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BOTANY LECTURE

CHAPTER 1
PLANT SYSTEMATICS

Charophytes
plamodesmata = pores in primary cell wall (transverse
between cells)

CHAPTER 3
GREEN AND LAND PLANTS
Chlorobionta (or Viridiplantae)
monophyletic
cellulosic cell wall
o cellulose secreted outside plasma membrane as
microfibrils
o rigidity
Chloroplast
o chlorophyll b (accessory pigment)
o thylakoids stacked into grana
o true starch storage compound
chloroplast believed to have evolved via endosymbiosis
Viridiplantae classified into 2 groups:
1. Chlorophyta
2. Streptophyta
* Green algae group is paraphyletic (excludes embrophytes)

Embryophytes
monophyletic
evolution of gametophyte and sporophyte (haplodiplontic)
o embryo = immature sporophyte attached to or
surrounded by gametophyte
o existence of sporophyte = increase in spore
production
o without sporophyte = 1 zygote = 4 spores only
sporangium = spore producing region
o sporangial wall = surrounding sporangium
Cuticle = secreted outside cells of epidermis; consists of
cutin = functions as sealant; prevents water loss
Parenchyma tissue
Apical meristem = region of actively dividing cells
Cells from apical meristem region for a solid mass of
tissue = parenchyma (serves as filler) = undifferentiated,
unspecialized cells
Middle lamella = pectic-rich; develops between primary cell
walls of adjacent cells = binds cells together
Anteridium = contains sperm
Archegonium = contains egg; canal cells

isogamy (haplontic) = primitive sexual repro (flagellated gametes)


oogamy = one gamete bigger than the other (egg vs. sperm)

Non-vascular Land Plants


Paraphyletic; does not include Pan-tracheophytes

CHAPTER 2
PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS

sporophyte small, nutritionally dependent (except


hornworts)
gametophyte bears rhizoids = uniseriate filamentous
processes that function in anchorage and absorption

1. Liverworts (Hepaticae)
- 2 morphological types of gametophyte: thalloid and
leafy
- Thalloid
o thallus = flattened mass of tissue
o pores on upper side of thallus function in gas
exchange (fake stomata)
o relationship with cyanobacteria
o gemmae = functions in vegetative reproduction
- Leafy
o Stem axis + 3 rows of thin leaves
o Upper 2 rows of leaves are larger
o Lowermost row reduced
- Archeginiphores and antheridiphores = stalked peltate
structures that contain archegonium and antheridium
- Sporophyte = small, non-photosynthetic, short-lived
and consists entirely of sporangium or capsule
- Oil bodies
- Elaters in sporangium = aids in spore dispersal
2. Moss (Musci)
- possession of stomates
- guard cells = increase/decrease opening
- suberin = waxy, water-resistant substance = seals
stoma

stomata = functions in photosynthesis and water


uptake
- aerial sporophyte axis
- hydroids = water conduction
- leptoids = sugar conduction
- perine in spore wall = prevents dessication
- trilene mark = scar of attachment of the adjacent 3
spores of 4 produced at meiosis
- calyptra = apical archegonial tissure
- stipe = sporophytes long stalk
- operculum = lid at capsule apex
- peristome teeth = hygroscopic
- protonema = initial development of gametophyte
3. Hornworts (Anthocerotae)
- similar to thalloid liverworts
- symbiosis with cyanobacteria
- gametophytes + fungus relationship = myccorhyzae
- pseudo-elaters in sporangium
- columella in sporangium = non-spore producing tissue
- intercalary growth of sporophyte = intercalary meristem
= actively dividing cells at base of sporophyte
CHAPTER 4
VASCULAR PLANTS
APOMORPHIES
o Roots
o Endodermis
o Sieve elements
o Tracheary elements
o Sclerenchyma
o Lignin, in lignified secondary cell walls
o Sporophyte branching with multiple sporangia

o Sporophyte independent and long-lived


1. Roots
- anchorage and absorption
- ancestral rhizoid
- develop from apical meristem
- five diagnostic features
o root cap protects apical meristem and lubricats
root during growth
o root hairs increase water/mineral absorption
o central vascular cylinder cite of conduction of
water/minerals and sugars
o endodermis casparian strip functions in
selective absorption
o endogenous lateral roots develop from
pericycle (layer internal to endodermis)
endodermis, penetrate to outside
- Mycorrhizae symbiotic relationship with fungi
2. Endodermis
- special cylinder of cells
- each cell possesses Casparian strip
o Casparian strip made of suberin and ring of
lignin acts as water impermeable material that
binds plasma membrane to endodermal cells
3. Sieve elements (phloem)
- parenchyma + sclerenchyma
- only primary cell wall present
- aggregated into sieve areas
- 2 types:
o sieve cells

