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# Pump Formulas Imperial and SI Units

Imperial Units

SI Units

P = pressure, psi
SG = specific gravity

P = pressure, bar
SG = specific gravity

## Mass Flow to Volumetric Flow

Imperial Units

SI Units

Q = flow, gpm
= mass flow, lbm/h
SG = specific gravity
3
= fluid density, lbm/ft

Q = flow, m /h
= mass flow, kg/h
3
= fluid density, kg/m

Imperial Units

SI Units

## NPSH = net positive suction head at reference point

(usually center line of the impeller), ft
Ha = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, ft
Hvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, ft
Hst = static head to suction reference point (usually center
line of the impeller), ft
Hfs = suction line losses, ft

## NPSH = net positive suction head at reference point

(usually center line of the impeller), m
Ha = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, m
Hvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, m
Hst = static head to suction reference line (usually center
point of the impeller), m
Hfs = suction line losses, m

Imperial Units

SI Units

## NPSH = net positive suction head at reference point

(usually center line of the impeller), ft
Pa = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, psia
Pvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, psia
Hst = static head at reference point (usually center line of
the impeller), ft
Hfs = suction line losses, ft
SG = specific gravity

## NPSH = net positive suction head at reference point

(usually center line of the impeller), m
Pa = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, kPa
Pvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, kPa
absolute
Hst = static head to suction reference line (usually center
point of the impeller), m
Hfs = suction line losses, m
3
= fluid density, kg/m
2
g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s

Imperial Units

SI Units

Hf = friction loss, ft
PS = suction pressure, psia
Pd = discharge pressure, psia
SG = specific gravity
Vs = suction velocity, ft/s
Vd = discharge velocity, ft/s
Zs = suction height from reference, ft
Zd = discharge head from reference, ft
2
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/s

Hf = friction loss, m
PS = suction pressure, bar
Pd = discharge pressure, bar
SG = specific gravity
Vs = suction velocity, m/s
Vd = discharge velocity, m/s
Zs = suction height from reference, m
Zd = Discharge head from reference, m
2
g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s

Pump Power
Imperial Units

SI Units

## P = power, horse power

Q = flow, gpm
SG = specific gravity
= pump efficiency, decimal

P = power, kW
3
Q = flow, m /hr
SG = specific gravity
= pump efficiency, decimal

Pump Torque
Imperial Units

SI Units

= torque, ft-lbf
P = pump power, hp
N = pump speed, rpm

= torque, N-m
P = pump power, kW
N = pump speed, rpm

Temperature Rise
Imperial Units

SI Units

T = temperature rise, F
= pump efficiency, decimal
U = fluid specific heat, BTU/(lbm-F)

T = temperature rise, C or K
= pump efficiency, decimal
U = fluid specific heat, kJ/(kg-K) or kJ/(kg-C)

Fluid Velocity
Imperial Units

SI Units

V = velocity, ft/s
Q = flow, gpm
d = pipe inside diameter, in

V = velocity, m/s
3
Q = flow, m /h
d = pipe inside diameter, mm

Imperial Units

SI Units

## Hv = velocity head, ft of liquid

V = fluid velocity, ft/s
2
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/s
Q = flow, gpm
d = pipe inside diameter, in

V = fluid velocity, m/s
2
g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s
3
Q = flow, m /h
d = pipe inside diameter, mm

## Specific Speed at BEP

Imperial Units

SI Units

Ns = specific speed
N = pump speed, rpm
Q = flow, gpm
Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)
Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter
For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Ns = specific speed
N = pump speed, rpm
3
Q = flow, m /h
Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)
Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter
For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

## Suction Specific Speed at BEP

Imperial Units

SI Units

Ns = specific speed
N = pump speed, rpm
Q = flow, gpm
NPSH = net positive suction head, ft
Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)
Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter
For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Ns = specific speed
N = pump speed, rpm
3
Q = flow, m /h
NPSH = net positive suction head, m
Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)
Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter
For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

## Other Pump Formulas

Affinity Laws
Changes in Diameter

Changes in Speed

D = diameter, in or mm
3
Q = flow, gpm or m /h
H = head, ft or m
P = power, hp or kW

