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Latitudes

Longitudes
Int. date line

Why latitudes & longitudes ?


earlier , only four main directions
North South East West > called CARDINAL
POINTS
Guidelines for explores & navigators > to reach
their destinations.
EARTHS GRID SYSTEM
a network of longitudes and latitudes to find
location on the globe.
to determine the location of any point on the
earth
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Latitude (akshansh)
angular distance of a place
from the equator
Measured from the centre of the earth.
a/k/a Parallels ( akshanshvrut )
imaginary circles on the surface of the earth
1* interval on both the hemisphere = total 181
distance between each latitude = ~111
44,000km equator / 360* = 111km

all are concentric circles with one common centre


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Five main parallels


Equator
0* > two equal halves
only one GREAT CIRCLE.
Sun rays fall vertically almost trough the
year.
tropic of cancer - 23.5*N
sun > 21 June > longest day in N hemi.
marks the northern limit of apparent
movement of sun .
tropic of Capricorn - 23.58*S
22 dec > longest day
arctic circle 66.5*N
Area within the circle recieves oblique
rays of the sun
Antarctic circle 66.5*S
north pole - 90*N
South pole - 90*S
sun rays do not reach here except when
the sun is overhead the tropics of cancer
and Capricorn.

The climatic zones of the earth

tropical zone (ushnakatibandhh)


heat surplus regions
never any snowfall and frost
practically, there is NO WINTER
DOLDRUMS ( nirvat khetra)
a/k/a EQUATORIAL ZONES
Area of low pressure belts > bcz
receives direct sun light
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temperate zone (samsitoshna)


area receives slant rays of the sun
great diff between summer & winter
temperature conditions
Ideal for living-bcoz temperature
conditions

frigid zone (sheet-katibandhh)


Arctic circle to n-pole
Antanrctic circle to s-pole
Extremly cold-bcoz of inclination of axisreceives very slant rays
Remains frozen for major part of the
year,hense named

Longitudes (rekhansh)

Longitudes(rekhansh)
Angular distance of a place
From the prime meridian
Measures from the centre of the earth
a/k/a meridians(rekhanshvrut)
Means mid day-all the places on the
same meridian have their noon at the
same time

Imaginary semi circles that run from north pole to south pole thus
the prime meridian and 180* longitude lies opposite-together form
one complete circle.
Prime meridian = 0*
In 1884 royal astronomical
agreement
Greenwich london
360 in total
Distance between two
meridian=111km
Only at equator-towards pole
distance decrease
180* longitude=unlabelled > bcoz
can be reached from both side >
a/k/a international date line
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International date line


History 1522 magellan reached home on 5th sept. but
it was actually 6th sept on that day. !!!

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International date line

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IDL line concerned with the


dates of calender
180* longitude bcoz passes
through middle of pacific ocean
and practically no land mass.
bent at two places
75*N towards east to avoid
division of siberia and again
bent over berring strait towards
west.
To maintain continuity of land
in fiji and new zealand bent
towards east
Travelling east=Loosing a Day
Travelling west=Gaining a Day

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st
31 Dec

th
30 Dec

Morning
Russia

Morning
Alaska

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International Date Line

Moving
West
1 DAY
Lost

Moving
East
1 DAY
Gain

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Longitude and Time

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Longitude and Time


As earth rotes by 360* in 24 hrs-takes 4
mins to move by
1* longitude
15* longitude = 1 hr
Earth moves from West to East >
East : Gain add
West : loose - subtract

Move towards left=time reduce by


4min / 1* longitude
Move towards Right=time enhance by
4min / 1* longitude
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If 12 noon at GMT what is the time at 75


E?
Difference = 75
15 => 1 hour
75 => 5 hours
East (means add) 12 +5 = 5 pm

Question

If 12 noon at GMT what is the time at 30


W?
Difference = 30
15 => 1 hour
30 => 2 hours
East (means minus) 12 - 2 = 10 am
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Local time
When sun is overhead its longitude

Standard timeFor each country-fixed time as per rule

greenwich mean time ( GMT) 0* - std time of England


noon time of old greenwich observatory.
International time follows GMT worldwide
adopted worldwide by all the countries.

