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[AIR PRESSURE CONTROL]

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 OBJECTIVES
1.0 SUMMARY
2.0 INTRODUCTION AND THEORY
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

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3
4
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5.0 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION


6.0 REFERENCES

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APPENDIX

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1.0 OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment Air Pressure Process Control are:
i.

To identify the important components of the air pressure control system and to

ii.
iii.

mark them in the P&I Diagram.


To carry out the start-up procedures systematically.
To control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity processes using
PID Controller.

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2.0 SUMMARY
This experiment was basically conducted in order to identify all of the important
components of the air pressure control system while carry out the start-up
procedures systematically and implement the control of pressure throughout in the
single and two capacity processes using PID controller. In this experiment, air
pressure process control model AP922 is used. The AP922 uses air to stimulate a
gas phase pressure process. Based on the results, it can be seen that the
differences between single and two capacity process in term of response are not
much differ. However, there are some variables that has been manipulated in order
to examined the retention time, overshoot and also the settling time of the graph to
reach its steady state. The PB1, TI1 and also TD1 was set to various value which
then showing a different response towards the disturbance. The proportional band
(PB) is a type of closed-loop feedback control in which a constant value is multiplied
with the error in order to adjust the output. The single capacity is more good
compared to two capacity because more efficient and consume time. (Summary of
Result)

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3.0 INTRODUCTION

The study of material behaviour under pressure is to investigate the wide


variety of discipline of air pressure control. Pressure vessels play important role in
chemical industries as storage vessels for gas phase components, reaction vessels
to carry out a gas phase reaction. Precise control of pressure in the pressure vessels
is necessary in order to maintain a constant concentration of components in the
vessel. Besides to maintain the number of moles in the vessel, the pressure control
itself help to protect the vessel from being damaged due to very high pressures
(Bennett, 1995). The arrangement uses the controlled release of air already in
storage to stabilize the air pressure delivered into the main piping header leaving the
compressor room. Pressure at control valve outlet is sensed and air flow is
continuously adjusted to correct the deviations from set point. It works on the
principle that when compressed air expands, the pressure decreases and,
conversely, when air compresses, the pressure increases. Therefore, if more air is
flowing away from the balance point than in, the pressure goes down and the control
valve modulates open to release more air from storage to bring it back to the set
point. The opposite action occurs if more air is flowing into the balance point than
away as the valve modulates closed to hold air back in storage. Figure 1.0 is a
schematic illustration of General arrangement of an electropneumatic pressure
reducing station:

Figure 1.0 General arrangement of an electropneumatic pressure reducing station


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The benefit from applying air pressure control is that the plant air pressure
can be maintained the lowest optimum level needed to reliably sustain production.
Pressure Control also prevents the plant air pressure from rising as leaks are
repaired and air waste is reduced. If nothing is done to control the pressure, it can
creep up and cause more air to vent out of other escape points in the system such
as condensate drains, open air blowing devices, unrepaired leaks, and unregulated
points of use. There are also operational savings from reducing leak demand and
optimizing air use. Air flow across filters and dryers will be less. Pressure drops in
the piping distribution system will decrease. Maintenance costs will go down. Air
pressure control is an excellent tool to use for controlling air leakages of all types.

[AIR PRESSURE CONTROL]

4.0 DISCUSSION

This experiment has been designed to achieve three main objectives, namely to
identify the important components of the air pressure control system and to mark them in the
P&I Diagram,to carry out the start-up procedures systematically and lastly to control the
pressure in single capacity and two capacity processes using PID Controller.

The first objective has a very significant link with the successful of the experiment, in which
if the important components of the air pressure control system to be identified has not been
done, the students cant conduct the experiment successfully. This has been done, and has
been attached with marked the important components of the air pressure control system on
the P&I Diagram. Next, is to carry out the start-up procedures systematically. This objective
will only indicate if it was successfully conducted or not, when the experiment give good
results. Since start-up procecedures cant be done wrongly, as it will give negative results
during the achievement of the third objective. The third objective was to control the pressure
in single capacity and two capacity processes using PID Controller. This experiment has to
type of capacity namely, single capacity with only the usage of single tank, T91 to operate the
control system with following route:
Single capacity process: AR91-MV91-T91-PLI-B92-FI92-PCV91-VP
While the second one is double capacity, which will utilize both tanks, T91 and T92 to
control the air pressure system with following route:
Two-capacity process AR91-MV91-T91-PLI-MVI-T92-MV92-FI92-PCV91-VP
Both will be used with PID control system to compare and contrast the type of response given
by the system.

For PIDControlOfPressureInSingleCapacityProcessinT91(3.3inLabManual),
only vessel T91 is used where as Vessel T92 is by-passed.The set point of the air pressure for
this process at PIC91 as SV=15psig. Then, the PID controller was set with the first(I)trial
values:PB1=70%,T11=40s,TD1=0s.Theresponsecanbeseeninthegraphas
indicatedat3.3(9)inthegraph.Then,theMVisdecreasedabout10%.Theresponsehas
beenobservedandmarkedonthegraphpaperas3.3(10).Astocomparebothpeak,its
observedthat,atinitial(beforetheMVhasbeenreducedabout10%),thepeakhashigher
amplitude,comparedtothepeakthathasbeenreducedtheMVabout10%,thatcould
achievetheSVof15psigfasterthantheinitialvalue.
Then,thecontrollerwasset the PID with the second(II)trialvalues:PB1=45%,TI1=30
s,TD1=0s.ThisvaluesshowsthePBorproportionalbandwithreducedto45%andthe
Integraltimehasbeenreducedto30s.Then,theMVvalueshavebeenreducedof10%.The
peakhasbeenmarkedonthegraphpaperwith3.3(12).IfcomparedthisPID(II)withPID
(1),thepeakalmostthesame,butwithamoresteeperpeakthatcausestheprocesstoachieve
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thesetpointfaster.
Next,third(III)trialvaluesfor the PID controller:PB1=20%,TI1=10s,TD1=2shas
beenintroducedtothecontroller.Important:Thiscontrolvalueshasderivativevalueswith2s
thatthepreviouscontroller(PID1andPID2)donthave.Then,theMVhasbeendecreased
by10%.Thepeakhasbeenmarkedas3.3(15)onthegraphpaper.Thispeakshowsavery
shortoscillatoryandsmallpeakandthemorefastresponsetoachievesetpoint.Duetothe
smallvalueofproportionalvalues(thesmallestamongthe3PIDcontrolsettingsabove),and
alsogivetheIntegraltimethatissuitablewith10s,andwithderivativecontrolhasbeen
addedwith2s,giveaveryfastresponsetothecontrolsystem.

