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Introduction-Machine Design

Engineering Design
Engineering design may be defined as
-the iterative decision making activity to create a plan or plans by which
the available resources are converted, preferably optimally, into
systems, processes or devices to perform the desired functions and to
meet human needs.
-An iterative decision making process to conceive and implement
optimum systems to solve societys problems and needs.

Mechanical Engineering Design


- defined as iterative decision making process to describe a machine or
mechanical system to perform specific function with maximum
economy and efficiency by using scientific principles, technical
information, and imagination of the designer

Machine Design
Machine Design or mechanical design is primarily concerned with the
systems by which the energy is converted into useful mechanical forms
and of mechanisms required to convert the output of the machine to
the desired form. The design may lead to an entirely new machine or
an improvement on an existing one.
Thus machine design is the production or creation of the right
combination of correctly proportioned moving and stationary
components so constructed and joined as to enable the liberation,
transformation, and utilization of energy

Steps in Machine Design


1.Market Survey
2. Define specification of a product
3. Study alternative mechanism for product and select proper mechanism
4. Compute for the transmitted force ,select proper materials and calculate
for allowable stress
5. Prepare general layout of configuration and select joining methods
between individual components of product mechanism
6. Design individual components based on proper dimensions
7. Prepare assembly and detailed drawing and modify drawing after testing
prototype model mechanism

Steps in Machine Design


1. Market Survey
The chief objective of an enterprise that produces a product is to satisfy the
customer. It is essential that you know your customers desires before
beginning a product design

2. Define specification of a product


a complete list of specifications for the functional requirement of the
product is to be prepared. The requirement may include, for example,
Output capacity; Service life; Cost; Reliability; etc.
In consumer products, in addition appearance, noiseless operation, and
simplicity in control are important requirements.
Depending upon the type of product, various requirements are given
weightage and a priority list of specifications is prepared.

Steps in Machine Design


3. Study alternative mechanism for product and select proper
mechanism
After a careful study of the requirements the designer prepares rough
sketches of different possible mechanisms of machine and depending
upon the cost competitiveness, availability of raw material, and
manufacturing facilities, the possible mechanisms are compared with
each other and the designer selects the best possible mechanism for
the product

Steps in Machine Design


4.Compute for the transmitted force ,select proper materials and calculate
for allowable stress
Machine is made up of various machine elements on which various forces
are applied. Calculate the forces acting on each of the element and energy
transmitted by them.
Select the appropriate materials for each element of the machine so that
they can sustain all the forces and at the same time they have least
possible cost.
Considering the various forces acting on the machine elements, their
material and other factors that affect the strength of the machine calculate
the allowable or design stress for the machine elements.

Steps in Machine Design


5. Prepare general layout of configuration and select joining methods
between individual components of product mechanism
a block diagram is to be prepared which showing the general layout of
the selected configuration.
specifies the joining methods, such as riveting, bolting, and welding
to connect the individual components. Rough sketches of shapes of
individual parts are prepared.

Steps in Machine Design


6. Design individual components based on proper dimensions
Find out the appropriate dimensions for the machine elements
considering the forces acting on it, its material, and design stress. The
size of the machine elements should be such that they should not
distort or break when loads are applied

Steps in Machine Design


7. Prepare assembly and detailed drawing and modify drawing after
testing prototype model mechanism
The last stage in design process is to prepare the blue prints of
assembly and individual component after conducting testing then
provide modifications, if necessary.
On these drawings, the material of the components, dimensions and
tolerances, surface finish and machining methods are specified.

Terminologies
Adoptive design
It is the use of existing/known scientific principles and technical
information for development of systems or device with suitable
modifications/changes.
Very often only minor alterations or modifications are made in the
existing designs (based on the feed back from manufacturing, service
or marketing departments).
This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill and attended
by first level designers with ordinary technical training.

Terminologies
Development Design
This type of design involve modifying an existing design into a new
product with appropriate changes in size, shape, form, material,
power range etc. This requires considerable scientific training and
design ability.

Terminologies
Creative design
It is development of an unusual or novel solution to meet an exiting
need.
Very often it results in or needs further scientific understanding.
This type of design needs creative thinking, higher technical ability
and can be attempted by only experienced designers who have
personal qualities of sufficiently high order.

Skills Needed in Machine Design


technical drawing and CAD
properties of materials
manufacturing processes
statics, dynamics, and strength of materials
kinematics and mechanisms

The Criteria for Evaluating Machine Design


Decisions

Safety
Performance (the degree to which the design meets or exceeds the design objectives)
Reliability (a high probability that the device will reach or exceed its design life)
Ease of manufacture
Ease of service or replacement of components
Ease of operation
Low initial cost
Low operating and maintenance costs
Small size and low weight
Low noise and vibration, smooth operation
Use of readily available materials and purchased components
Prudent use of both uniquely designed parts and commercially available components
Appearance that is attractive and appropriate to the application.

Introduction- Stress

Stress
- Force per unit area

Stress
Normal Stress
Tensile Stress- Normal
stress that pulls the
imaginary surface away
from the material

Compressive StressNormal stress that


pushes the imaginary
surface into the
material

Stress
Maximum normal stress in inclined surfaces

Stress
Determine the normal stress in each segment

Stress
FBD

Stresses

Stress
If the cross sectional area of each member is 900mm2, determine the
normal stress in members AC and BD

Stress
FBD of entire truss: Ay = 40 kN, Hy = 60 kN, and Hx = 0
FBD of pin A:

Stress
Method of section in 1 and

0:

Stress
The cross sectional area of the bars is 800mm2. If the working stresses
for members AB and AC are 110 ands 120 Mpa, respectively,
determine the allowable value of the weight W.

