You are on page 1of 73

Lecture Presentations on

Environmental Engineering
Course EENV101
Part 1a WK 1-2 Introduction
By Engr. Jessica. M. Castillo
3T 2015-2016

Course Description
This course covers
• important ecology concepts,
• pollutants and pollution environments:
water, air, and solid;
• environmental technologies for pollution
control and abatement,
• government legislation, rules, and
regulation related to the environment and
waste management
• introduction to ISO 14001 or the
Environmental Management System

COURSE OBJECTIVES
1.
2.
3.

4.

Explain the various effects of
environmental pollution
Identify, plan and select appropriate
design treatment schemes.
State the existing laws, rules and
regulations of the government on
environmental issues.
Explain the importance of pollution
control and waste management and its
relevance to the engineering profession.

 Learning tasks. Projects or Reports not turned in on the proper due dates will not be accepted & shall result in an automatic fail for that assessment.  Excuse for missed exam must be submitted in writing & must be properly certified no more than 1 week after the missed date for exam.Course Policies  Make-ups for missed exams will only be given upon presentation of a valid excuse slip certified by the Centre for Health Services & Wellness. .

the second time caught. the course grade shall be FAILED (5.Course Policies  The penalty for cheating in an exam is zero in that exam.0). .

Course Evaluation Class Standing Minor quizzes 10% Seat works/Recitation 10% Learning Tasks 10% (Reports. Homeworks) Case studies/projects 10% Prelims Examinations Mid-term Exam Final Examination TOTAL 20% 20% 20% 40% 60% 100% .

Learning Tasks  Includes individual home works. seat works etc.  Plant Visits in groups – written evaluation report  Case Study – video presentation by pair on a specific environmental issue. analyzing the cause and showing engineering solution .

other grounds for failing the course are the following: – Intellectual dishonesty (cheating and plagiarism) during examinations and other requirements – Per Section 1551 of CHED’s Manual Regulations for Private Educational Institutions. and other relevant policies and regulations that may be promulgated from time to time . • Aside from academic deficiency. a student who has incurred more than 20% of the total number of school days (8 unexcused absences) shall not be given credit to the course regardless of class standing – Other grounds as stipulated in the MCL Student Catalogue.Course Evaluation • The student is required to obtain a final grade of 60% in order to pass the course.

Julie Beth. 2nd ed. Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals. Sustainability. 3T . Design. James R & Zimmerman. (2014).Textbook: Mihelcic. John Wiley & Sons.

Jessica M.Consultation Schedule Engr.ph CP # : (0917) 705-7230 Days Available: Tuesdays and Thursdays only .edu. Castillo Email Address: jmcastillo@mcl.

3T 2015-16 .Introduction to the Course Rev.

Furthermore. the adequate drainage of urban and rural areas for proper sanitation.Definition: (ASCE) Environmental Engineering .. and the control of water. and the social and environmental impact of these solutions. soil and atmospheric pollution..the proper disposal or recycle of wastewater and solid wastes... (cont’d) .

rural and recreational areas.. and the effect of technological advancement on the environment. It is concerned with engineering problems in the field of public health.. (1977) . the elimination of industrial health hazards. such as control of arthropod-born diseases. and the provision of adequate sanitation in both urban.Definition: (ASCE) Environmental Engineering .

The environmental engineer places special attention on the biological. . and recovery measures. including reuse. land.Environmental Engineering The division of engineering concerned with: the environmental conservation and management of natural resources. chemical. and physical reactions in the air. recycling. and water environments and on improved technology for integrated management systems.

.

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

(CO1)  Discuss the flow of energy in the food chain (CO1)  Differentiate the different levels of biodiversity (CO1)  Give examples of the typical plants and animals that live in the different biomes. (CO1)  Distinguish the different major ecosystems. Biomes. (CO1) Describe the flow of carbon.Week 1-2: Learning Objectives  Analyze some environmental problems (CO1)  Identify environmental problems caused by Engineering activities. (CO1)  State the purpose of Environmental engineering. Habitat. sulfur and phosphorus through the ecosystems and the impact of human activities on these flows.& Community. Ecosystems. (CO1)  Define terms related to Ecology: Biodiversity. oxygen. nitrogen. Population. (CO1)  . Niche.

Popular Environmental Issues: • • • • • • • • • • • • Climate Change Ozone Depletion Green House Effect Water Pollution Air Pollution Noise Pollution Solid Wastes Denuded forests Landslides Fish kill Oil spill etc .