Q = flow, gpm or m /h
H = head, ft or m
P = power, hp or kW
N = speed, rpm

Bernoullis Equation
g = gravitational constant
L = energy losses
PS = suction pressure
Pd = discharge pressure
Vs = suction velocity
Vd = discharge velocity
W = work by the pump
Zs = suction height from reference
Zd = discharge head from reference
= fluid density
= fluid specific weight = g*

Tables
Conversion Factors
Imperial Conversions
From
To
barrel (oil) bbl
gallon US gal
barrel (oil) bbl
cubic meter m3
British thermal unit Btu
Joule J
British thermal unit per hour Btu/h
Watt W
cubic feet ft3
cubic meter m3
3
cubic feet per minute ft /min or cfm
cubic meters per hour m3/h
feet ft
meter m
foot pounds force ft-lbf
Joule J
gallon (US) US gal
cubic meter m3
gallon (US) US gal
liter l
gallon (US) US gal
gallon (Imperial) Imp gal
gallon (US) per minute gpm
cubic meter per hour m3/h
gallon (US) per minute gpm
barrel (oil) per day b/d
horsepower hp
kilowatt kW
horsepower hour hp-h
kilojoule kJ
horsepower hour hp-h
British thermal unit per hour Btu
inch in
millimeter mm
inch of mercury at 0F inHg
kilopascal kPa
inch of water at 68F inH2O
kilopascal kPa
mile
kilometer km
pound force lbf
Newton N
pound mass lbm
kilogram kg
pound force per square inch psi
kilopascal kPa
pound force per square inch psi
bar
ton (long)
ton (short)
ton (short)
kilogram kg
yard yd
meter m
Note
1. Conversions less than four significant digits are exact.

Multiply By1
42
0.159 0
1 055
0.293 1
0.028 32
1.699
0.304 8
1.356
0.003 785
3.785
0.832 7
0.227 1
34.28
0.745 7
2 684
2 545
25.4
3.386
0.248 7
1.609
4.448
0.453 6
6.895
0.068 95
1.12
907.2
0.914 4

SI Conversions
From
bar
bar
cubic meter m3
cubic meter m3
cubic meter per hour m3/hr
cubic meter per hour m3/hr
kilograms kg
kilogram per square centimeter kg/cm2
kilogram per square centimeter kg/cm2
kilometer km
kilopascal kPa
kilowatt kW
kilowatt hour kW-h
kilowatt hours kW-h
meter m
Newton N

To
kilopascal kPa
pounds force per square inch psi
gallons US gal
cubic feet ft3
gallons per minute gpm
barrel per day b/d
pounds mass lbm
Bar
pounds force per square inch psi
mile
pounds force per square inch psi
horsepower hp
British thermal units per hour Btu
Kilojoule kJ
feet ft
pound force lbf

Multiply By
100
14.50
264.2
35.31
4.403
337.3
2.205
0.980 7
14.22
0.621 4
0.145 0
1.341
3.413
3 600
3.281
0.224 8

SI Prefixes
Power of Ten
1012
109
106
103
10
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12

Name
tera
giga
mega
kilo
deca
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico

Symbol
T
G
M
k
da
d
c
m

n
p

## Symbols and Nomenclature

Symbol
A
D, d
g
H
h

N
Ns
Nss
P
P
Q
s
U
V
W
Z
NPSH
SG

Definition
Area
Diameter
Gravitational constant
Time
Mass flow rate
Speed
Specific speed
Suction specific speed
Power
Pressure
Flow
Time
Specific heat
Velocity
Work
Elevation
Specific gravity
Efficiency
Density
Torque
Temperature change
Specific weight

Imperial Units
ft2
inches
32.2 ft/s2
ft
hour
lbm/h
rpm
Dimensionless
Dimensionless
horsepower
psi
gpm
seconds
btu/lbm-F
ft/s
ft
ft
ft
Dimensionless
Dimensionless
lbm/ft3
ft-lbf
F
lbf/ft3

SI Units
m2
mm
9.81 m/s2
m
hour
kg/h
rpm
Dimensionless
Dimensionless
kW
kPa or bar
m3/h
seconds
kJ/kg-C
m/s
m
m
m
Dimensionless
Dimensionless
Kg/m3
N-m
C
kN/m3