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CHAPTER 3:

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY


1.1Summation Notation
Suppose that a variable X is a variable of interest,
and that n measurements are taken. The notation
will be used to represent the n
observations.
Let the Greek letter
indicate the summation
of, thus we can write the sum of the observations as:

The numbers 1 and n are called the lower and


upper limits of summation, respectively.
Example: Write out the following in full, that is, without
summation signs:

Rules on Summation
Rule # 1: The summation notation is distributive over
addition.

Rule # 2: If c is a constant, then

Rule #3: If c is a constant, then

Examples:
A. Use the rules on summation to write out the
expansion of the given expression:

B. Write each of the following expressions in


summation with appropriate limits.

C. Given:
Find the value of the following expressions:

Exercise 3.1
Evaluate the following:
1. Given:

2. Given:


3. Given:

3.2Measures of Central Tendency


In statistics, an average is a measure of central
tendency. It is a single number that represents a
set of data.
Definition: A measure of central tendency is any single
value that is used to identify the center of the data or
the typical value. It is often referred to as the average.
3.2.1 The Arithmetic Mean
The most common average and
sometimes simply referred to as the
mean
The sum of all the values of the
observations divided by the number of
observations
Denoted by a Greek letter (mu) for
population
the sample mean, used to estimate the
population mean , is computed as:

Examples:
1. The numbers of employees at 5 different stores
are 4, 8, 10, 12, and 6. Find the mean number of
employees for the 5 stores.
Solution:
(
)

2. Scores in Algebra for the first long quiz for a


sample of 10 students are as follows: 84, 75, 90,
98, 88, 79, 95, 86, 93, and 89.
Solution:

3.2.2 The Median


The positional middle of an array
In an array, one-half of the values
precede the median and one-half follow
it
If N is odd:

If N is even:

Example: Find the median of the given data set: 75, 75,
67, 71, 72
Solution:

3.2.3 The Mode


It is the observed value that occurs most
frequently.
It locates the point where the
observation values occur with the
greatest density.
It does not always exist, and if it does, it
may not be unique. A data set is said to
be unimodal if there is only one mode,
bimodal if there are two modes,
trimodal if there are three modes, and
so on.
It is not affected by extreme values.
It can be used for qualitative as well as
quantitative data.

Examples:
Identify the mode(s) of the following data sets.
Data Set 1.
2

5
5

2
5

3
5

3
5

Data Set 2.
2
4

5
2

Data Set 3.
1
4

2
4

Data Set 4.
Red
Blue
Green

Blue White Yellow


Blue Orange

Red

Exercise 3.2
1. The grades of a student on seven examinations
were 85, 96, 72, 89, 95, 82 and 85. Find the
students average grade.
2. The salaries of 4 employees were P12,000,
P10,000, P15,000 and P18,000. What is the
average salary?
3. Out of 100 numbers, 20 were 5s, 40 were 4s, 35
were 6s and 5 were 2s. Find the mean.
4. Find the median of the set of numbers:
5
3
7
3
8
2
1
5. Find the median of the set of numbers:

11

25

18

79

12

13

6. A student received grades of 89, 72, 92 and 35.


What is the mode of the given grades?
7. The reaction times of an individual to certain
stimuli were measured by a psychologist to be
0.23, 0.52, 0.25, 0.52, 0.26, 0.25, 0.39, and 0.22
seconds. Determine the modes of the given
reaction times.
8. The numbers of incorrect answers on a true-false
test for 15 students were recorded as follows:
2, 1, 3, 0, 1, 3, 6, 0, 3, 3, 5, 2, 1, 4, 2. Find the
mean, median and mode.
9. The following are the response times in seconds of
a smoke alarm after the release of smoke from a
fixed source: 12, 9, 11, 7, 9, 14, 6,10. Find the
mode.
10. A bridge is designed to carry a maximum load of
150,000 pounds. Is the bridge overloaded if it is
carrying 18 vehicles having a mean weight of
4,630 pounds?
11. For three rounds of golf Peter scores 88, 79, and
82. What fourth-round score would he need to
reduce his mean score to 81 for all rounds?
12. The average IQ of 10 students in Math is 114. If 9
of the students have IQ scores of 101, 118, 128,
106, 115, 99, 118, 109 and 125. What must be the
other IQ?

3.3Measures of Location or Fractiles


Measures of location or fractiles are values below
which a specified fraction or percentage of the
observations in a given set must fall.
3.3.1 Percentiles
Percentiles are values that divide a set of
observations in an array into 100 equal parts. Thus,
, read as first percentile, is the value below which
1% of the values fall, , read as second percentile, is
the value below which 2% of the values fall,.., ,
read as ninety-ninth percentile, is the value below
which 99% of the values fall.
Formula:

Example: The following were the scores of 10


students in a short quiz:
2

10

10

Find the 64th percentile.


Solution: First, arrange the data from lowest to
highest.
1

2
10

(
observation

10

) observation = 7.04 or the 8th

Other forms of fractiles:


3.3.2 Deciles
Deciles are values that divide the array into 10
equal parts. Thus, , read as first decile, is the value
below which 10% of the values fall,
, read as
second decile, is the value which 20% of the values
fall,, , read as ninth decile, is the value below
which 90% of the values fall.
Formula:
(

Example: From the given set of scores in a quiz, find the


4th decile or
3

11

12

18

19

Solution: Since the data is already arranged from lowest


to highest then we may proceed in finding the 4th decile.
3

11
(

12

18
)

19

3.3.3 Quartiles
Quartiles are values that divide the array into 4
equal parts. Thus,
, read as first quartile, is the
value below which 25% of the values fall,.., , read as
third quartile, is the value which 75% of the values
fall.
Example: From the given set of scores in a quiz, find the
3rd quartile or .
3

11

12

18

19

Solution: Since the data is already arranged in ascending


order, then we may proceed in finding the 3rd quartile.
3
(

11

12

18

19

Exercise 3.3
1. A psychologist obtained the IQ scores of 10
students. The IQ scores are as follows:
110 95
85
140 132 100 95
70
85 100
Find
Interpret the values.
2. The number of absences in a semester of 25
randomly selected students were obtained by a
teacher: The number of absences were as follows:
3
5
2
6
3
8
2
3
6 2
1

3
2
2
Find

8
0
0

5
1
0

Interpret the results.