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You are on page 1of 5

: 0.06m

Area (A)

: 0.0036m2

: 0.02m

Specimen : Sample A

Loading : 3.4 kg

Normal Weight : 33.354N

Time

Elapse

Horizontal

Time

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Horizontal

Load dial Horizontal

dial reading

Displacement

9

16

24

31

40

49

57

t x 0.01

0.09

0.16

0.24

0.31

0.40

0.49

0.57

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Shear

reading

shear force,

Stress,

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6

6

F (kN)

7.84

8.82

9.8

10.78

11.76

11.76

11.76

(kN/m2)

2178

2450

2772

2994

3267

3267

3267

Specimen : Sample B

Loading : 5.4 kg

Normal Weight : 52.974N

Time

Elapse

Horizontal

Time

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

dial reading

Displacement

10

18

24

33

41

50

58

66

75

t x 0.01

0.10

0.18

0.24

0.33

0.41

0.50

0.58

0.68

0.75

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Specimen : Sample C

Loading : 6.4 kg

Horizontal

Load dial Horizontal

Shear

reading

shear force,

Stress,

5

5.5

6

7

7

7.8

8

8

8

F (kN)

9.8

10.78

11.76

13.72

13.72

15.288

15.68

15.68

15.68

(kN/m2)

2722

2994

3267

3811

3811

4247

4356

4356

4356

Time

Elapse

Horizontal

Time

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Horizontal

Load dial Horizontal

dial reading

Displacement

7

15

23

31

38

47

57

65

73

82

t x 0.01

0.07

0.15

0.23

0.31

0.38

0.47

0.57

0.65

0.73

0.82

Shear

reading

shear force,

Stress,

6

7

8

9

9

9.5

10

11

11

11

F (kN)

11.76

13.72

15.68

17.64

17.64

18.62

19.6

21.56

21.56

21.56

(kN/m2)

3267

3811

4356

4900

4900

5172

5444

5989

5989

5989

Discussion

The shear strength of a soil is its resistance to shearing stresses. It is a measure of the

of the soil resistance to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil

particles. Shear strength in soils depends primarily on interactions between particles.

Shear failure occurs when the stresses between the particles are such that they slide or roll

past each other. In this experiment, soil derives its shear strength from the cohesion and

frictional resistance between the soil particles.

From the tables above, we can see that normal stress (), the force which applied

vertically to the soil specimen is held constant for each loading. For loading 3.4kg, its

normal stress, rn is 9.265 kN/m2; for loading 5.4kg, its normal stress, rn is 14.714 kN/m2;

for loading 6.4kg, its normal stress, rn is 17.440 kN/m2. While, shear stress, the force

which applied horizontally to the soil specimen is keep increasing until failure occur.

From the graph of shear stress against horizontal displacement, we can see that as the

shear stress is also growing larger as the loading increased.

In Mohr-Coulomb

Law, the relationship

between normal stress

and

shear

stress

is

given as = c + tan.

Where, cohesion (c), is

a measure of the forces

that cement particles of

soils. While, internal friction angle () , is the measure of the shear strength of soils due

to friction. From the graph of shear stress against normal stress, we know that the

cohesion (c) for the soil specimen is 1650 kN/m2 and the internal friction angle () is 48.

Hence, the Mohr-Coulomb equation for this experiment is = 1650 kN/m2 + tan48.

There are some possible error that may occurred affecting the accuracy of the

experimental result. Firstly, it may because of the instrumental error. Zero error in the dial

gauge should be set at zero before starting the experiment as it may affect the experiment

readings. Secondly, parallax error may occurred. While taking the reading on the dial

gauge, the eyes position's should be perpendicular to the scale of dial gauge to obtain a

more precise reading. Moreover, human limits may be another reason causing the error

occurred. This happened when the one's who reading the stopwatch, reading the dial

gauge and recording the results are different. Message transferring process and the

reaction of the students is the factor contributing the errors. Thus, the experiment should

be carried out at least three times to reduce the errors.

Conclusion

In conclusion, when horizontal displacement increased, the shear stress will also

increased. Besides that, as the loading increased, the shear stress experienced by the soil

specimen will also increased. Shear stress of the soil specimen is directly proportional to

its normal stress. The larger the normal stress applied on the soil specimen, the larger the

shear stress undergoes by it.

References

1 Principles of Direct Shear Test , Chap 7.4 of Experimental Soil Mechanic

2 Bardet, J. P., Experimental Soil Mechanics, 1997, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle

River, New Jersey.

3 Detailed description of Direct Shear Test , Chap 7.5 of Experimental Soil

Mechanic Bardet, J. P., Experimental Soil Mechanics, 1997, Prentice-Hall, Upper

Saddle River, New Jersey.

4 Detailed description of Direct Shear Test with photos and an example data

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing, Experiment 11:

Consolidation, Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

5 Direct Shear Test on Wikipedia

6 A Simple Technique for Determining the Shear Strength of Fine-Grained

Unsaturated Soils using the Conventional Direct Shear Apparatus, J.J. Lane, S.K.

Vanapalli. 2002. 2nd Canadian Specialty Conference on Computer Applications in

Geotechnique, Winnipeg, pp. 245-253.

7 Continuous Failure State Direct Shear Tests,A. Tisa,1984. Swiss Federal Institute

of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 17, 8395. Springer-Verlag.

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