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Indian Standard Time


India 82.5*E IST
Passes through allahabad.
Nepal and Sri lanka also
follows.
Difference between IST and
GMT is 82.5*
=5.30 hrs
means , noon at england =
5:30 pm in india
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Russian Time Zones

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Map work

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Q. Through which one of the


following groups of countries
does equator pass?
a) Brazil, Zambia and
Malaysia
b) Columbia, Kenya and
Indonesia
c) Brazil, Sudan and
Malaysia
d) Venezuela, Ethiopia and
Indonesia

Exercise
UPSC
Prelims
2006

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Q. Which of the following


cities is nearest to the
equator ?
a) Colombo
b) Jakarta
c) Manila
d) Singapore

Exercise
UPSC

Prelims
2008

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Q. Which one of the


following straits is nearest
to the International Date
Line?
a) Malacca Strait
b) Bering strait
c) Strait of Florida
d) Strait of Gibraltar

Exercise
UPSC

Prelims
2008

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The equator passes through 13 countries:


Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon,
Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia and
Kiribati.

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General map to remember :

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Tropic of Capricorn passes through which countries ?


in west to east direction :
1- Chile, 2- Argentina, 3- Paraguay, 4- Brazil,
5- Namibia, 6- Botswana, 7- South Africa, 8- Mozambique,
9- Madagascar, 10- Australia.
Through which countries does the Tropic of Cancer pass?
The Tropic of Cancer passes through(America-)the Bahamas, Mexico,
(Africa-) Mauritania, Mali, Western Sahara, Algeria, Niger, Libya,
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Oman,
India, China,
Bangladesh, Burma and Taiwan.
It also passes through the United States in the Hawaiian region
but it does not pass through any of the islands.
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Prime Meridian Passing Through


Countries
1- United Kingdom( Greenwich,
London),2- France,3- Spain
4- Algeria,5- Mali,6- Burkena
Faso,7- Togo,8- Ghana

Apart from countries, through


what other places Prime Meridian
Passes?
1- Arctic Ocean,2- Norwegian
Sea,3- Greenland Sea,4Mediterranean Sea
5- Atlantic Ocean,6- Southern
Ocean,7- Antarctica.

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What countries does the


Arctic Circle pass through?
The land on the Arctic Circle
is divided among eight
countries

Norway, Sweden, Finland,


Russia,
the United States (Alaska),
Canada, Denmark
(Greenland), and
Iceland(where it passes
through the small offshore
island of Grimsey).
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Antarctica circle
The Antarctic
Circle as outlined
in yellow on the
map.
The nearest
neighbouring
country is
Argentina and the
second nearest is
New Zealand.
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Rotation = paribraman
Rotes on its axis
From west to east like a top
Responsible for the cycle of day and night = a/k/a
Daily motion

Revolution = parikraman
An elliptical path
One round in 365 days and 6 hours
(23hrs 56mins 4.09sec !!!)
Orbit = elliptical path traced by the earth
a/k/a annual movement

viewed from the north pole =


the earth rotes and revolves in a

counter clockwise direction.

Uranus lying planet > higher inclination of axis.


Like Venus, Uranus also rotates clockwise ( revoles
the sun from east to west)

Courtesy : Barnwal

Perihelion (upp-surya)
Greek peri=near, helion= the sun
Min. distance from the sun
3rd january = ~ 147 mKm

Aphelion (app-surya)
greek app= away from
Max. distance from the sun
4th july = ~152mKm

Sideral day =

determined by stars

duration btw passage of a perticular star over


a meridian twice
about 23 hrs 56mins

Solar day=
When duration of earths
revolution around the sun is
calculated in terms of days
taking sun as stationary.
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A sidereal day is the time it takes for the Earth to rotate about
its axis so that the distant stars appear in the same position in
the sky.
A solar day is the time it takes for the Earth to rotate about its
axis so that theSun appears in the same position in the sky.

The sidereal day is ~4 minutes shorter than the solar day.


Our usual definition of an Earth day is 24 hours, so the sidereal
day is 4 minutes faster. This means that a particular star will rise
4 minutes earlier every night, and is the reason why
different constellations are only visible at specific times of
the year.

