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Engineering Design

Engineering design may be defined as

-the iterative decision making activity to create a plan or plans by which

the available resources are converted, preferably optimally, into

systems, processes or devices to perform the desired functions and to

meet human needs.

-An iterative decision making process to conceive and implement

optimum systems to solve societys problems and needs.

- defined as iterative decision making process to describe a machine or

mechanical system to perform specific function with maximum

economy and efficiency by using scientific principles, technical

information, and imagination of the designer

Machine Design

Machine Design or mechanical design is primarily concerned with the

systems by which the energy is converted into useful mechanical forms

and of mechanisms required to convert the output of the machine to

the desired form. The design may lead to an entirely new machine or

an improvement on an existing one.

Thus machine design is the production or creation of the right

combination of correctly proportioned moving and stationary

components so constructed and joined as to enable the liberation,

transformation, and utilization of energy

1.Market Survey

2. Define specification of a product

3. Study alternative mechanism for product and select proper mechanism

4. Compute for the transmitted force ,select proper materials and calculate

for allowable stress

5. Prepare general layout of configuration and select joining methods

between individual components of product mechanism

6. Design individual components based on proper dimensions

7. Prepare assembly and detailed drawing and modify drawing after testing

prototype model mechanism

1. Market Survey

The chief objective of an enterprise that produces a product is to satisfy the

customer. It is essential that you know your customers desires before

beginning a product design

a complete list of specifications for the functional requirement of the

product is to be prepared. The requirement may include, for example,

Output capacity; Service life; Cost; Reliability; etc.

In consumer products, in addition appearance, noiseless operation, and

simplicity in control are important requirements.

Depending upon the type of product, various requirements are given

weightage and a priority list of specifications is prepared.

3. Study alternative mechanism for product and select proper

mechanism

After a careful study of the requirements the designer prepares rough

sketches of different possible mechanisms of machine and depending

upon the cost competitiveness, availability of raw material, and

manufacturing facilities, the possible mechanisms are compared with

each other and the designer selects the best possible mechanism for

the product

4.Compute for the transmitted force ,select proper materials and calculate

for allowable stress

Machine is made up of various machine elements on which various forces

are applied. Calculate the forces acting on each of the element and energy

transmitted by them.

Select the appropriate materials for each element of the machine so that

they can sustain all the forces and at the same time they have least

possible cost.

Considering the various forces acting on the machine elements, their

material and other factors that affect the strength of the machine calculate

the allowable or design stress for the machine elements.

5. Prepare general layout of configuration and select joining methods

between individual components of product mechanism

a block diagram is to be prepared which showing the general layout of

the selected configuration.

specifies the joining methods, such as riveting, bolting, and welding

to connect the individual components. Rough sketches of shapes of

individual parts are prepared.

6. Design individual components based on proper dimensions

Find out the appropriate dimensions for the machine elements

considering the forces acting on it, its material, and design stress. The

size of the machine elements should be such that they should not

distort or break when loads are applied

7. Prepare assembly and detailed drawing and modify drawing after

testing prototype model mechanism

The last stage in design process is to prepare the blue prints of

assembly and individual component after conducting testing then

provide modifications, if necessary.

On these drawings, the material of the components, dimensions and

tolerances, surface finish and machining methods are specified.

Terminologies

Adoptive design

It is the use of existing/known scientific principles and technical

information for development of systems or device with suitable

modifications/changes.

Very often only minor alterations or modifications are made in the

existing designs (based on the feed back from manufacturing, service

or marketing departments).

This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill and attended

by first level designers with ordinary technical training.

Terminologies

Development Design

This type of design involve modifying an existing design into a new

product with appropriate changes in size, shape, form, material,

power range etc. This requires considerable scientific training and

design ability.

Terminologies

Creative design

It is development of an unusual or novel solution to meet an exiting

need.

Very often it results in or needs further scientific understanding.

This type of design needs creative thinking, higher technical ability

and can be attempted by only experienced designers who have

personal qualities of sufficiently high order.

technical drawing and CAD

properties of materials

manufacturing processes

statics, dynamics, and strength of materials

kinematics and mechanisms

Decisions

Safety

Performance (the degree to which the design meets or exceeds the design objectives)

Reliability (a high probability that the device will reach or exceed its design life)

Ease of manufacture

Ease of service or replacement of components

Ease of operation

Low initial cost

Low operating and maintenance costs

Small size and low weight

Low noise and vibration, smooth operation

Use of readily available materials and purchased components

Prudent use of both uniquely designed parts and commercially available components

Appearance that is attractive and appropriate to the application.

Introduction- Stress

Stress

- Force per unit area

Stress

Normal Stress

Tensile Stress- Normal

stress that pulls the

imaginary surface away

from the material

pushes the imaginary

surface into the

material

Stress

Maximum normal stress in inclined surfaces

Stress

Determine the normal stress in each segment

Stress

FBD

Stresses

Stress

If the cross sectional area of each member is 900mm2, determine the

normal stress in members AC and BD

Stress

FBD of entire truss: Ay = 40 kN, Hy = 60 kN, and Hx = 0

FBD of pin A:

Stress

Method of section in 1 and

0:

Stress

The cross sectional area of the bars is 800mm2. If the working stresses

for members AB and AC are 110 ands 120 Mpa, respectively,

determine the allowable value of the weight W.

