Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

TERM PAPER REPORT
Refrigeration in Automobiles
NITIN JOSHI BTECH MECHANICAL

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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

CONTENTS: Acknowledgement  Introduction  Vapor-compression refrigeration

Refrigeration of transportation systems

 Refrigeration & air conditioning in automobiles  The ventilation circuit in the automobile  Air conditioning control system

Carbon dioxide as a refrigerant in automobiles

 References

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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:Firstly I would like to thank my teacher for giving me such a good topic for my term paper and give me the chance to express my views on this topic. This topic will help me to increase my knowledge about the particular topic. I also want to thank my teacher for his suggestion and guidance during the each stage. I would also like to thanks my friends for their kind support and suggestions which helps me to make this report properly.

INTRODUCTION:My topic of term paper is to tell about the refrigeration in automobiles. Firstly I would explain that what is the refrigeration & air conditioning. After this I will discuss the type of refrigeration system & vapor compression system. After this I will tell about the refrigeration in transport. After this we will discuss about the use of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant & the new trends in automobile air conditioning. Air conditioning is the method to cool the indoor air for the thermal comfort, it is also refer as the cooling, heating, ventilation that modify the condition of air. Refrigeration is defined as the cooling of a particular space by means of heat rejection & the device which performs this is known as heat pump. As we all know refrigeration is the essential part of an automobile because it gives the thermal comfort during the summer
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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

days. For refrigeration we use different refrigeration cycles & refrigerants. Here we discuss only about the vapor compression cycle & the refrigerant carbon dioxide.

VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION:Vapor-compression refrigeration is one out of the refrigeration cycles which are available for use. It is the widely used method for air conditioning of large public buildings, hotels, automobiles etc. it uses a circulating liquid refrigerant for the purpose of removal & absorbsion of heat from a place which has to be cooled. Figure beside shows the single stage vapor compression system. The main components of this system are compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. First of all the circulating refrigerant in the saturated vapor state enters into the compressor and compressed to a high pressure & temperature. Then this compressed vapor in the super heated vapor state at same temperature & pressure is condensed with available amount of cooling water or cooling air. That hot vapor passes through the condenser where it is cooled and condensed into liquid by flowing through a coil or tube with cool water or cool air flowing across the tubes or coil. At this place circulating refrigerant rejects the heat from the system & this rejected heat is carried away by the water or air. This condensed vapor in saturated liquid state then passes through the expansion valve where its pressure gets reduced. This reduction in pressure results in the flash evaporation of a part of the refrigerant. It causes the auto refrigeration which reduced the temperature of the mixture of the liquid & vapor refrigerant. Then this cold mixture passes through the coil or tubes in the evaporator. A fan circulating the warm air in the enclosed space across the coil or tube carrying the mixture of vapor & cold refrigerant. That air evaporates the liquid part of the cold refrigerant mixture. At the same time the circulating air is cooled and lowers the temperature of the enclosed space to the desired temperature. To complete the refrigeration cycle the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator is again routed into the compressor.

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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

The refrigerant mainly used into this is Freon. These refrigerant used commonly because they have superior stability & safety properties. These are non flammable & not toxic.

REFRIGERATION OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS:Refrigeration of Trucks and Trailers:Refrigerated transport is the main link of the cold food chain. This is the other application of refrigeration of automobiles it commonly consist of refrigeration of trucks & trailers because these are used for transportation of food. These vehicles are refrigerated to maintain temperature between 1.5 to 4°c for cold food and -18°C for frozen foods. The types of refrigeration systems used are given below.

Product Subcooling:With the use of improved insulating materials, it is possible to drastically cut the transmission load of vehicles. In that case, use may be made of the storage capacity of the product itself for cold by subcooling it to as low a temperature as possible before transporting for shorter distances. Thus even after reaching the destination, the temperature of the product is below the temperature of the storage requirement. Examples are tankers for milk, orange juice, etc.

Using Water Ice:The top of the product can suitably be iced. It is also a satisfactory method for short distances & for some products only. The refrigerating effect produced by the melting of the ice is 335.4kj/kg.

Using Dry Ice:nitinjoshi.jo@gmail.com

Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

It is mainly used in small retail trucks for the delivery of frozen food, such as ice cream. The blocks of the dry ice is usually put in the ceiling. The cooling is done by natural convection. In case of forced convection the dry ice act as the water ice. The temperature of refrigeration is about -78.5°C. The refrigerating effect produced by the sublimation of dry ice is 605.5kj/kg. While using dry ice care must be taken to avoid burns due to low temperatures, and suffocation due to lack of oxygen.

Using Liquid Nitrogen:During the manufacturing of oxygen by liquefaction of atmospheric air, liquid nitrogen has become available almost as a bi product. Therefore it is used for the transport of frozen food. The boiling point of liquid nitrogen is -195.6°C. It is an extremely low temperature from the point of view of COP % refrigeration economy. The refrigerant is introduced into the vehicle through nozzles in case of liquid nitrogen & liquid carbon dioxide, and the flow is controlled by thermostats & solenoid valves. The storage vessels for the refrigerants are kept within the refrigerated space. Liquid nitrogen vessels do not require any pressure as in case of liquid carbon dioxide to prevent from blockage due to snow formation during pressure drop.

Eutectic Plates With Station Charging:The channels formed by these plates are placed all around the body of vehicle. They contain a eutectic solution which can be frozen by a refrigerant flowing in a coil immersed in the solution. The coil is connected to a mechanical refrigeration system at the charging station. Cooling is done by the evaporation of the primary refrigerant in the coil. These plates are made in many sizes varying from 45 to 90 cm in width. A plate of size 76× 168×6.65 cm has a refrigerating capacity of 17935 kj. The operating temperature of plates is -51 to -3.5°C.

