamin C and vitamin K. Citrus fruits, bell peppers, and other brightly coloured
vegetables and fruits provide bioflavonoids that help heal bruises. Fish such as salmon, nuts like walnuts,
and seeds such as flaxseeds provide essential fatty acids that are necessary for tissue repair.
Bruises
Description: Also called a contusion or an ecchymosis, happens when a part of the body is struck and the
muscle fibers and connective tissue underneath are crushed but the skin does not break. When this occurs,
blood from the ruptured capillaries (small blood vessels) near the skin

Persons most commonly affected: All age groups and both sexes.
Organ or part of body involved: Blood Vessels
Symptoms and indications: Pain, swelling, and skin discoloration. The bruise begins as a pinkish, red
color that can be very tender to touch. It is often difficult to use the muscle that has been bruised.
Causes and risk factors: Bruises can happen for a lot of reasons, but are mostly the result of bumping and
banging into things - or having things bump and bang into you. Sometimes, unexplained bruising can be a
clue that a person's blood vessel walls are brittle or that a child has insufficient blood-clotting factors.
Bruising can also signal the onset of serious illnesses such as leukemia or haemophilia.
Prevention: Because bruises are usually the direct result of an injury, the following are important safety
recommendations: Teach children how to be safe. Be mindful to avoid falls around the house. For
example, be careful when climbing on ladders or other objects. Avoid standing or kneeling on counter-
tops. Wear seat belts in motor vehicles. Wear proper sports equipment to pad those areas most frequently
bruised (thigh pads, hip guards, and elbow pads in football and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in
soccer and basketball). Reduce or eliminate sugars, as they interrupt the healing of tissue. Avoid
saturated, hydrogenated, and trans-fatty acids found in meat and packaged processed foods, as there
interfere with the healing of cells. Dark-green leafy vegetables provide many minerals that help heal
bruising, such as vitamin C and vitamin K. Citrus fruits, bell peppers, and other brightly coloured
vegetables and fruits provide bioflavonoids that help heal bruises. Fish such as salmon, nuts like walnuts,
and seeds such as flaxseeds provide essential fatty acids that are necessary for tissue repair.
Calcium Deficiency
Description: Deficiency of calcium in the body.

Persons most commonly affected: Mostly women and children.


Organ or part of body involved: Teeth and Bones.
Symptoms and indications: Osteoporosis, insomnia, tetany, premenstrual cramps and hypertension. Low
calcium intakes have also been linked to premature births and some forms of cancer, including colon and
breast cancer.
Causes and risk factors: Lifestyle factors can reduce calcium in bones. Some of the factors that can reduce
calcium in your bones include: High salt diet, more than six drinks per day of caffeine-containing drinks -
for example coffee, cola and tea, excessive alcohol intake, excessive intake of phosphate-containing foods
that do not contain calcium, for example soft drinks, very low body weight, very high intakes of fibre
(more than 50g per day, from wheat bran), low levels of physical activity, low levels of vitamin D - this
may be an issue for people who are housebound or for women who cover their bodies completely when
they are outside, as they do not get enough sunlight on their skin.
Prevention: Good sources of calcium include dairy foods and leafy green vegetables, although calcium
from milk and milk products is more easily absorbed and present in greater amounts. People at different
life stages need different amounts of calcium - young children, teenagers and older women all have
greater than average requirements. Soy, tofu. fish, nuts and seeds are also good sources of calcium.

Gout
Description: A metabolic disease characterised by painful inflammation of a joint, especially of the big
toe, and an excess of uric acid in the blood.

