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HOLE CLEANING

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7/11/2011

Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO

What Affects Hole Cleaning?

Formation
Mud Weight

ROP
Cuttings

Rotation

Velocity Profile

Hole Cleaning

Eccentricity

Inclined Length

Rheology

Flow Regime
Annular Velocity

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7/11/2011

Hole Angle

Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO

the Key to Hole Cleaning • High Annular Velocities – Adequate rig pumps – Mud rheology to minimize pressure losses in drill pipe • Optimize solids control equipment to minimize plastic viscosity which raises pressure losses • High Yield Points and low “n” values reduce system pressure losses – Maximize drill pipe OD • Decreases drill string pressure losses and maximizes flow rates • Reduced annular space increases velocity – Use inhibitive muds to maintain gauge hole 3 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .Planning.

the Key to Hole Cleaning • Rotate the drill string – no slide drilling – Steerable rotating heads – Titanium drill pipe through short radius sections • Rotate and circulate hole clean before tripping – Two to four times “Bottoms Up Time” • No Back Reaming – Under cuts build sections – Builds cuttings bed dunes • Compare hydraulics “What should be” with PWD “What is” • for difference indicating bed buildup 4 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .Planning.

Optimum hole-cleaning conditions for one 1 interval may be inadequate 2 in another 34 INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 5 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 .L.C.

Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 6 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 .C.“Boycott” settling accelerates bed formation.L. especially in the build section C l a r i f i e d F l u i d S u s p e n s i o n Z o n e S a g ( S e d i m e n t ) B e d S l u m p INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.

C.Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 7 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 .L.Annular Geometry Horizontal Wells H i g h A V L o w A V T u r b u l e n c e E a s y A n n u l a r D i a m e t e r L a m i n a r F l o w L i k e l y S m a l l L a r g e N o B e d s l u i d C h o i c e F l u i d C h o i c eF M o r e B e d s C r i t i c a l N o t a s C r i t i c a l INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.

Mud Weight Deviated Wells • Wellbore stability crucial • Mud weight helps stabilize wellbore • Collapse tendency increases with angle 8 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .

Effect of Flow Rate on Pressure Losses.Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 9 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 300 350 400 450 . Impact Force & Hydraulic Horsepower 3000 Pressure Loss. gpm INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L. & Hydraulic Horsepower 2750 Maximum Allowable Surface Pressure 2500 Bit Pressure Loss Drill String & Annular Losses 2250 2000 1750 Optimized for Hyd.C.L. Impact Force. Horsepower 1500 Optimized for Impact Force 1250 1000 750 Hydraulic Impact Force 500 Hydraulic Horsepower 250 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Flow rate.

Different shear rates are used to determine to obtain rheological performance of the mud. 1. Rotor 5. This induces torque (shear stress) on the bob. 4. The magnitude of the deflection can be determined (dial readings) Cup 7. The bob is deflected to some degree dependant on amount of stress exerted on bob. Rotor is rotated at constant speed (shear rate) Bearing Shaft 3. 10 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . The torsion spring acts as restraining force. • Torsion Spring It also can measure the gel strengths of the drilling fluid.Rotational Viscometer The Viscometer is designed to measure the shear stress at various shear rates. Inner Cylinder 2.Measurement . Fluid fills space between rotor and bob. Bob 6.

lbs/100 ft2 – Static Rdg 3 .Interpretation of VG Readings • Plastic Viscosity.PV) – YP. lbs/100 ft2 – Static Rdg 3 . lbs/100 ft2 = (Rdg 300 .10 minutes after stirring 11 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . lbs/100 ft2 – YP. centipoise – PV.10 sec after stirring • 10 minute Gel. cp = Rdg 600 – Rdg 300 • Yield Point. lbs/100 ft2 = 2(Rdg 300) – Rdg 600 • Initial Gel.

L.Viscosity V2 . lbs100 ft 2 to Maint ain Shear Rate Vis cos ity    Shear Stress  .V1 d. lbs100 ft 2 Shear Rate . ft/sec Fluid Layer #1 V1. sec  d . ft/sec V2 . ft 1 ft sec Shear Stress    Force.Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 12 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 or    . sec 1 INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.C. ft Fluid Layer #2 V2. ft sec  V1 Shear Rate .

