Toolbox Equations

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Toolbox Equations

© All Rights Reserved

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Pressure to Head

Imperial Units

SI Units

H = head, ft

P = pressure, psi

SG = specific gravity

H = head, m

P = pressure, bar

SG = specific gravity

Imperial Units

SI Units

Q = flow, gpm

= mass flow, lbm/h

SG = specific gravity

3

= fluid density, lbm/ft

Q = flow, m /h

= mass flow, kg/h

3

= fluid density, kg/m

In terms of head

Imperial Units

SI Units

(usually center line of the impeller), ft

Ha = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, ft

Hvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, ft

Hst = static head to suction reference point (usually center

line of the impeller), ft

Hfs = suction line losses, ft

(usually center line of the impeller), m

Ha = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, m

Hvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, m

Hst = static head to suction reference line (usually center

point of the impeller), m

Hfs = suction line losses, m

Imperial Units

SI Units

(usually center line of the impeller), ft

Pa = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, psia

Pvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, psia

Hst = static head at reference point (usually center line of

the impeller), ft

Hfs = suction line losses, ft

SG = specific gravity

(usually center line of the impeller), m

Pa = absolute pressure of the suction vessel, kPa

Pvpa = fluid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, kPa

absolute

Hst = static head to suction reference line (usually center

point of the impeller), m

Hfs = suction line losses, m

3

= fluid density, kg/m

2

g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s

Pump Head

Imperial Units

SI Units

H = pump head, ft

Hf = friction loss, ft

PS = suction pressure, psia

Pd = discharge pressure, psia

SG = specific gravity

Vs = suction velocity, ft/s

Vd = discharge velocity, ft/s

Zs = suction height from reference, ft

Zd = discharge head from reference, ft

2

g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/s

H = pump head, m

Hf = friction loss, m

PS = suction pressure, bar

Pd = discharge pressure, bar

SG = specific gravity

Vs = suction velocity, m/s

Vd = discharge velocity, m/s

Zs = suction height from reference, m

Zd = Discharge head from reference, m

2

g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s

Pump Power

Imperial Units

SI Units

H = head, ft

Q = flow, gpm

SG = specific gravity

= pump efficiency, decimal

P = power, kW

H = head, m

3

Q = flow, m /hr

SG = specific gravity

= pump efficiency, decimal

Pump Torque

Imperial Units

SI Units

= torque, ft-lbf

P = pump power, hp

N = pump speed, rpm

= torque, N-m

P = pump power, kW

N = pump speed, rpm

Temperature Rise

Imperial Units

SI Units

T = temperature rise, F

H = total head, ft

= pump efficiency, decimal

U = fluid specific heat, BTU/(lbm-F)

T = temperature rise, C or K

H = total head, m

= pump efficiency, decimal

U = fluid specific heat, kJ/(kg-K) or kJ/(kg-C)

Fluid Velocity

Imperial Units

SI Units

V = velocity, ft/s

Q = flow, gpm

d = pipe inside diameter, in

V = velocity, m/s

3

Q = flow, m /h

d = pipe inside diameter, mm

Velocity Head

Imperial Units

SI Units

V = fluid velocity, ft/s

2

g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/s

Q = flow, gpm

d = pipe inside diameter, in

Hv = velocity head, m

V = fluid velocity, m/s

2

g = gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s

3

Q = flow, m /h

d = pipe inside diameter, mm

Imperial Units

SI Units

Ns = specific speed

N = pump speed, rpm

Q = flow, gpm

H = head, ft

Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)

Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter

For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Ns = specific speed

N = pump speed, rpm

3

Q = flow, m /h

H = head, m

Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)

Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter

For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Imperial Units

SI Units

Ns = specific speed

N = pump speed, rpm

Q = flow, gpm

NPSH = net positive suction head, ft

Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)

Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter

For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Ns = specific speed

N = pump speed, rpm

3

Q = flow, m /h

NPSH = net positive suction head, m

Values are taken at best efficiency point (BEP)