Persons most commonly affected: Adults of both sexes and all age groups, particularly men aged over 60.
Uncommon below 40 years of age unless there is high incidence within a family.
Organ or part of body involved: Joints.
Symptoms and indications: First appears as a sudden and extremely painful attack in a single joint,
usually the big toe. Later attacks can involve several joints, such as the ankle, knee, wrist, and elbow. The
pain, which commonly begins at night during sleep, may occur without warning or may be preceded by
excessive alcohol consumption or unusual exercise earlier in the day. The pain grows in intensity and is
often described as throbbing or crushing. Inflammation follows, with swelling, warmth, redness, and
tenderness over the infected joints.
Causes and risk factors: The cause is high-circulating blood levels of uric acid (an organic acid containing
nitrogen, which is the end product of the metabolism of protein) leading to the formation and deposition
of urates in the joints. There is often a genetic, family predisposition towards the development of the
condition, and this is usually the case in a young person with gout. Some blood diseases such as
leukaemia and the use of certain drugs and antibiotics may increase the likelihood of a person developing
gout. Alcohol increases the production of uric acid and must be eliminated from the diet. Alcohol is
known to have diuretic effects which can contribute to dehydration and precipitate acute gout attacks.
Alcohol can also affect uric acid metabolism and cause hyperuricemia. It causes gout by impeding
(slowing down) the excretion of uric acid from the kidneys as well as by causing dehydration, which
precipitates the crystals in the joints.
Prevention: Drinking at least 2 litres of water a day helps to flush urate crystals out via the kidneys.
Losing weight is important if it is above normal, since uric acid levels. Certain foods that are high in
purines can increase uric acid levels and thus bring on an acute attack of gout. These foods include red
meats, shellfish, beer, red wine, salt, sardines, mushrooms, asparagus, fish, poultry, eggs, dried beans,
peas, lentels, cooked spinach and rhubarb. Some medications, such as diuretics (water pills) that are often
used to control high blood pressure or reduce swelling, also may cause an acute attack of gout. Stress,
infection, and trauma also are possible causes.
Lumbago
Description: General pain in the lumbar region or lower back.

Persons most commonly affected: Adults of both sexes.


Organ or part of body involved: Lower back.
Symptoms and indications: Pain in the lower back or in any other part of the back. Pain may radiate to the
buttocks or upper leg.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause of which is often unknown. The pain can come on after lifting
things, or overuse or it may come on without previous exercise or training. It may also be caused by an
inadequate environment such as poorly designed seating or work surfaces, or too soft a bed.
Prevention: Staying active. Resting for long periods of time is not helpful for those with back pain, so it is
important to get on with your life within the limits of your pain.
Gentle exercise is beneficial, especially swimming in a warm swimming pool.
Developing good posture and having a firm, supportive chair and your worktop / desk at the correct
height.
Resting and sleeping on a very firm, flat surface (some people actually sleep on the floor).

Morning Stiffness

Description: The occurence of morning stiffness upon waking.


Organ or part of body involved: Joints
Causes and risk factors: Osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

Muscular Cramps

Description: Painful spasms of the muscles.


Organ or part of body involved: Muscles.
Symptoms and indications: The pain of a muscle cramp is intense, localized, and often debilitating.
Coming on quickly, it may last for minutes and fade gradually. Contractures develop more slowly, over
days or weeks, and may be permanent if untreated. Fasciculation may occur at rest or after muscle
contraction and may last several minutes.
Causes and risk factors: May be caused by low blood sugar levels, losses of sodium or calcium,
dehydration or food poisoning, and alcohol abuse.
Prevention: The likelihood of developing cramps may be reduced with regular exercise to build up energy
reserves in the muscles. Avoiding exercising in extreme heat helps prevent heat cramps. Heat cramps can
also be avoided by drinking plenty of water before and during exercise in extreme heat. Practicing proper
body mechanics while sitting (sitting with both feet on the floor, back straight and legs uncrossed) can
help prevent the development of leg cramps. Taking a warm bath before bedtime may increase circulation
to the legs and reduce the incidence of nighttime leg cramps. The likelihood of developing cramps may be
reduced by eating a well-balanced, healthy diet with appropriate levels of minerals. A registered dietitian
can work with parents to identify a child's specific calorie needs and develop an individualized meal plan.
Fluids should be encouraged during all strenuous activities, especially in warm weather. People should
aim for two to four eight-ounce glasses of fluid per hour of activity. If an underlying neurological
disorder has been identified, dietary guidelines are individualized, based on the child's age, diagnosis,
overall health, caloric and energy needs, and level of functioning. Early identification, treatment, and
correction of specific feeding problems will improve the health and nutritional status of the patient.
Muscular Rheumatism
Description: Condition of excessive fibrous formation in organ characterised by muscle pain, stiffness
and easy fatigability, most common in the neck and shoulder; also known as fibrositis.

