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Erickson, Tomlin, Swain

Nursing Theorists
Florence Nightingale, Hildegard Peplau, Virginia Henderson, Fay Abdella, Ida Jean Orlando, Dorothy Johnson, Martha Rogers, Dorothea Orem, Imogene King, Betty
Neuman, Sister Calista Roy, Jean Watson, Rosemary Rizzo Parse, Madeleine Leininger, Patricia Benner
The Hierarchy of Contemporary Nursing Knowledge
Metaparadigm<--- Philosophies Conceptual Models Theories Methodologies
Most abstract Most concrete
Conceptual Framework and Model
Conceptual framework: simply a group of related concepts. It provides an overall view or orientation to focus thoughts.
Conceptual framworks act as general guidelines for practice, research, curricula, and administrative systems (Nicoll, 1999, p. 490).
Conceptual model: synonymous to conceptual framework, system, map, or scheme but is a graphic illustration of the Conceptual framework..
Grand theories are conceptual structures that are nearly as abstract as the nursing models from which they are derived, but they propose outcomes based on use and
application of the model in nursing practice.

Theories are ways of looking at phenomenon to describe, explain, predict, or control it.

Conceptual Models

Deal with abstractions, assembled in a coherent scheme

Represent a less formal attempt than theories to explain phenomena
Do not have formal propositions about relationships among phenomena
Theoretical framework (based on theory)
Conceptual framework (based on a conceptual model).

Examples :
Betty Neuman developed the systems model for nursing
Sister Callista Roy used the adaptation model for nursing
Conceptual Models Used Frequently by Nurse Researchers Conceptual models of nursing:
Roys Adaptation Model
Orems Self-Care Model
Other models developed by nurses:
Penders Health Promotion Model (HPM)
Mishels Uncertainty in Illness Theory
Commonalities Between Theories and Conceptual Models
Use concepts as building blocks
Require conceptual definitions of key concepts
Can be depicted in a schematic model
Are created by humans
Are developed inductively
Commonalities Between Theories and Conceptual Models (contd)
Cannot be proventhey are supported to greater or lesser degrees
Can be used to generate hypotheses
Can serve as a stimulus to research
Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm
Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and Sociocultural components
Individual, family, or community
All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person
Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person
Actions, characteristics and attributes of person giving care
Meta Theory Ilmu keperawatan terdapat 4 level dalam mengungkapkan masalah yaitu :

Mengklarifikasi hubungan antara ilmu keperawatan dan praktik

Mendefinisikan, mengembangkan dan menguji teori keperawatan
Ditegakkan menurut disiplin teori keperawatan
Pengujian dan intepretasi pandangan dasar filosofi dan hasilnya dihubungkan dengan ilmu keperawatan

Examples of meta-theory in nursing

Modern nursing theory by Florence nigtingale
The definition of nursing according to Virginia Henderson
Art helpful in nursing practice by Ernestine Wiedenbach
Core, Care and cure according to Lidia E. Hall
21 nursing problem by Faye Glenn Abdellah
Philosophy and science of caring by Jean Watson
From novice to expert: exellence and power in clinical nursing practice by Patricia Benner
Grand Theory
The broadest scope of the theory
Global paradigm of science in nursing, which is highly abstract that becomes the frame of mind with the discipline of nursing principles, and specific assumptions
Grand theory which can be obtained from the conceptual model as a starting point for developing middle-range theory.
For example, Alligod (1991) obtained a middle-range theory is a theory of creativity, actualization and empathy, an acceleration of development of the theory of evolution of
Rogers' (1986).
Examples grand theory are :
Dorothea E. Orem : Self care deficit theory

Betty Neuman : system model

Myra Estrin Levin : conservasi model

Imogene King : system framework

Marta E. Rogers : unitary human beings

Nancy Roper, winifred W. Logan :The elements of nursing : A model for nursing
based on a model of living

Dorothy E Johnson : behavioral system model

Sister Callista Roy : adaptation model

Middle-Range Theory
Dari grand theory dan mengandung sejumlah konsep yang berhubungan dengan aspek bebas dari dunia nyata
Contoh middle theory adalah :
1.Hildegrad Peplau tentang Psycodinamic nursing.
2.Ida jean orlando tentang nursing process theory.
3.Joyce travelber tentang human to human relationship model.
4.Ramona T. Mercer tentang maternal role attainment.
5.Kathryn E Barnard tentang parent-child interaction model.
6.Nola j. Pander tentang the health promotion model
Practice theory atau micro theory
Micro theory is a theory more complex and specific. Is a set of theoretical statements, usually in the form of hypotheses, and a small part of the phenomenon.
This theory at least formal and most tentative in theoretical level. This theory is also the most limited in scope or application of time and scope. Practice
theory is a special approach which has a high value for scholars and practitioners in working to organize, explain and try their ideas
Propositions of nursing practitioners use to identify, describe, organize conceptual relationships work in practice, although identical in the process but differ in
the terms and scopenya, so the practitioner to investigate more specific relationships in smaller groups of people or single person.
For example nurses working in general wards with elderly patients receiving a medical diagnosis PPOM (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), before
meeting with patients and nurses have started to put his knowledge to organize by making hypotheses about the conceptual linkage with disease in the elderly
PPOM and functional status limitations.
The nurse then tried working hypotheses through direct assessment and working with concepts and relationships change through the manipulation of people
and the environment.
1. The assumption is a statement about the central phenomenon of a vicarious disciplinary convictions & a reputed statements is true without proof and
demonstration. Assumptions can be explicitly or implicitly.
2. Concept as a symbolic statement illuminative class phenomenon at the phenomenon (Kim 1983). In other words the concept of adl mental picture of a
phenomenon, an idea or a building from an object at the action.
3. Principle: A Declaration that connects more than two concepts - the concept of writing on a theoretical level

4. Proposition: Proposition is defined as a statement about the relationship between two or more concepts, can be shaped or no relational relational.
Relational may take the form correlation or causal, no relational includes descriptions of properties and dimensions of the concept in the definition of
the scope of the proposition.
The model, who described dg idea to use the symbol & physical visualization, within the form of verbal, schematic or quantitative
Components of models
1.The beliefs & values on which the model is based
2.The goals of practice what the practitioner aims to achieve
3.The knowledge & skills the practitioner need develop in order to gain these goals
What is a Nursing Model?
Philosophy: A broad statement of values & beliefs (Philosophy of Nursing)
Model: Frameworks or paradigms of the science of nursing that address the person, environment health & nursing metaparadigm (Orems Model)
Theory: A set of statements that tentatively describe, explain or predict relationships among concepts that have been systemically selected/organized as an
abstract representation of some phenomenon. Nursing theory derives from Models. (Orems Self Care Deficit Theory)
A Model Must Meet Criteria To
Be accepted by a body of scientists
Provide a basis for practice
Be open ended (provide a guide for research that expands the knowledge base for the profession)
Theory & Nursing Model
1. Florence Nightingale (1820~1910) : The enviromental of nursing model
2.Betty Newman : Nursing system model
3.Dorothea E Orem (1970) : Self care or self care deficit theory
4.Sister Calista Roy (1964) : Roy Adaptation model
5.Jean Watson : Human science and human care
6.Hildegard E Peplau : Interpersonal model/ Psychodynamic Nursing
7.Madeleine Leininger : Cultural Care Theory