STATISTICS LECTURE

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STATISTICS LECTURE

© All Rights Reserved

- GAMS - Tutorial
- bok%3A978-1-4615-0057-5
- Chapter 3 :
- 9-1
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You are on page 1of 12

1.1Summation Notation

Suppose that a variable X is a variable of interest,

and that n measurements are taken. The notation

will be used to represent the n

observations.

Let the Greek letter

indicate the summation

of, thus we can write the sum of the observations as:

upper limits of summation, respectively.

Example: Write out the following in full, that is, without

summation signs:

Rules on Summation

Rule # 1: The summation notation is distributive over

addition.

Examples:

A. Use the rules on summation to write out the

expansion of the given expression:

summation with appropriate limits.

C. Given:

Find the value of the following expressions:

Exercise 3.1

Evaluate the following:

1. Given:

2. Given:

3. Given:

In statistics, an average is a measure of central

tendency. It is a single number that represents a

set of data.

Definition: A measure of central tendency is any single

value that is used to identify the center of the data or

the typical value. It is often referred to as the average.

3.2.1 The Arithmetic Mean

The most common average and

sometimes simply referred to as the

mean

The sum of all the values of the

observations divided by the number of

observations

Denoted by a Greek letter (mu) for

population

the sample mean, used to estimate the

population mean , is computed as:

Examples:

1. The numbers of employees at 5 different stores

are 4, 8, 10, 12, and 6. Find the mean number of

employees for the 5 stores.

Solution:

(

)

sample of 10 students are as follows: 84, 75, 90,

98, 88, 79, 95, 86, 93, and 89.

Solution:

The positional middle of an array

In an array, one-half of the values

precede the median and one-half follow

it

If N is odd:

If N is even:

Example: Find the median of the given data set: 75, 75,

67, 71, 72

Solution:

It is the observed value that occurs most

frequently.

It locates the point where the

observation values occur with the

greatest density.

It does not always exist, and if it does, it

may not be unique. A data set is said to

be unimodal if there is only one mode,

bimodal if there are two modes,

trimodal if there are three modes, and

so on.

It is not affected by extreme values.

It can be used for qualitative as well as

quantitative data.

Examples:

Identify the mode(s) of the following data sets.

Data Set 1.

2

5

5

2

5

3

5

3

5

Data Set 2.

2

4

5

2

Data Set 3.

1

4

2

4

Data Set 4.

Red

Blue

Green

Blue Orange

Red

Exercise 3.2

1. The grades of a student on seven examinations

were 85, 96, 72, 89, 95, 82 and 85. Find the

students average grade.

2. The salaries of 4 employees were P12,000,

P10,000, P15,000 and P18,000. What is the

average salary?

3. Out of 100 numbers, 20 were 5s, 40 were 4s, 35

were 6s and 5 were 2s. Find the mean.

4. Find the median of the set of numbers:

5

3

7

3

8

2

1

5. Find the median of the set of numbers:

11

25

18

79

12

13

What is the mode of the given grades?

7. The reaction times of an individual to certain

stimuli were measured by a psychologist to be

0.23, 0.52, 0.25, 0.52, 0.26, 0.25, 0.39, and 0.22

seconds. Determine the modes of the given

reaction times.

8. The numbers of incorrect answers on a true-false

test for 15 students were recorded as follows:

2, 1, 3, 0, 1, 3, 6, 0, 3, 3, 5, 2, 1, 4, 2. Find the

mean, median and mode.

9. The following are the response times in seconds of

a smoke alarm after the release of smoke from a

fixed source: 12, 9, 11, 7, 9, 14, 6,10. Find the

mode.

10. A bridge is designed to carry a maximum load of

150,000 pounds. Is the bridge overloaded if it is

carrying 18 vehicles having a mean weight of

4,630 pounds?

11. For three rounds of golf Peter scores 88, 79, and

82. What fourth-round score would he need to

reduce his mean score to 81 for all rounds?

12. The average IQ of 10 students in Math is 114. If 9

of the students have IQ scores of 101, 118, 128,

106, 115, 99, 118, 109 and 125. What must be the

other IQ?

Measures of location or fractiles are values below

which a specified fraction or percentage of the

observations in a given set must fall.

3.3.1 Percentiles

Percentiles are values that divide a set of

observations in an array into 100 equal parts. Thus,

, read as first percentile, is the value below which

1% of the values fall, , read as second percentile, is

the value below which 2% of the values fall,.., ,

read as ninety-ninth percentile, is the value below

which 99% of the values fall.

Formula:

students in a short quiz:

2

10

10

Solution: First, arrange the data from lowest to

highest.

1

2

10

(

observation

10

3.3.2 Deciles

Deciles are values that divide the array into 10

equal parts. Thus, , read as first decile, is the value

below which 10% of the values fall,

, read as

second decile, is the value which 20% of the values

fall,, , read as ninth decile, is the value below

which 90% of the values fall.

Formula:

(

4th decile or

3

11

12

18

19

to highest then we may proceed in finding the 4th decile.

3

11

(

12

18

)

19

3.3.3 Quartiles

Quartiles are values that divide the array into 4

equal parts. Thus,

, read as first quartile, is the

value below which 25% of the values fall,.., , read as

third quartile, is the value which 75% of the values

fall.

Example: From the given set of scores in a quiz, find the

3rd quartile or .

3

11

12

18

19

order, then we may proceed in finding the 3rd quartile.

3

(

11

12

18

19

Exercise 3.3

1. A psychologist obtained the IQ scores of 10

students. The IQ scores are as follows:

110 95

85

140 132 100 95

70

85 100

Find

Interpret the values.

2. The number of absences in a semester of 25

randomly selected students were obtained by a

teacher: The number of absences were as follows:

3

5

2

6

3

8

2

3

6 2

1

3

2

2

Find

8

0

0

5

1

0

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