Figure1:ComparisonofP,PIandPIDcontrollerresponse.
AsshowninFigure1,withthepresenceofderivative(D),thePIDcontrollerresponse
withfaster,lessoscillatoryandwithoutoffset.Thus,theoretically,itsalignedandmergewith
theresultsobtainedfromtheexperiment.AstocomparethethreePIDvalues,itcanbe
discussedthathigherthePBvaluehighertheamplitudeandoscillatorypeakwillbe
producedascanbeseeninthePID1above.WhenreducedthePBvalue,thepeakishas
smalleramplitudelikewiseinPID2.Then,whenderivativeandsmallerPBvaluehasbeen
introduced,thebestresponsewithfastersettlingtimehasbeenachievedinPID3.
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Then,thePIDControlOfPressureInTwoCapacityProcess(T91&T92)hasbeendone(3.4
inLabManual).Inthisexperiment,twocapacityorbothtankwillbeutilizedtocontrolthe
airpressuresystem.Thecontrolvalvehasbeenopened(PCV91) about 50% from PIC91 by
adjusting with MV = 50%.The set point has been set, of the air pressure for this process
PIC91 as SV=18psig. The PID controller has been set with the first(I)trialvalues:PB1=
70%,T11=40s,TD1=0s.Asitsbeenmarkedonthegraphpaperwith3.4(9),itshowsa
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largeamplitude,sluggishandlongerresponsetime.Then,theMVhasbeenbroughtto40%.
Theresponsehasbeenmarkedwith3.4(11).Theresponseshowsincreasinglyfastertuning
(asshownresponseinFigure2)thatithasasteeppeakwithfastersettlingtimetoachieveset
point.TheresponseisoscillatorybutachieveSVfasterthantheMVwith50%.

Figure2:Increasingfastertuningwithsteeppeakachieved

Then,second(II)trialvalues:PB1=45%,TI1=30s,TD1=0shasbeen
introduced.Theresponsehasbeenmarkedwith3.4(13)anditshowsanoscillatoryresponse.
ThentheMVhasbeendecreasedby10%andtheresponsedhasbeenmarkedonthegraph
paperwith3.4(14).Thisresponseisasmalleramplitude,lessoscillatoryandfasterresponse
timecomparedtothefirstPIDvalue.Thisisevenbothtankhasbeenoperated,butstill,the
PBvaluereduced,itstillobeythetheoryof:higherthePBvaluehighertheamplitudeand
oscillatorypeakwillbeproduced.

Lastly,the third(III)trialvaluesfor the PID controller:PB1=20%,TI1=10s,TD1


=2shasbeenset.Theresponsehasbeenmarkedwith3.4(16)anditshowsamorelesser
oscillatoryandfastersettlingtimecomparedtoALLPIDvaluessetinthisexperiment
previously.ItachivestheSPwithstraightlinewithoutsluggishresponse.Then,disturbance
hasbeenintroduced,bydroppingtheMVvalueby10%,again,aloweramplitude,faster
reponseandnonoscillatoryresponsehasbeenachieve,anditsprofoundlycouldbestated
thatthisPIDvaluesisthebestamongallthePIDvaluessuggestedinthisexperimentas
statedreasonsabove.

[AIR PRESSURE CONTROL]

5.0 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

higherthePBvaluehighertheamplitudeandoscillatorypeakwillbeproduced.

To improve this experiment in the future, some recommendation had been


proposed for example before starting the experiment, it is advisable to recheck the
entire valve and pipelines so that its condition followed the procedure correctly. It is
advised to increase the value of PB for each trial and decrease the value of TI1 in
each experiment so that the damping oscillation for each trials and response time will
decreases to reach set point and steady state respectively.

Besides, students that

handle the machine should get the overview how the machine running and also
should have some basic knowledge to obtain a correct reading. Mainly, the chart
paper should be placed correctly in order to avoid error during the recording.
Furthermore, during the changes of set point and other related parameters the
student should jot down for discussion purpose and their understanding

[AIR PRESSURE CONTROL]

6.0 REFERENCES

Bennett. S., (1955). A history of control engineering (6th ed.). Stevenage,


Herts., U.K.: P. Peregrinus on behalf of the Institution of Electrical Engineers,

London, c1993, 150-172.


Coughanowr, D.R., (1991). Process Systems Analysis and Control, 2 nd Ed.,

McGraw Hill, 35-58.


Mark, J.W. (1999). Some Conventional Pocess Control Schemes, Department

of Chemical and Process Engineering University of Newcastle, 2-5.


Svrcek, W. Y., Donald, M., Young, B. R. (Eds.). (1996). A Real-Time Approach
to Process Control, Solutions Manual. Wiley. 350-366.

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