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You are on page 1of 8

1

2

F a

F = ma

K = m v2

= I

KR = I 2

1

2

v

Two forms of

Newtons second law

a

tt

m I

Lets consider a motion of a rigid body with a single external force F exerting

on the point P, moving the object by ds.

The work done by the force F as the

object

rotates

through

the

infinitesimal distance ds=rd is

dW = F d s = (F sin )rd

dW = (rFsin )d = d

P =

dW d

=

=

dt

dt

Page 1

= I

d = I d d = I d

= I

d

d dt

dt

dW = d = Id

f

W = d = Id = I 2f I i2

2

2

The rotational work done by an external force equals the change in rotational

energy.

Page 2

example 10.14

Sample Problem

Figure 11-17a shows a uniform disk, with mass

M = 2.5 kg and radius R = 20 cm, mounted on a

fixed horizontal axle. A block with mass m = 1.2

kg hangs from a massless cord that is wrapped

around the rim of the disk. Find the acceleration

of the falling block, the angular acceleration of

the disk, and the tension in the cord. The cord

does not slip, and there is no friction at the axle.

Page 3

SOLUTION:

TR = I

I

T=

R

a = R

Both clockwise

Therefore,

I a ( 12 M R 2 ) a 1

T= 2 =

= 2 M a 2 Positive a is down.

2

R

R

m g T = m a Positive direction is down.

a

m g = m a + T = m a + 12 M a = (2 m + M )

2

Dr. Abdallah M. Azzeer

a =g

2m

(2) (1.2 kg )

= (9.8 m / s 2 )

M + 2m

2.5 kg + (2) (1.2 kg)

= 4.8 m / s 2

T = 12 Ma = 12 (2. kg ) ( 4.8 m / s 2 )

= 6. 0 N

a 4.8 m / s 2

= =

= 24 rad / s 2

R

0.20m

The angular acceleration is clockwise.

Page 4

Sample Problem

Let the disk in the previous Sample Problem start

from rest at time t = 0. What is its rotational kinetic

energy K at t = 2.5 s?

= 0 + t = 0 + t = t

Note that alpha is clockwise.

K = 12 I 2 = 12 ( 12 MR 2 ) ( t ) 2 = 14 M (R t ) 2

=

1

4

= 90 J

An alternative way :

K = Ki + W = 0 + W = W

W = ( f i ) = T R ( f i )

Note that the torque is clockwise

f i = i t + 12 t 2 = 0 + 12 t 2 = 12 t 2

Clockwise

K = W = T R (f i ) = T R ( 12 t 2 ) = 12 T R t 2

= 12 (6.0 N) (0.20 m) (24 rad / s 2 ) (2.5 s) 2

= 90 J

Page 5

10

example 10.15

Two masses m1 (5 kg) and m2 (10 kg) are

hanging from a pulley of mass M (3 kg) and

radius R (0.1 m), as shown. There is no slip

between the rope and the pulleys.

(a) What will happen when the masses are

released?

(b) Find the velocity of the masses after they

have fallen a distance of 0.5 m.

(c) What is the angular velocity of the pulley at

that moment?

11

Sample Problem

To throw an 80 kg opponent with a

basic judo hip throw, you intend to

pull his uniform with a force F and a

moment arm d1 = 0.30 m from a pivot

point (rotation axis) on your right hip

(see Fig.). You wish to rotate him

about the pivot point with an angular

acceleration of - 6.0 rad/s2 - that is,

with an angular acceleration that is

clockwise in the figure. Assume that

his rotational inertia I relative to the

pivot point is 15 kgm2.

(a) What must the magnitude of F be if, before you throw him, you bend your

opponent forward to bring his center of mass to your hip?

Page 6

12

SOLUTION:

I (15 kg m 2 ) (6.0 rad / s 2 )

=

F=

= 300 N

d1

0.30 m

The angular acceleration and torque are both clockwise.

(b) What must the magnitude of F be if your opponent remains upright before

you throw him, so that Fg has a moment arm d2 = 0.12 m from the pivot

point?

2

Note that alpha is + 6.0 rad/s .

F=

I d 2 mg

(0.12 m) (80 kg ) (9.8 m / s 2 )

+

= 300 N +

= 613.6 N 610 N

d1

d1

0.30 m

To minimize the required force, you should bend your opponent to bring his

center of mass to your hip.

13

Problem: Two bicycles roll down a hill that is 20m high. Both bicycles

have a total mass of 12kg and 700 mm diameter wheels (r =0.350 m). The

first bicycle has wheels that weigh 0.6 kg each, and the second bicycle has

wheels that weigh 0.3 kg each. Neglecting air resistance, which bicycle

has the faster speed at the bottom of the hill? (Consider the wheels to be

thin hoops).

Page 7

14

The only friction is static friction, so there are no non-conservative forces. (Static

friction involves no motion and since work is defined as W = Fd, when there is no

distance involved, there is no work/energy used).

Mechanical Energy is Conserved, so:

Ei = Ef

KEi +PEi = KEf +PEf

(1/2)mvi2 + (1/2)Ii2 + mghi = (1/2)mvf2 + 2*(1/2)If2 + mghf

mghi = (1/2)mvf2 + 2(1/2)If2 (The two for two wheels).

Now w is given by =v/r where v is the velocity of the rim of the wheel and is the

same as the velocity of the bike. I is given by Mr2 where M is the mass of the tire.

mgh = (1/2)mvf2 + Mr2vf2/r2= (1/2)mvf2 + Mvf2

For the second bike, the wheels have a mass of 0.6 kg, and we get

vf = 18.9 m/s

Why is this true? More of the potential energy goes into rotational kinetic energy

and less into translational kinetic energy when the wheel has more mass.

15

Page 8

16

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