VGrpm or:  . 9   • Therefore: 1703 .703 X VG rpm • Shear Stress = 1.0678 X VG rdg • Metric conversion factor = 478.9 VGrdg 10678 .28  13 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO VG rdg VGrpm .  . cp = 300.Viscosity. cp • Shear Rate = 1. cp  478 .

Viscosity from VG Rdgs (Illustration of Shear Thinning) • Rdg600 = 50 – Viscosity = 300(50/600) = 25 cp • Rdg300 = 30 – Viscosity = 300(30/300) = 30 cp • Rdg100 = 13 – Viscosity = 300(13/100) = 39 cp • Rdg3 = 5 – Viscosity = 300(5/3) = 500 cp 14 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .

Skewed velocity profiles are not conducive to cuttings transport INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.C.Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO 15 CONFIDENTIAL 7/11/2011 .L.

7/11/2011 .C.The Rules 16 CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.L.

since all are affected by factors which influence bed stability. 17 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . and borehole roughness. the intermediate (30° to 60°) typically is the most troublesome. • RT 2.Of the four hole-cleaning ranges.The upper and lower limits of each hole-cleaning range should be considered only as guidelines.Inclination • RT 1. drilling fluid properties. including cuttings characteristics.

Boycott settling can accelerate bed formation. particularly in 40° . 18 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .Well Bore Geometry • RT 3. • RT 4. • RT 5.50° intervals.Hole-Cleaning parameters considered optimum for one interval may be inadequate in another interval in the same well.Cuttings accumulate in intervals of decreased annular velocity and can “avalanche” when circulation stops if the inclination is less than about 50 to 60°.

Drilling fluids with similar rheological properties will provide comparable hole-cleaning. • RT 7.Mud Type • RT 6. • RT 8.An inhibitive mud helps hole-cleaning in reactive formations. provided cuttings characteristics remain constant.The mud systems considered for highly deviated wells should be modified versions of those proven effective in vertical and near-vertical offsets in the area. 19 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .

20 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .“Enhanced “ suspensions minimize the formation of cuttings beds.Cuttings Beds • RT 9. difficult to remove.Cuttings beds are easy to deposit. • RT 10.

A highly skewed velocity profile makes it essential to minimize formation of a cuttings bed on the low side of the hole.Velocity Profile • RT 11.Density stratification in weighted muds aggravates the skewing of the velocity profile. • RT 13. • RT 12. caused by pipe eccentricity and highly non-Newtonian fluids. laminar-flow velocity distribution.The skewed. 21 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . is not conducive to cuttings transport.

An increase in annular velocity improves hole cleaning. • RT 15.The cuttings transport mechanism is largely a function of annular velocity. regardless of the flow regime.At high angles.Velocity • RT 14. bed height is inversely proportional to annular velocity. • RT 16. 22 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .

Flow Regime • RT 17.Turbulent flow is effective in high-angle. 23 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . • RT 18. small diameter intervals in competent formations.Laminar flow is preferred if formations are sensitive to erosion.

It is easier to maintain proper rheological properties in a “clean” mud system.It is easier to achieve desired rheological properties in certain mud systems. 24 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .Hole-cleaning capacity in laminar flow is improved by elevated low shear-rate viscosity and gel strengths. • RT 21. • RT 20.Rheology • RT 19.

• RT 23.Sweeps • RT 22. viscous sweeps are ineffective in high-angle intervals if the pipe is not rotated or reciprocated.Turbulent sweeps can help hole cleaning if the flow rate is high and the volume of the sweep is adequate.Usually. 25 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . low-velocity.

Pipe rotation (and reciprocation) can improve hole cleaning.Pipe rotation is more effective in viscous muds. 26 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . • RT 25.Pipe Rotation • RT 24.

Weight material can “sag” out of a mud and combine with the cuttings bed in high-angle intervals. • RT 27.Mud Weight • RT 26.Mud weight increases the buoyant force on the cuttings and helps hole cleaning.Hole-cleaning and well bore instability are best corrected by changing the mud weight. 27 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO . • RT 28.

Hole Cleaning Summary • High-to-Intermediate Angles the worst (45-75° most difficult) • Increased annular velocity improves hole cleaning. regardless of flow regime • Elevated low-shear-rate viscosities and gel strengths improve cleaning • Drill pipe rotation is key to controlling cuttings beds 28 7/11/2011 Confidential Information © 2010 M-I SWACO .