Stress

FBD of pt. A:

Stress

Shear Stress

Stress

Maximum shear stress in inclined surfaces

Stress

Determine the largest axial force P that can be carried safely by the

panel if the working stress for the wood is 1120 psi, and the normal

and shear stresses in the glue are limited to 700 psi and 450 psi,

respectively.

Stress

Design for Working Stress in Wood:

Stress

Bearing Stress

Shearing force

bearing

(thickness of plate )(diameter of rivet)

Stress

The lap joint shown is fastened by four rivets of 3/4-in. diameter. Find

the maximum load P that can be applied if the working stresses are

14 ksi for shear in the rivet and 18 ksi for bearing in the plate. Assume

that the applied load is distributed evenly among the four rivets, and

neglect friction between the plates.

Stress

Stress

Bending Stress B

Moment (radius)

Moment of inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

Stress

If the moment in the beam described by the cross sectional area below

is 4000 ibf-in, detemine the bending stress of the beam.

Stress

If the moment in the beam is 100kN-m, detemine the bending stress of

the beam described by each cross sectional area below

a.

b.

Stress

Torsional Stress =

()

Stress

A steel propeller shaft is to transmit 4.5 MW at 3 Hz without exceeding

a shearing stress of 50 MPa or twisting through more than 1 in a

length of 26 diameters. Compute the proper diameter if G = 83 GPa.

Stress

For the bronze segment AB, the maximum shearing stress is limited to

8000 psi and for the steel segment BC, it is limited to 12 ksi.

Determine the diameters of each segment so that each material will

be simultaneously stressed to its permissible limit when a torque T =

12 kipft is applied. For bronze, G = 6 106 psi and for steel, G = 12

106 psi.

Strain

Simple Strain,

PL L

AE E

Strain

The composite bar below is firmly attached to unyielding supports.

Compute the stress in each material caused by the application of the

axial load P = 50 kips.

Strain

Stress- Strain Diagram

Elastic Limit

The elastic limit is the limit beyond which

the material will no longer go back to its

original shape when the load is removed,

or it is the maximum stress that may e

developed such that there is no

permanent or residual deformation when

the load is entirely removed.

Strain

Stress- Strain Diagram

Elastic and Plastic Ranges

The region in stress-strain diagram from O

to P is called the elastic range. The region

from P to R is called the plastic range

Strain

Stress- Strain Diagram

Yield Point

Yield point is the point at which the

material will have an appreciable

elongation or yielding without any

increase in load.

Ultimate Strength

The maximum ordinate in the stressstrain diagram is the ultimate strength or

tensile strength.

Strain

Stress- Strain Diagram

Rupture Strength

Rupture strength is the strength of the

material at rupture. This is also known as the

breaking strength.

Modulus of Resilience

Modulus of resilience is the work done on a

unit volume of material as the force is

gradually increased from O to P, in Nm/m3.

This may be calculated as the area under the

stress-strain curve from the origin O to up to

the elastic limit E (the shaded area in the

figure). The resilience of the material is its

ability to absorb energy without creating a

permanent distortion.

Strain

Stress- Strain Diagram

Modulus of Toughness

Modulus of toughness is the work done on a unit volume of

material as the force is gradually increased from O to R, in

Nm/m3. This may be calculated as the area under the

entire stress-strain curve (from O to R). The toughness of a

material is its ability to absorb energy without causing it to

break.

Working Stress, Allowable Stress, and Factor of Safety

Working stress is defined as the actual stress of a material

under a given loading. The maximum safe stress that a

material can carry is termed as the allowable stress. The

allowable stress should be limited to values not exceeding

the proportional limit. However, since proportional limit is

difficult to determine accurately, the allowable tress is

taken as either the yield point or ultimate strength divided

by a factor of safety.

The ratio of this strength (ultimate or yield strength) to

allowable strength is called the factor of safety.

Strain

A metal bar which is part of a frame is 50mm diameter and 300 mm

long. It has a tensile force on it of 40kN which tends to stretch it. The

modulus of elasticity is 205 Gpa. Calculate the stress and strain in the

bar and the amount it stretches.

Strain

Shear Strain,

s

L

VL L

s

AG G

Strain

Possions Ratio,

y

z

x

x

Biaxial Deformation

y

X

x

E

E

y

x

y

E

E

y E

x E

Strain

A material has stresses of 2 Mpa in the x-direction and 3 Mpa in the ydirection. Given the elastic contants E=205 Gpa and v=0.27, calculate

the strains in both directions.

Strain

Possions Ratio,

y

z

x

x

Triaxial Deformation

1

x x ( y z )

E

1

y y ( x z )

E

1

z z ( x y )

E

Strain

A rectangular steel block is 3 inches long

in the x direction, 2 inches long in the y

direction, and 4 inches long in the z

direction. The block is subjected to a

triaxial loading of three uniformly

distributed forces as follows: 48 kips

tension in the x direction, 60 kips

compression in the y direction, and 54

kips tension in the z direction. If = 0.30

and E = 29 106 psi, determine the

single uniformly distributed load in the x

direction that would produce the same

deformation in the y direction as the

original loading.

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