Persons most commonly affected: Adults, usually over 30 years. It tends to be more common in females.
Organ or part of body involved: Muscles.
Symptoms and indications: A gradual onset of stiffness and pain with sudden muscle spasms that can be
quite painful. There are tender points, or nodules, which are sensitive to touch. Associated symptoms
include fatigue, loss of sleep, IBS symptoms and anxiety.
Causes and risk factors: Usually occurs in the absence of any other disease, and it may be mimicked by
polymyalgia rheumatica or rheumatoid arthritis.
Prevention: Maintain a balanced diet, lose excess weight if you are overweight (obesity can worsen
arthritis) and exercise three to four times a week. A good diet includes choices from each of five different
groups of foods, which are breads and cereals, fruits and vegetables, fats and oils, poultry, oily fish, lean
meats or dried beans, and low-fat milk, cheese and yoghurt. Foods high in cholesterol, fats and sugar
should be avoided. Steer clear of takeaway foods and bakery delights. Salt, smoking and alcohol also
should be avoided. Warm and hot baths promote the healing of inflammation. Swimming is also advised.

Myalgia
Description: Notoriously vague and misused description of aches and pains in the musculature of the
body.

Persons most commonly affected: All age groups and both sexes but specially women and more common
in those aged 30 to 50 years.
Organ or part of body involved: Muscles
Symptoms and indications: Pain and aches in various parts of the body.
Causes and risk factors: Commonly caused by a calcium and magnesium imbalance and/or a vitamin E
deficiency. Anemia, arthritis, and even arteriosclerosis.
Prevention: Fresh air, deep breathing and outdoor exercises. Dampness and extreme cold should be
avoided
Myositis

Description: Inflammation or swelling of a muscle, usually a voluntary muscle, caused by injury or


infection.
Persons most commonly affected: Adults, usually over 50 years. More so in men then women.
Organ or part of body involved: Muscles
Symptoms and indications: Early signs are extreme fatigue after prolonged walking or standing, weakness
of arms, legs and hands, especially thighs, wrists and fingers. The muscle weakness is proximal (closest)
to and within the trunk and most likely affects the neck, back, hip, buttocks and thigh muscles as well as
the shoulder and upper arm muscles. In some cases swallowing can be difficult. Rare cases involve heart
and lung involvement.
Causes and risk factors: The cause of myositis is not known. Myositis is an autoimmune disease. In
myositis, autoimmunity leads to inflammation of specific muscles. This inflammation results in muscle
damage and may lead to muscle cell death. Many different muscle groups may be involved in the disease
ranging from muscles of the arms and legs to those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. In
addition, the abnormal immune response can lead to other problems including, damage to blood vessels,
joints, lungs, and the heart.

Osteoarthritis
Description: Chronic degenerative disease in which the cartilage between the joints wears away; also
known as degenerative joint disease and hypertrophic arthritis.

Persons most commonly affected: Adults of both sexes aged over 45 but more common in women. All
persons are affected by changes in the joints with advancing years but not all have serious or disabling
symptoms.
Organ or part of body involved: Usually weight-bearing joints, especially toes, fingers, ankles, knees and
spine. The finger joints are also susceptible, possibly because they are used so much. Often it is the
fingers that first show visible signs of the disorder.
Symptoms and indications: Stiffness and pain in affected joints. The aching may be weather-affected and
worse when it is cold and damp. There is loss of dexterity and movement in the affected joint. There may
be a cracking or grating sound with movement and the joint may show signs of swelling. It is often
accompanied by muscle wasting and weakness in the affected area.
Causes and risk factors: Most cases of osteoarthritis have no known cause, and are called primary
osteoarthritis. When the cause of the osteoarthritis is known, the condition is called secondary
osteoarthritis. Primary osteoarthritis is mostly related to aging. With aging, the water content of the
cartilage increases and the protein makeup of cartilage degenerates. Repetitive use of the joints over the
years irritates and inflames the cartilage, causing joint pain and swelling. Eventually, cartilage begins to
degenerate by flaking or forming tiny crevasses. In advanced cases, there is a total loss of the cartilage
cushion between the bones of the joints. Loss of cartilage cushion causes friction between the bones,
leading to pain and limitation of joint mobility. Secondary osteoarthritis is caused by another disease or
condition. Conditions that can lead to secondary osteoarthritis include obesity, repeated trauma or surgery
to the joint structures, abnormal joints at birth (congenital abnormalities), gout, diabetes, and other
hormone disorders. Some occupations are likely to pose a greater risk, e.g. certain sports, ballet and dance
or other activities that put joints under stress.
Prevention: Exercise the joints and muscle to improve strength and flexibility. Manage weight to relieve
stress on weight-bearing joints

Osteoporosis
Description: Osteoporosis, which means “porous bones,” causes bones to become weak and brittle — so
brittle that even mild stresses like bending over, lifting a vacuum cleaner or coughing can cause a
fracture.