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural/physical environment It includes distributions. abundance. and relations of organisms and their interactions with each other in a common environment . share effects.

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

Rev. soil. water and sunlight (climate). physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact such as air. 3T 2013-14 . as well as all the non-living.Ecosystem An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a particular area.

It includes the arrangement of food. water. 3T 2015-16 . or a "plant-juice-sipping summer buzzer" for a cicada. Niche A niche refers to the "occupation" of an organism in an ecosystem in order to survive. shelter and space that is suitable to meet an organism's needs.Habitat The term habitat refers to the specific kind of place where an organism normally lives. such as a "fish-eating wader" for a heron. Rev.

” detritus (dead matter) 3.Energy and Material Flow in Ecosystems Organisms in any ecosystem may be divided into 3 main groups: 1 Plants : producers of high energy molecules 2 Animals : consumers of high energy molecules “Plants and animals produce wastes and eventually die. 1T 2013-14 . Other Organisms : decomposers which utilizes the detritus Rev.

Photosynthesis
The source of energy for all life on Earth is the
sun. Green plants (and some bacteria) are the
only organisms that can directly capture the
sun's energy and change it into a form that other
organisms can use. Through the process of
photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to change
carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.
The oxygen is given off into the air, where it is
available to other organisms including humans.
Simple sugar molecules make energy available
to plants and, by forming the basic units of
complex carbohydrates, contribute to plant
Rev. 1T 2013-14

http://www.nmnaturalhistory.org/BEG/EcoConcepts_IV_SBEC.html

Rev. 1T 2013-14

Food Web • is a more ecologically correct way of depicting energy transfer in the ecosystem • Shows the importance of balance and biodiversity .

since a predator eats many prey with the toxin. affecting not only the water itself but also all the organisms that depend on the water.Biomagnification As materials are cycled over and over. Example: Mercury in fish Rev. Pesticides applied to our fields may add toxic materials to the river. Concentrations of toxins increase along food chains. 1T 2013-14 . toxins build up. This process is known as biomagnification.

1T 2013-14 Rev. 3T 2015-16 .Microbial Decomposers: Bacteria • Aerobic : requires molecular oxygen in their metabolic activity to produce nutrients • Anaerobic : does not require oxygen • Facultative : use oxygen when available but uses anaerobic reaction otherwise Rev.

producers. structure and functions of an ecosystem. estuaries). streams. Rev. oceans. lakes. rivers.Ecosystems: Concepts of an ecosystem. energy flow in ecosystem. ecological pyramids. food chains. consumers and decomposers. aquatic ecosystem (ponds. 3T 2015-16 .

and ecosystems that describe quite different aspects of living systems and that scientists measure in different ways. Biodiversity can be divided into three hierarchical categories – genes. .. species. and ecosystems in a region.Biodiversity "Biodiversity is the totality of genes. species..

Levels of Biological System Genes Species Population Community Ecosystem Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

Biodiversity . This covers distinct populations of the same species (such as the thousands of traditional rice varieties in India) Example: Rev.Genetic Genetic diversity refers to the variation of genes within species. 1T 2013-14 Issue: Opportunities and risks of genetically modified crops / GMO’s .

osu. Such diversity can be measured in many ways.Species Species diversity refers to the variety of species within a region.2/2013/11/25/bee-poster-now-available/ .edu/ellsworth. and scientists have not settled on a single best method… https://u.Biodiversity .

associations of species -.and ecosystems are elusive.Ecosystem Ecosystem diversity is harder to measure than species or genetic diversity because the "boundaries" of communities -.Biodiversity . 1T 2013-14 . … Rev.

water resources. geology (rock formations). It is defined by the complex interactions of plants and animals with the climate. and latitude of an area.Biomes A biome is a large geographical area characterized by certain types of plants and animals. . soil types.

1T 2013-14 .Major classifications Freshwaters ecosystem Terrestrial ecosystems Oceanic (Marine) ecosystem Rev.

Terrestrial Ecosystem Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

Tundra : Dry Cold and Windy Rev. 1T 2013-14 http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats .

TAIGA Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

Rainforest Rev. 1T 2013-14 Source : http://www.islands.com/wallpaper/rainforest-waterfall .

Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

Chaparral Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

1T 2013-14 Source http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-tips/cold-weather- .Polar Ice Rev.

1T 2013-14 Food Tourism Livelihood Medical Research .Tangible benefits of diversity: • • • • Rev.

Parasitism : where one benefits while the other is harmed. Amensalism : where one is harmed while the other is unaffected. Source Wikipedia Rev. Mutualism : both organisms benefit. 1T 2013-14 .Relationships between species • • • • • • Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism Saprophytism Predation Competition Commensalism : one organism benefits without affecting the other.

Mutualism Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

.

The Coral Triangle  76% of all the world’s coral species  Home to 6 of the world’s 7 species of sea turtle  3000 species of fish or 37% of the world’s reef fish species .

G.Articles on biodiversity:  The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands  Author: Carpenter. K.E.  Date: 21 September 2009 . V. & Springer.

Analysis of distribution data for 2983 species reveals a pattern of richness on a finer scale and identifies a peak of marine biodiversity in the Central Philippine Islands and a secondary peak between Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra…. Multiple datasets show global maxima of marine biodiversity in the Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). .

including Wallacea . .…Our study indicates. … … Special attention to marine conservation efforts in the Philippines is justified because of the identification of it as an epicenter of biodiversity and evolution. that there is a higher concentration of species per unit area in the Philippines than anywhere in Indonesia. however.

.An offshoot of biodiversity: Baldomero  Distinguished Olivera professor of Biology at the University of Utah received the Harvard Foundation “Scientist of the Year” award in 2007 for his more than three decades of research on cone snail venom.

Baldomero Olivera and the conus gloriamaris .

His research:  Resulted in the drug: Ziconotide  A pain killer 1000 times more powerful than morphine and was nonaddictive  Purchased at USD 741 million in 1998 .

Positive impacts to society Benefitted the scientist (s)  Alleviated pain especially for cancer sufferers  Generated jobs  Opened a new frontier in pain management drugs  .

Benefits of strongly diverse systems productivity biodiversity stability sustainability .

Tangible benefits of biodiversity: tourism biodiversity livelihood Food Medical research .

Verde Island Passage .

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

ran aground at a protected marine sanctuary off the tiny island of Sambawan on Friday." he told AFP. June 13. leading to fines for reef damage and the dismantling of the ship. It was the latest in a series of maritime incidents at protected Philippine reefs this year.18 Vietnamese crew held as ship hits Philippine reef Tuesday. A Chinese fishing vessel also ran aground at Tubbataha in April. told AFP the ship will be towed for repairs to a shipyard in the central port of Cebu once the extent of the damage on the vessel is determined. A US Navy minesweeper ran aground at Tubbataha Reef. Ensign Jamaal Aceron. causing even more damage. "The crew are detained aboard their vessel as the damage to the reef is assessed. a World Heritage-listed marine sanctuary in the southern Philippines in January. A central Philippines coastguard spokesman. The crew were arrested and charged for damaging the reef as well as for carrying endangered mammals. 2013 The Unicorn Logger. a Panama-flagged freighter. 1T 2013-14 . Balilo added. coastguard spokesman Armand Balilo said. The ship was carrying logs from Malaysia to Japan when it hit the reef. Rev.

Nutrient/Biogeochemical Cycles While energy flow is in one direction only. nutrient material flow in a cyclical manner through respiration and decomposition process •Carbon Cycle •Nitrogen Cycle • Phosphorus Cycle • Sulfur Cycle •Water Cycle (Oxygen and Hydrogen) Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

com/2011/01/understanding-the-nitrogen-cycle-of-apond/ . 1T 2013-14 http://www.idigorganicgardening.Rev.

which which were often referred to as "green manure." Rev. soybeans. fields are rotated through various types of crops. the fixed nitrogen is released. They contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within nodules in their root system producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. 1T 2013-14 Clotalarias are nitrogen fixers that can be mixed with compost. In many traditional and organic farming practices.Nitrogen Fixing Plants Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include the legume family – Fabaceae – with taxa such as clover. but cannot be used as feeds to animals because they are poisonous. When the plant dies. alfalfa. making it available to other plants and this helps to fertilize the soil. peanuts etc. .

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

Rev. 1T 2013-14 .

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

1T 2013-14 .Rev.

By understanding the ecological systems in which we live. and how we interact with them. 1T 2013-14 . Rev. we can begin to lessen our impact on Earth.