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Dairy products

4.0. Introduction Milk is a unique substance. It is either consumed as fluid milk with minimal processing or raw material is used to manufacture wide range of products like yoghurt, cheese whey etc. The exact component of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk. Dairy yoghurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. People have been making and eatingyogurt for at least 5,500 years. Today it is a common food item throughout the world. A nutritious food with unique health benefits, it is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. Different forms of yoghurt are now available in the market like stirred, set, frozen and liquid yoghurt. The flavor of yoghurt irrespective of the type is the same since the main flavor compound is acetaldehyde. Flavoured milk is the milk in which some flavour and colour have been added to make it more palatable. Flavoured milk should contain milk fat percent equal to the minimum legal requirement prescribed for the milk from which it is prepared. The term “drink” can be used when there is a minimum of 2 % fat content. Nowadays, one can find a variety of flavoured milk in the market like chocolate flavoured milk, fruit flavoured milk and sterilized flavoured milk, which are more popular. The method of production of flavoured milk involves standardizing the milk to the desired fat and SNF percent (generally 2% fat and 9.5% SNF). It is then heated, homogenized and clarified. The desired amount of cocoa powder at the rate of 1.5%, sugar at 7 to 9% and stabilizer (at the prescribed level) are added to the warm milk for the preparation of chocolate milk. In the case of fruit flavoured milk, instead of cocoa powder, 0.04% of fruit flavours and colours are added to milk. Milk is pasteurized, cooled, bottled and kept under refrigeration. Popular flavours that are used in preparing different types of flavoured milk are strawberry, orange, lemon, pineapple, banana, vanilla, etc. 4.1. Manufacture of yoghurt using milk powder 4.1.1. Materials Fresh milk Sugar Gelatin Culture Coloring Essence 1700 mL 200 g 14 g 30 g

4.1.2. Method 1. Gelatin and hot water were mixed in 1:2 ratios and kept in an oven for 30 min at 70ºC. 2. Milk and sugar were mixed boiled to 930C, 1-2 min. 2

Dairy products 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mixture was stirred well. Gelatin was added to milk at 60 ºC and cooled to 45 ºC 30 g of culture was added and mixed well. Mixture was strained and put in to cups & incubated at 45 ºC for 4 hrs. Prepared yogurt was kept in the refrigerator for 2 hrs.

4.1.3. Discussion Yoghurt culture was introduced to media through 30 g of previously prepared yoghurt. Curdling was taken place after filling into yoghurt cups at 45Co temperature [in the incubator]. Yoghurt is typically classified into the following groups: Set Yoghurt This type of yoghurt is incubated and cooled in the final package and is characterized by a firm jelly" like texture. Stirred yoghurt This type of yoghurt is incubated in a tank and the final coagulum is "broken" by stirring prior to cooling and packing. The texture of stirred yoghurt will be less firm than a set yoghurt somewhat like a very thick cream. There is some slight reformation of the coagulm after the yoghurt has been packed, however this is slight and cannot be relied upon. Drinking Yoghurt This type of yoghurt is very similar to stirred yoghurt, having the coagulum "broken!" prior to cooling. In drinking yoghurt the agitation used to "break" the coagulum is severe. Little if any reformation of the coagulum will reoccur after packing. Frozen Yoghurt Frozen yoghurt is inoculated and incubated in the same manner as a stirred yoghut. However cooling is achieved by pumping through a Whipper / chiller / freezer in a fashion similar to ice cream. The texture of the finished product is mainly influenced by the whipper/ freezer and the size and distribution of the ice crystals produced. Concentrated yoghurt This type of yoghurt is inoculated and fermented in the same manner as stirred yoghurt. Following the "breaking" of the coagulum the yoghurt is concentrated by boiling off some of the water, this is often done under vacuum to reduce the temperature required. Heating of low pH yoghurt can often lead to protein being totally denatured and producing rough and gritty textures. This is often called strained yoghurt due to the fat that the liquid that is released from the coagulum upon heating used to be "strained" off in a manner similar to making soft cheese. Flavored yoghurt Yoghurt with various flavours and aromas has become very popular. The flavours are usually added at or just prior to filling into pots. Common additives are fruit or berries, usually as a puree or as whole fruit in syrup. These additives often have as much as 50% sugar in them, however with the trend towards healthy eating gaining momentum; many manufacturers offer a low sugar and low fat version of their products. Low or no sugar yoghurts are often sweetened with 3

Dairy products saccharin or more commonly aspartame. The use of "fruit sugars" in the form of concentrated apple juice is sometimes found as a way of avoiding "added sugar" on the ingredients declaration; this tends to be a marketing ploy and has no real added benefit. 4.2 Flavored milk 4.2.1. Ingredients Milk powder Sugar Cocoa powder 4.2.2. Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sugar and milk were mixed well. Cocoa powder was also added and mixed well. Above mixture was filled in to sterilized bottles, while the mixture was hot. Bottles were kept in a water bath for 30 minutes for degassing. Bottles were capped and kept in autoclave at 121Co for 25min. Sterilized bottles were allowed to cool and washed before storing. 01 L 150 g 5g

4.2.3. Discussion Empty bottles were sterilized in the boiling water before filling. Flavored milk was filled in to bottles; while the drink was hot, to avoid recontamination. Degassing of the product is an important process to avoid oxidation and spoilage. Further the sterilization time and temperature play a major roll, when considering the keeping quality. Therefore autoclaving at 121 Co for 25 min is to be fulfilled for better keeping quality. 4.3. Determination of milk protein 4.3.1. Materials Conical flask Glass rod 0.1N NaOH Phenolphthalein HCHO [40% v/v] Milk sample 4.3.2. Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 10 g of the milk sample was taken in to the conical flask. 3 mL of phenolphthalein was added to the sample. Sample was titrated with 0.1N NaOH until a faint pink color appeared. Then 3 mL of HCHO was added and mixed with a glass rod and titrated with 0.1N NaOH. 4

Dairy products 5. Titration was repeated. 6. Blank titration was also carried out. 4.3.3. Results Titration Titration 1 Titration 2 Blank 4.3.4. Calculation Milk protein % = 5.67[V1- V2] Reading for neutralization 1.2 mL 1.5 mL 1.8 mL Reading 3.20 mL 3.35 mL 3.50 mL

Where, V1= volume of NaOH for milk sample V2= volume of NaOH for blank Milk protein % = 5.67[2.4-0.5] =11% Milk protein% for second reading = 12% Average reading is = 11.5% Average protein content of the solution of 30g milk in 300ml water is 11.5% 4.3.5. Discussion Before the titration milk is neutralized by using NaOH. If not false results may be given due to the presence of lactic acid. To the neutralized milk formaldehyde is added prior to the titration to block amine groups. When the amine groups are blocked carboxyl group of the proteins are free to react with NaOH.