Inclination of axis & its significance


The earth spins on an imaginary lines called axis
Passins through north pole and south pole
Earth rotates on its axis but not at right angle
It makes an angle of 66.5* with the plane of
ecliptic. (kranti-vrut)
which is coplanar with the orbit of the
Earth around the Sun (and hence the
apparent orbit of the Sun around the Earth.)
And makes 23.5*
from a line perpendicular to that palne.
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Imp points
Earth axis keeps a fixed angle with the plane of
ecliptic.
Axis always points the same place stars during
the period of its revolution.

Effects of the inclination of the axis


alternation of seasons / seasonal changes.
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Reference
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmmbOVfHqcg

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In astronomy, axial precession = is a gravity-induced, slow and continuous change in the


orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
= the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top
= in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years (called a Great or Platonic Year in astrology).

Simply explained, it is the change in an astronomical body's rotational axis due to gravity.
The change is slow and continuous.
Hipparchus = discovered it.
planetary precession = the ecliptic itself moved slightly,
lunisolar precession= the dominant component.
Their combination was named general precession.
Lunisolar precession is caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun on
Earth's equatorial bulge, causing Earth's axis to move with respect to inertial space.
Planetary precession (actually an advance) is due to the small angle between the
gravitational force of the other planets on Earth and its orbital plane (the ecliptic),
causing the plane of the ecliptic to shift slightly relative to inertial space.
Lunisolar precession is about 500 times larger than planetary precession.

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Causes
The precession - is caused by the gravitational forces of the Sun and the Moon, and to
a lesser extent other bodies, on the Earth.
It was first explained by Sir Isaac Newton.
The Earth is not a perfect sphere but an oblate spheroid > bulges on equator.
Because of the Earth's axial tilt, during most of the year the half of this bulge that is
closest to the Sun is off-center, either to the north or to the south, and the far half is offcenter on the opposite side. The gravitational pull on the closer half is stronger, since
gravity decreases with distance, so this creates a small torque on the Earth as the Sun
pulls harder on one side of the Earth than the other.
The axis of this torque is roughly perpendicular to the axis of the Earth's rotation so the
axis of rotation precesses.
If the Earth were a perfect sphere, there would be no precession.
Although the above explanation involved the Sun, the same explanation holds true for
any object moving around the Earth, notably, the Moon. The combined action of the
Sun and the Moon is called the lunisolar precession.
In addition to lunisolar precession, the actions of the other planets of the solar system
cause the whole ecliptic to rotate slowly around an axis = called planetary precession.
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Effects
First, the positions of the south and north celestial poles appear to move in circles
against the space-fixed backdrop of stars, completing one circuit in 25,772 Julian years
(2000 rate). Thus, while today the star Polaris lies approximately at the north celestial
pole, this will change over time, and other stars will become the "north star".
Secondly, the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun at the solstices,
equinoxes, or other time defined relative to the seasons, slowly changes. For example,
suppose that the Earth's orbital position is marked at the summer solstice, when the
Earth's axial tilt is pointing directly towards the Sun. One full orbit later, when the Sun
has returned to the same apparent position relative to the background stars, the Earth's
axial tilt is not now directly towards the Sun: because of the effects of precession, it is a
little way "beyond" this.
In other words, the solstice occurred a little earlier in the orbit.
Thus, the tropical year, measuring the cycle of seasons (for example, the time from
solstice to solstice, or equinox to equinox), is about 20 minutes shorter than the sidereal
year, which is measured by the Sun's apparent position relative to the stars. Note that
20 minutes per year is approximately equivalent to one year per 25,772 years, so after
one full cycle of 25,772 years the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back
where they started".
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rotation

Daily occurrence of Day and night


variation in temperature during day and night
Apparent movement of the sun is the evidence of the
earth rotation
Another proof is if one drops a ball from top of a
multistorey building it will fall slightly towards East.
creates centrifugal force bulge at equator
Coriolis force and ferrells Law
Alternate rise and fall in the ocean waves

Changing altitude of the mid-day sun at diff


times of the year eg. Equinox and solstice
revolution Varying length of day and night
Change in the seasons

Effects of the inclination of the axis alternation of


seasons / seasonal changes.

