Geography of Food Food consumption Food trends 1.

Amount of food (Levels of food consumption) – More food (>3000kcal) are consumed in DCs while lesser food (<2500kcal) are consumed in LDCs – General increase in food consumption in the world since 1960s – Food consumption per capita Kilocalories per person per day= Total amount consumed in a placenumber of people in that place 2. Variety of food (Changing food Preferences) – DCs →Increase in consumption of healthy food ⇒ More veg, Less fat ⇒ Organic food →Increase in consumption of wider variety of food ⇒ Fusion food ⇒ E.G. Ice cream prata – LDCs →Fall in consumption of staple food ⇒ Shift from root and tubers to more processed foods →Increase in consumption of non-staple food ⇒ Non-staple food replaces stable food ⇒ Proliferation of fast food Reasons for variation in food consumption 1. Affordability  Purchasing power is the amount of goods and services that can be brought with a unit of currency  DCs have higher incomes hence greater purchasing power. They are able to afford more food and with more variety  LDCs are opposite of DC 2. Stability of food supply  When a country has a stable food supply, it is said to enjoy food security • Food security is obtaining sufficient food of acceptable quality and variety at all times  Food security can be achieved mainly by growing their own food and/or buying from other countries  Natural factors • Natural disasters like earthquakes, floods, hurricanes

• E.G. Hurricane Katrina destroyed farmland and livestock in August 2005. Many people were left without water and food for several days • Epidemics like Swine flu, Mad Cow • E.G. 20 million poultry were destroyed in Asia in late 2003-early 2004 due to widespread of bird flu virus  Human factors • War and conflict. • E.G. During the Iraq-Iran war, the US withheld food aid in an attempt to strave the Iran 3. Accessibility to food  Availability of transport facilities • Food distribution refers to the movement of food from one place to another • People living in rural areas may find it difficult to have access to food  Availability of food outlets • Large food chains and supermarkets are commonly found in DCs, while such food outlets are usually found in the urban areas of LDCs • Limitations and inaccessibility to food sources could affect consumptions  Globalization • Is the increase or exchange of information, ideas, cultures and values due to advancement in transport and communications • Globalization has created accessibility to a greater variety of food  Trade • Is the exchange of goods and services between countries • Trade barriers can hinder or encourage accessibility to food Impacts of variations in food consumption 1. Starvation ○ Due to lack of food (<1000kcal) ○ Results in muscle tissue being burnt for energy 2. Malnutrition ○ Due to imbalance amount of nutrition over time ○ Caused by either natural or psychological factors ○ Results in illness, stunting in children, rickets, anemic, etc. 3. Obesity ○ Excess nutrients are stored as fat ○ Leads to health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease

Responses to variations in food consumption 1. International Organisation  United Nations MOGs 2015 – World food summit World Food Program E.G. Food for work in Somalia  Red Cross  Oxfam International 2. Government responses  Exist in the form of money, free food or food sold at lower prices  E.G. UK government provide free school lunches to children from low income families  Governments may practice stock piling - which is setting aside and storing food, especially during emergencies 3. Food produces in LDCs  Currently DCs buy food from LDCs  And more LDCs are selling non-staple food crops to earn more money Factors affecting productivity Physical 1. Soil  Type of soil ➢Wet, clayey soil (Wet rice) ➢Well drained, sandy soil (Coconut, ground nuts) ➢Well drained, loamy soil (Soy bean) ➢Slightly alkaline soil (Cauliflower)  Fertility of soil ➢Location (Floodplains, deltas, volcanic regions) ➢Less time needed for fallowing 2. Relief  Flat/ gentle sloping land ➢Encourages retention of water ➢Maintains nutrients ➢Easier for use of machinery ➢E.G. Canadian Prairies  Steep areas ➢Terracing ➢Suitable for plantation crops (Tea, coffee) ➢Require more labour 3. Climate  Tropics ➢Wet rice ➢Sugar cane

 Temperate ➢Potatoes ➢Wheat ➢Salmon farming (Chile, Ireland, USA) Social 1. Land ✔ ✔ ✔ 2. Land ✔ ✔ Economic 1. Demand  High demand encourages greater food products  E.G. Coffee 2. Capital  Agricultural inputs Fertilizers Seeds Pesticides  Daily maintenance Energy Water Land use  Research and development Irrigation Chemical fertilizers GM Political 1. Loans and subsidies  Subsiding food production by faying farmers to produce a certain crop  Providing low cost, grants or tax advantages to help farmers.  Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) in Malaysia 2. Polices  National High technology farming in Singapore  Regional EU’s common fishing policy fragmentation Very small plots of land Not economical to use machinery E.G. China, North Korea tenure Inefficient use of land, due to lack of incentive E.G. Brazil landlords make up 2% of the population, but owns 42% of the land

Technological 1. The green revolution  What It is an agricultural revolution in developing countries during the 1960s and 70s employing high-yielding varieties and modern technology to bring about increased food production  Causes Growing world population, especially in developing countries Fear of mass starvation, when global food production is not enough for increasing population Competition for land, with lesser farming land, farmers are cultivating land intensively  Aims To reduce food shortage by increasing food production To increase income of poor subsistence farmers  Features High-yielding varieties  Developed through genetic engineering with different traits  Faster than selective breeding in Traditional Varieties  E.G. IR58-“wonder rice” produced by International Rice Research Institute  They have shorter growing seasons (150 days vs 100 days)  They are resistant to pests and diseases  They are resistant to harsh climates Modern irrigation methods  Supplying water to the land through artificial means  E.G. Drip irrigation, sprinklers  Irrigation helps to overcome physical constrains of irregular or insufficient rainfall  It also allows farmers to grow their crops 2 to 3 times a year Chemicals  Fertilizers adds nutrients to the soil  Pesticides destroy pests that affect crops  Herbicides destroy weeds that may compete with crops for nutrition 2. The blue revolution  A social and technological movement started in 1970s to protect marine life and to ensure sufficient seafood, especially fish, for present and future generation

 Fish farming, where fish are reared in enclosed areas under special conditions that promote growth  E.G. FAO helped start Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture in India Developments in food production Effects of intensifying food production 1. Salinization  It is the upward movement of saline moisture from the soil to the ground  This causes a buildup of salt on the ground making the land hard to grow crops on  Caused by flood irrigation and dam irrigation  In Pakistan, water brought for irrigation is saline and adds salt to the farmland  Thus almost 5.7 mha of Pakistan’s farmland is salt-affected, reducing the crop yield 2. Waterlogging  It is caused by too much water in the fields, causing the soil to be saturated  This prevents air and nutrients from reaching the root of plants  Reducing the quality and growth of the crops 3. Imbalance in soil nutrients  Chemicals supply 2 to 3 nutrients out of 20 types of nutrients needed by plants  Chemicals fertilizers do not add humus (compost) to the soil  Hence resulting in lower soil quality 4. Eutrophication  Due to many chemicals and fertilizers being used to increase food production  They may be washed away into rivers or lakes  Because of the nutrient enrichment, algae can grow very fast  They absorb oxygen in the water and block sunlight from reaching the aquatic plants  This causes aquatic plants and creatures to die due to lack of oxygen or sunlight  In the early 1990s, environmentalists found that half of the lakes in Asia and Europe are eutrophic. Thus nutrient levels were considerably greater than 30 to 40 years ago

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