Refrigerated Railway Cars:These cars use ice bunkers with water ice or ice & salt mixture. The recharging of ice is required at intermediate stations on the route. The mechanical refrigeration system is being increasingly adopted nowadays. It is provided with an independent diesel-generator set so that refrigeration is independent of car movement. The normal generator capacity is 20kwW.

Marine Refrigeration:nitinjoshi.jo@gmail.com

Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

A special feature of marine transport is the varying climate. The insulation & fittings should be suitable both for warm & coldwater routes. Thus a vapor barrier for moisture should be provided on both sides of the insulation. Refrigeration is used in ships for cargo & stores of passenger ships. It is also use for transportation of fishes. In case of cargo, the refrigeration system should be capable of providing temperature between -23.5-12.5°C. R 12 with reciprocating compressor is presently used as a refrigerant. R 22 is not used because of its critical oil miscibility. On other hand ships must have their own stores. These stores have to be much bigger for passenger vessel. They also have the ventilated area for some of the items. Fishing vessels use ice, but deep sea fishing use mechanical refrigeration because they have to stay away for months.

REFRIGERATION IN AIR TRANSPORT: Refrigerated air transport of some commodities can be justified on the basis of saving in the time & preservation of quality. The cargo compartments are cooled by air conditioning system itself in some of passenger air craft. For transit refrigeration, if necessary, refrigerant packages of water ice, dry ice or other substances are used.

REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING IN AUTOMOBILES:Automobile refrigeration has become more & more commonplace. The refrigeration system ensures the thermal comfort for passengers. Figure given below gives the refrigerant circuit in the automobile.

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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

The basic components of this circuit are compressor, condenser, refrigerant cartridge, expansion valve and the evaporator. In the figure at position 1 there is a compressor at 2 there is electromagnetic coupler at 3 there is condenser at 4 there is accessory fan at 5there is refrigerant cartridge at 6 there is evaporator at 7 there is evaporator fan and at 8 there is an expansion valve. The work of compressor is to ensure that vapor refrigerant removes from the evaporator in such a way that both temp. & pr. is maintained at desired level. Compressor runs by the engine of the vehicle which will impact the refrigerant capacity because engine has to operate at different speeds. The condenser is cooled by the stream of air induced by the fan. The liquid refrigerant cartridge act as an equalizing & reserve unit. The amount of refrigerant depends upon the operating conditions. The drying pad absorbs the water or impurities which may occur. The safety device turns on the condenser fan when there is excessive refrigerant temperature & turns off when there is excess exit pressure. The expansion valve lowers the pressure of the liquid refrigerant. Evaporator evaporates this low pressure liquid refrigerant.

THE VENTILATION CIRCUIT IN THE AUTOMOBILE:The figure shows below contains fresh air valve at position 1, internal circulation valve at 2, air mixing chamber at 3, ventilator at 4, air filter at 5, evaporator at 6, heater at 7, windshield defroster outlet valve at 8, central
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duct valve at 9, leg outlet valve at 10, anterior outlet valve at 11 and side outlet valve at 12. The fresh air valve controls the regulation of air intake in the open circuit. Then this air flows through the air filter into evaporator, at this position it cools and the moisture contents is condensed out. Then this air warmed in heat exchanger to the desired temperature.

AIR CONDITIONING CONTROL SYSTEM:The control system ensures the desired temperature of the inner air cabin & also controls the air intake & its distribution. In temperature controlled systems the chosen temperature is maintained automatically, air intake & distribution controlled manually. Fully automatic control system ensures the desired temperature, intake air & air distribution. The desired temperature is maintained by using air regime or water regime. Fresh air drawn in by a fan (1) and cooled by evaporator (2) and warmed in heater (4). The required temperature is compared with the actual temperature and the difference is converted into the control unit into regulation variable for heating & cooling capacity. The figure shows the fan at 1, evaporator at 2, evaporator temperature sensor at 3, heater at 4, exhaust air temperature sensor at 5, temperature selector at 6, internal temperature sensor at 7, electronic control unit at 8, condensed water drain at 9, compressor at 10, electromagnetic valve at 11, fresh air at a, windshield at b, upper outlet at c, internal circulation at d, bypass at e, lower outlet at f. At high speeds the pressure of air increases. At this situation the specialized device lowers the fan’s revolutions. Most of the control systems function on the basis of temperature measured near the area around the driver.

CARBON DIOXIDE AS REFRIGERANT IN AUTOMOBILES:-

A

Test conducted on CO2 gas shows it can be used as a refrigerant in the automobiles. These tests compared the thermal efficiency of CO2 system with the one commonly used in automobiles. The CO2 system performed well than the conventional systems under most of operating conditions. Current systems are using R134a as a refrigerant. To reduce global warming & to obtain better fuel economy, the more efficient air conditioning system is
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Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical

necessary. Energy efficient engine may not generate enough waste heat to warm during the winter. In this case heat pump is required. R134a works poorly as a heating fluid where as CO2 is suited for heat pump application. To compare the systems researcher constructed identical test chambers. A variable wind tunnel simulated. The two heat exchanger of equal volume & same pressure drop on the air side. Compressors are of also same size. By taking lot of information from these experiments we can reduce some of the technical problems surrounding the ultimate limits on CO2 performance.

REFERENCES:I have taken the references from the following websites & books to make my term paper report. 1. www.google.co.in 2. www.wikipedia.com 3. www.howstuffworks.com nitinjoshi.jo@gmail.com

Nitin Joshi B Tech Mechanical 4. Refrigeration & air conditioning by C P Arora, TMH publisher.

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