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In physics, the Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection of moving


objects when the motion is described relative to a rotating
reference frame.
Newton's laws of motion describe the motion of an
object in a (non-accelerating) inertial frame of reference.
When Newton's laws are
transformed to a
uniformly rotating frame
of reference, the Coriolis
and centrifugal forces
appear. Both forces are
proportional to
the mass of the object.

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A commonly encountered rotating reference frame is the Earth. The


Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and
the inertia of the mass experiencing the effect. Because the Earth
completes only one rotation per day, the Coriolis force is quite small,
and its effects generally become noticeable only for motions
occurring over large distances and long periods of time, such as
large-scale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the
ocean.

This force causes moving


objects on the surface of the
Earth to be deflected to the
right (with respect to the
direction of travel) in
the Northern Hemisphere and
to the left in the Southern
Hemisphere.

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Question
Variations in length of
daytime and night-time from
season to season are due to
UPSC
a) Earths rotation on its axis
b) Earths revolution around
the sun in an elliptical
manner
c) Latitudinal position of the
place
Prelims
d) Revolution of earth on a
2013
tilted axis
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Circle of illumination
While rotating, a part of earth facing the sun has
day and the other part night.
= imaginary line which shows clear demarcation
btw day and night.

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Solstice & equinox

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solstice = latin
= sun standing still
(reaching the zenith pointhighest point)
june 21/22
tropic of cancer recieves
direct sun rays.
summer in northern hemi.
Features
Duration of day is longer than night
Daylight last for the entire 24hrs beyond the arctic
circle towards the North pole
length of day increases with increasing latitude from
equator to north.
Arctic circle to north pole = LAND OF MID-NIGHT SUN
Antarctic totally dark.

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solstice = latin =
sun standing still
(reaching the zenith pointhighest point)
december 22
tropic of capricorn recieves
direct sun rays.
winter in northern hemi.
south pole inclined directly
towards the sun
Features
length of the day increases as on goes towards
the south pole
day is longer than night in southern hemi.
btw arctic circle to north pole = total dark = 6
months

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EQUINOX = vishuv-sampat
20/21 march = vernal/spring equinox
22/23 september = autumnal equinox
All the places on earth have 12 hrs of day and 12 hrs of night >
circle of illumination passes through the poles and divides earth
into equal halves.

Hence , day-night are of


equal length = equinox =
Latin = acquus (equal) & nox
(night).

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March 21 Spring equinox

Equator

June 21

Summer solstice

Tropic of cancer

Sept 23

Autum equinox

equator

Dec 22

Winter solistice

Tropic of capricorn

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Eclipse
solar

lunar
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synchronous

rotation of the moon

only one part of the moon can be seen from the earth bcoz of
equal rotational speed of both.

illuminated face of the moon is seen on the earth once a


month on full moon.
on new moon, the moon is not seen at all bcoz on this night
the completely dark part of the moon faces the earth.

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Moon rotation

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Full moon = poonam


New moon = amaavasya

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When the earth > btwn sun and moon > light of the sun is not
able to reach the moon > shadow of the earth falls on the moon =
Lunar eclipse.
Lunar eclipse occurs on a FULL MOON.

When the moon > btwn


the sun and the earth >
light of the sun is
interrupted > shadow of
the moon falls on the earth
= Solar eclipse.
Solar eclipse occurs on a
NEW MOON.
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When the sun, the earth and the moon are aligned in a straight
line, this position is called SYZYGY where in conjunction (the sun and the moon in one side of
the earth) occurs in the case of SOLAR ECLIPSE
While, opposition (the earth btwn the sun and the moon)
occurs in the case of LUNAR ECLIPSE.

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THERE WOULD BE MAXIMUM SEVEN OCCASIONS FOR THE LUNAR


AND SOLAR ECLIPSE IN ONE YEAR as lunar and solar eclipses do not
take place on every full moon and new moon.

Bcoz- of moons inclination of 5* on its own axis.


So when the earth and the moon reach the same point of
revolutionary path, the moon, due to its inclination, moves a little
bit ahead of the earth, as a reasult, eclipse does not occur on every
full and new moon.
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Points to remember
a ring of solar eclipse > poosible > due to diif. In size of the sun ,
the earth and the moon. = DIAMOND RIND AROUND THE SUN
but ring of lunar eclipse > NOT possible.

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