Stress
FBD of pt. A:

Stress
Shear Stress

Stress
Maximum shear stress in inclined surfaces

Stress
Determine the largest axial force P that can be carried safely by the
panel if the working stress for the wood is 1120 psi, and the normal
and shear stresses in the glue are limited to 700 psi and 450 psi,
respectively.

Stress
Design for Working Stress in Wood:

Design for Normal Stress in Glue

Stress
Bearing Stress

Shearing force
bearing
(thickness of plate )(diameter of rivet)

Stress
The lap joint shown is fastened by four rivets of 3/4-in. diameter. Find
the maximum load P that can be applied if the working stresses are
14 ksi for shear in the rivet and 18 ksi for bearing in the plate. Assume
that the applied load is distributed evenly among the four rivets, and
neglect friction between the plates.

Stress

Stress
Bending Stress B

Moment (radius)
Moment of inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Stress
If the moment in the beam described by the cross sectional area below
is 4000 ibf-in, detemine the bending stress of the beam.

Stress
If the moment in the beam is 100kN-m, detemine the bending stress of
the beam described by each cross sectional area below
a.

b.

Stress
Torsional Stress =

()

Stress
A steel propeller shaft is to transmit 4.5 MW at 3 Hz without exceeding
a shearing stress of 50 MPa or twisting through more than 1 in a
length of 26 diameters. Compute the proper diameter if G = 83 GPa.

Stress
For the bronze segment AB, the maximum shearing stress is limited to
8000 psi and for the steel segment BC, it is limited to 12 ksi.
Determine the diameters of each segment so that each material will
be simultaneously stressed to its permissible limit when a torque T =
12 kipft is applied. For bronze, G = 6 106 psi and for steel, G = 12
106 psi.

Strain
Simple Strain,

PL L

AE E

Strain
The composite bar below is firmly attached to unyielding supports.
Compute the stress in each material caused by the application of the
axial load P = 50 kips.

Strain
Stress- Strain Diagram
Elastic Limit
The elastic limit is the limit beyond which
the material will no longer go back to its
original shape when the load is removed,
or it is the maximum stress that may e
developed such that there is no
permanent or residual deformation when
the load is entirely removed.

Strain
Stress- Strain Diagram
Elastic and Plastic Ranges
The region in stress-strain diagram from O
to P is called the elastic range. The region
from P to R is called the plastic range

Strain
Stress- Strain Diagram
Yield Point
Yield point is the point at which the
material will have an appreciable
elongation or yielding without any
increase in load.
Ultimate Strength
The maximum ordinate in the stressstrain diagram is the ultimate strength or
tensile strength.

Strain
Stress- Strain Diagram
Rupture Strength
Rupture strength is the strength of the
material at rupture. This is also known as the
breaking strength.

Modulus of Resilience
Modulus of resilience is the work done on a
unit volume of material as the force is
gradually increased from O to P, in Nm/m3.
This may be calculated as the area under the
stress-strain curve from the origin O to up to
the elastic limit E (the shaded area in the
figure). The resilience of the material is its
ability to absorb energy without creating a
permanent distortion.

Strain
Stress- Strain Diagram
Modulus of Toughness
Modulus of toughness is the work done on a unit volume of
material as the force is gradually increased from O to R, in
Nm/m3. This may be calculated as the area under the
entire stress-strain curve (from O to R). The toughness of a
material is its ability to absorb energy without causing it to
break.
Working Stress, Allowable Stress, and Factor of Safety
Working stress is defined as the actual stress of a material
under a given loading. The maximum safe stress that a
material can carry is termed as the allowable stress. The
allowable stress should be limited to values not exceeding
the proportional limit. However, since proportional limit is
difficult to determine accurately, the allowable tress is
taken as either the yield point or ultimate strength divided
by a factor of safety.
The ratio of this strength (ultimate or yield strength) to
allowable strength is called the factor of safety.

Strain
A metal bar which is part of a frame is 50mm diameter and 300 mm
long. It has a tensile force on it of 40kN which tends to stretch it. The
modulus of elasticity is 205 Gpa. Calculate the stress and strain in the
bar and the amount it stretches.

Strain
Shear Strain,

s
L

VL L
s

AG G

Strain
Possions Ratio,

y
z

x
x

Biaxial Deformation

y
X
x

E
E

y
x
y

E
E

y E

x E

Strain
A material has stresses of 2 Mpa in the x-direction and 3 Mpa in the ydirection. Given the elastic contants E=205 Gpa and v=0.27, calculate
the strains in both directions.

Strain
Possions Ratio,

y
z

x
x

Triaxial Deformation

1
x x ( y z )
E
1
y y ( x z )
E

1
z z ( x y )
E

Strain
A rectangular steel block is 3 inches long
in the x direction, 2 inches long in the y
direction, and 4 inches long in the z
direction. The block is subjected to a
triaxial loading of three uniformly
distributed forces as follows: 48 kips
tension in the x direction, 60 kips
compression in the y direction, and 54
kips tension in the z direction. If = 0.30
and E = 29 106 psi, determine the
single uniformly distributed load in the x
direction that would produce the same
deformation in the y direction as the
original loading.