only sieve areas on both end and side


walls
associated with albuminous cells
(parenchyma)
o sieve tube members
both sieve areas and plates
sieve plates = composed of one or more
sieve areas in end wall junction, pores
larger too
associated with companion cells
4. Tracheary elements (xylem)
- water and mineral conduction
- elongate cells
- dead at maturity
- jointed end to end
- parenchyma + sclerenchyma
- 2 types:
o Tracheids
Imperforate
Goes through walls via pit pairs
o Vessel members
Perforate
No intervening cell walls
Contact area between VM = perforation
plate
5. Sclerencyma
- nonconductive cells with thick lignified secondary wall
- dead at maturity
- 2 types:
o fibers long, narrow cells (function = support)

o sclereids isodiametric to irregular to branched


- another type of tissue = COLLENCHYMA
- Collenchyma live cells with unevenly thickened,
pectic-rich, primary cell walls
6. Lignified secondary cell wall
- secondary cell in secreted outside primary
- has pits = holes = chemical communication
- primary pit field = collection of several plasmodesmata
7. Sporophyte branching
- multiple sporangia
8. Sporophyte independent
- haplo-diplontic (alternation of generation)
DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS
Lycopodiophyta Lycophytes
- Apomorphies
o Root dichopodial
o Root protoxylem endarch
o Stem protoxylem exarch
o Sporangia dorsiventral with transverse
dehiscence
o Shoots with lycophylls simple leaf with 1 vein,
no leaf gap
o Roots dichopodial
Lycopodiopsida
Lycopodiaceae
o Club moss
o Homosporous
o Lycopodium spores = flash powder
Isoetopsida

o Heterospory megaspore (from


megasporangia) and microspores (fomr
microsporangia)
o leaves ligulate (ligule = tiny appendage on upper
side of leaf)
Selaginellaceae
spike-moss
dimorphic leaves
Isotaceae
Quillwort
Woody
Euphyllophyta
Apomorphies:
o Roots monopodial
o Root protoxylem exarch
o Sporangia terminal on lateral branches;
longitudinally dehiscent
o 30kb chloroplast DNA inversion
o Shoots with euphylls (planation and webbing,
multiple veins, leaf gap)
Monilophyta Monilophytes
Apomorphies:
o stem protoxylem mesarch
o siphonostele
Equisetopsida (Horsetails)
o spores with elaters
o sporangiophore
o leaves reduced, whorled

o stem ribbed with canals (photosynthetic)


Psilotopsida
o roots unbranched, root hairs absent
o gametophyte subterranean, myccorhizal
Ophioglossales (Ophioglossoid ferns)
leaf with sterile (photosynthetic lamina) &
fertile segments (bears sporangia)
eusporangia sporangial wall made of more
than 1 cell layer
Psilotales (Whisk ferns)
synangium with bifid appendages (2 or 3
lobed sporangia)
roots lost
leaves reduced (microphylls or enations)
Marattiopsida (Marattoid Ferns)
o polycyclic siphonostele
o eusporangiate
Polypodiopsida (Leptosporangiate Ferns)
o leptosporangium develops from one cell, 1 cell
layer thick
spore dispersal annulus cells with
different thicknesses on the inner cell surface
sori cluster of leptosporangia
receptacle attaches sori
indusium flap of tissue covering sori
indusiate Aspleniaceae
exindusiate Lacks indusium Polypodiaceae

o
o
o
o
o
o

false indusium reflexed blade


margin overlaps sorus
acrosticoid no definable sori
Habits:
rhizome
arborescent
vines
fiddleheads or croziers young coiled leaves
frond mature leaf
stipe pertiole
pinnae pinnules
open or free venation
have trichomes/scales clathrate/non-clathrate

Salviniales
Aquatic
Heterospory
Sporocarps (dominant seed-like body)
Marsileaceae
Clover fern
o Marsilea
o Pilularia
Salviniaceae
Floating fern
o Salvinia
o Azolla
Mosquito fern

Symbiosis with
cyanobacteria
Seeded in rice paddies
for Nitrogen fixation

Cyatheales
Cyatheacea
Tree ferns
Trunk arborescent
Polypodiales
Aspleniacea
Linear sori
Indusial

Polypodiaceae
Exindusiate sori
o Platycerium acrosticoid
Pteridaceae
Exindusiate
False indusium or intramarginal (in
lines along veins)