Persons most commonly affected: Women are at a greater risk than men, especially women who are thin
or have a small frame, as are those of advanced age.
Organ or part of body involved: Bones
Symptoms and indications: Early in the course of the disease, osteoporosis may cause no symptoms.
Later, it may cause dull pain in the bones or muscles, particularly low back pain or neck pain.
Later in the course of the disease, sharp pains may come on suddenly. It may not radiate; it may be made
worse by activity that puts weight on the area, may be tender, and generally begins to subside in 1 week.
Pain may linger more than 3 months.

People with osteoporosis may not even recall a fall or other trauma that might cause a broken bone, such
as in the spine. Spinal compression fractures may result in loss of height with a stooped posture (called a
dowager’s hump).

Fractures at other sites, commonly the hip or bones of the wrist, usually result from a fall.
Causes and risk factors: Osteoporosis occurs when an imbalance occurs between new bone formation and
old bone resorption. The body may fail to form enough new bone, or too much old bone may be
reabsorbed, or both. Two essential minerals for normal bone formation are calcium and phosphate.
Throughout youth, the body uses these minerals to produce bones. If calcium intake is not sufficient or if
the body does not absorb enough calcium from the diet, bone production and bone tissue may suffer.
Calcium is essential for proper functioning of the heart, brain, and other organs. To keep those critical
organs functioning, the body may reabsorb calcium from the bones for their use. Thus, the bones may
become weaker, resulting in brittle and fragile bones that can break easily.

Usually, the loss of bone happens over an extended period of years. Often, a person will sustain a fracture
before becoming aware that the disease is present. By then, the disease may be in its advanced stages and
damage may be serious.

The leading cause of osteoporosis is a lack of certain hormones, particularly estrogen in women and
androgen in men. Women, especially those older than 60 years, are frequently diagnosed with the disease.
Menopause brings lower estrogen levels and increases a woman’s risk for osteoporosis. Other factors that
may contribute to bone loss in this age group include inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, lack of
weight-bearing exercise, and other age-related changes in endocrine functions (in addition to lack of
estrogen).

Other conditions that may lead to osteoporosis include overuse of corticosteroids (Cushing syndrome),
thyroid problems, lack of muscle use, bone cancer, certain genetic disorders, use of certain medications,
and problems such as low calcium in the diet.
Prevention: Avoid smoking, excessive alcohol, cola drinks and caffeine. Have enough calcium and
vitamin D and get plenty of weight-bearing exercises. Foods rich in calcium are milk, cheese, yogurt,
salmon, sardines, nuts specially almonds, dark green leafy vegetables, baked beans and broccoli. Best
source of vitamin D are eggs and liver. Spending 15 minutes in the sun 2-3 times a week is also
beneficial. Sugars, pastries, soft and alcoholic beverages, breads, candies, etc., leach the calcium out of
the body. A high intake of salt can increase the loss of calcium in the body. Try to exercise at least 3
times a week for a minimum of 20 minutes.

Rheumatism
Description: A general term applied to various diseases that cause pain in the muscles, joints and fibrous
tissues.