Pump flow is taken at the largest impeller diameter

For double suction impellers pump flow is divided by two

Affinity Laws

Changes in Diameter

Changes in Speed

D = diameter, in or mm

3

Q = flow, gpm or m /h

H = head, ft or m

P = power, hp or kW

Q = flow, gpm or m /h

H = head, ft or m

P = power, hp or kW

N = speed, rpm

Bernoullis Equation

g = gravitational constant

L = energy losses

PS = suction pressure

Pd = discharge pressure

Vs = suction velocity

Vd = discharge velocity

W = work by the pump

Zs = suction height from reference

Zd = discharge head from reference

= fluid density

= fluid specific weight = g*

Tables

Conversion Factors

Imperial Conversions

From

To

barrel (oil) bbl

gallon US gal

barrel (oil) bbl

cubic meter m3

British thermal unit Btu

Joule J

British thermal unit per hour Btu/h

Watt W

cubic feet ft3

cubic meter m3

3

cubic feet per minute ft /min or cfm

cubic meters per hour m3/h

feet ft

meter m

foot pounds force ft-lbf

Joule J

gallon (US) US gal

cubic meter m3

gallon (US) US gal

liter l

gallon (US) US gal

gallon (Imperial) Imp gal

gallon (US) per minute gpm

cubic meter per hour m3/h

gallon (US) per minute gpm

barrel (oil) per day b/d

horsepower hp

kilowatt kW

horsepower hour hp-h

kilojoule kJ

horsepower hour hp-h

British thermal unit per hour Btu

inch in

millimeter mm

inch of mercury at 0F inHg

kilopascal kPa

inch of water at 68F inH2O

kilopascal kPa

mile

kilometer km

pound force lbf

Newton N

pound mass lbm

kilogram kg

pound force per square inch psi

kilopascal kPa

pound force per square inch psi

bar

ton (long)

ton (short)

ton (short)

kilogram kg

yard yd

meter m

Note

1. Conversions less than four significant digits are exact.

Multiply By1

42

0.159 0

1 055

0.293 1

0.028 32

1.699

0.304 8

1.356

0.003 785

3.785

0.832 7

0.227 1

34.28

0.745 7

2 684

2 545

25.4

3.386

0.248 7

1.609

4.448

0.453 6

6.895

0.068 95

1.12

907.2

0.914 4

SI Conversions

From

bar

bar

cubic meter m3

cubic meter m3

cubic meter per hour m3/hr

cubic meter per hour m3/hr

kilograms kg

kilogram per square centimeter kg/cm2

kilogram per square centimeter kg/cm2

kilometer km

kilopascal kPa

kilowatt kW

kilowatt hour kW-h

kilowatt hours kW-h

meter m

Newton N

To

kilopascal kPa

pounds force per square inch psi

gallons US gal

cubic feet ft3

gallons per minute gpm

barrel per day b/d

pounds mass lbm

Bar

pounds force per square inch psi

mile

pounds force per square inch psi

horsepower hp

British thermal units per hour Btu

Kilojoule kJ

feet ft

pound force lbf

Multiply By

100

14.50

264.2

35.31

4.403

337.3

2.205

0.980 7

14.22

0.621 4

0.145 0

1.341

3.413

3 600

3.281

0.224 8

SI Prefixes

Power of Ten

1012

109

106

103

10

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

Name

tera

giga

mega

kilo

deca

deci

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

Symbol

T

G

M

k

da

d

c

m

n

p

Symbol

A

D, d

g

H

h

N

Ns

Nss

P

P

Q

s

U

V

W

Z

NPSH

SG

Definition

Area

Diameter

Gravitational constant

Head

Time

Mass flow rate

Speed

Specific speed

Suction specific speed

Power

Pressure

Flow

Time

Specific heat

Velocity

Work

Elevation

Net positive suction head

Specific gravity

Efficiency

Density

Torque

Temperature change

Specific weight

Imperial Units

ft2

inches

32.2 ft/s2

ft

hour

lbm/h

rpm

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

horsepower

psi

gpm

seconds

btu/lbm-F

ft/s

ft

ft

ft

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

lbm/ft3

ft-lbf

F

lbf/ft3

SI Units

m2

mm

9.81 m/s2

m

hour

kg/h

rpm

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

kW

kPa or bar

m3/h

seconds

kJ/kg-C

m/s

m

m

m

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Kg/m3

N-m

C

kN/m3

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