Persons most commonly affected: All age groups and both sexes but specially women and more common
in those aged 30 to 50 years.
Organ or part of body involved: Muscles, joints and fibrous tissues.
Symptoms and indications: Pain and stiffness in various parts of the body.
Causes and risk factors: Chief cause is the presence of toxic waste products in the blood. The liberal
consumption of meat, white bread, sugar, and refined cereals leaves a large residue of toxic wastes in the
system. When the vitality is low, the toxic wastes are concentrated around the joints and bony structures,
where they form the basis of rheumatism. The disease is aggravated by exposure to cold.
Prevention: Fresh air, deep breathing and outdoor exercises. Dampness and extreme cold should be
avoided.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Description: Chronic disease characterised by swelling and inflammation of one or more joints, often
resulting in stiffness and eventual impairment of mobility; also known as chronic rheumatic arthritis.
Persons most commonly affected: All age groups and both sexes but specially women and more common
in those aged 30 to 50 years
Organ or part of body involved: Oints, usually the feet, ankles, fingers and wrists.
Symptoms and indications: Inflammation, tenderness or pain in the affected joints, and stiffness,
especially on first getting up in the morning. By afternoon the person may feel unusually tired or unwell.
Deformities of affected joints are likely to develop.
Causes and risk factors: The cause is not known but there appear to be genetic factors involved. Most
affected people have a particular antibody -- HLA-DR4, but there are likely to be other factors involved,
including a family tendency for the disease. It may damage the heart, lungs, nerves and eyes.
Prevention: Losing weight if carrying excess weight is essential in order to reduce unnecessary strain on
the joints. Reducing the amount of fat consumed can help with weight reduction and may also allow the
fatty acids obtained from oily fish, nuts and seeds to be fully effective
Sciatica

Description: Any condition characterised by pain along the course of the sciatic nerve (which runs down
the lower back and outer side of the thigh, leg and foot) radiating across the back of the pelvis through the
buttocks and into the leg; usually a neuritis and generally caused by mechanical compression or irritation
of the fifth lumbar spinal root.
Persons most commonly affected: Adults of both sexes aged under 60.
Organ or part of body involved: Sciatic nerve, affecting leg and foot.
Symptoms and indications: In addition to the pain the foot or parts of the leg may become numb or very
weak. Also, one or more muscles of the foot or the leg may undergo temporary paralysis in the course of
an attack.
Causes and risk factors: May be inadvertent stressing of the back, due to an awkward movement.
However, the commonest cause of sciatica is a prolapsed intervertebral disc pressing on the nerve root,
but it may also be due to ankylosing spondylitis or some other condition e.g. spinal tumour.
Prevention: Once the pain of sciatica passes, there are exercises, stretches and other measures that may
prevent it from returning. Some sources of sciatica are not preventable, such as disk degeneration, back
strain due to pregnancy, or accidental falls. Other sources of back strain, such as poor posture,
overexertion, being overweight, or wearing high heels, can be corrected or avoided. Cigarette smoking
may also predispose people to pain, and should be discontinued. General suggestions for avoiding
sciatica, or preventing a repeat episode, include sleeping on a firm mattress, using chairs with firm back
support, and sitting with both feet flat on the floor. Habitually crossing the legs while sitting can place
excess pressure on the sciatic nerve. Sitting a lot can also place pressure on the sciatic nerves, so it's a
good idea to take short breaks and move around during the work day, long trips, or any other situation
that requires sitting for an extended length of time. If lifting is required, the back should be kept straight
and the legs should provide the lift. Regular exercise, such as swimming and walking, can strengthen
back muscles and improve posture. Exercise can also help maintain a healthy weight and lessen the
likelihood of back strain.

Sports Injuries
Description: Most sports injuries are due to either traumatic injury or overuse of muscles or joints. About
95 percent of sports injuries are due to minor trauma involving soft-tissue injuries - injuries that affect the
muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains, and strains. Other injuries
include achilles tendon injury, foot injuries, hamstring injuries, knee Injuries, pain in the back, pain in the
elbow, pain in the groin, pain in the neck, pain in the shoulder, shin splints, etc.

Persons most commonly affected: Sports Persons. Adults are less likely to suffer sports injuries than
children, whose vulnerability is heightened by immature reflexes.
Organ or part of body involved: Muscles, and joints.
Symptoms and indications: Instability or obvious dislocation of a joint, pain, swelling and weakness.
Causes and risk factors: Common causes of sports injuries include: athletic equipment that malfunctions
or is used incorrectly, falls, forceful high-speed collisions between players, and wear and tear on areas of
the body that are continually subjected to stress.
Prevention: Always take time to warm up and stretch before physical activity. Research studies have
shown that cold muscles are more prone to injury. Warm up with jumping jacks, stationary cycling or by
running or walking in place for three to five minutes. Then slowly and gently stretch, holding each stretch
for 30 seconds. Select the proper shoes for your sport and use them only for that sport. When the treads
start to look worn or the shoes are no longer as supportive as they were, it