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You are on page 1of 20

APHY 111

Work and Energy

Contents

3.1 The work of a constant force

3.2 The work done by a spring

3.3 Kinetic energy and the work-energy

theorem

3.4 Potential energy

3.5 Conservation of Mechanical energy

3.6 Mechanical energy with friction

3.7 General Problems

2

Formally, work is the product of a constant force F

through a parallel displacement s.

The unit of work is a joule (J)

1 joule = 1 newton . 1 meter

J=Nm

WF = FS

3

components.

W = F|| s = F cos( ) s

4

If the work is done on a system and it is positive,

energy is transferred to the system

If the work done on the system is negative,

energy is transferred from the system

If a system interacts with its environment, this

interaction can be described as a transfer of

energy across the system boundary

This will result in a change in the amount of energy

stored in the system

5

The total work is equal to the algebraic

sum of the work done by the individual

forces

Remember work is a scalar, so this is the

algebraic sum

Example 1: Calculate the total work done on the above box. Take Fp=100 N,

m=20kg and =0.2.

The force is NOT

constant (it varies

with position)

F = kx (Hooke' s Law)

x

W = Fdx =

0

W0 x1 =

1 2

kx

2

1 2

1 2

kx1 W0 x 2 = kx2

2

2

Wx1 x2 =

1 2 1 2

kx2 kx1

2

2

theorem

Kinetic Energy is the energy of a particle

due to its motion

Ekin = mv2

Ekin is the kinetic energy (or simply K)

m is the mass of the particle

v is the speed of the particle

result of doing work to transfer energy into

a system

10

Relation between

work and K.E. for a

constant force:

W = F .x

W = (ma).x

v f 2 vi 2

W = (ma).

2a

1

1

2

2

W = mv f mvi = Ekin

2

2

11

Work-Energy Theorem

The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem states

W = Ekinf Ekini = Ekin

When work is done on a system and the only

change in the system is in its speed, the work

done by the net force equals the change in

kinetic energy of the system.

The speed of the system increases if the work done

on it is positive

The speed of the system decreases if the net work is

negative

Also valid for changes in rotational speed

12

Example 2: A force of 100N acts on a box that was initially stationary for a

distance of 10m. If the mass of the box is 10kg what will be its speed after

10m?

13

14

Example 3: A block of mass 5.00 kg is set into motion up an inclined plane with an initial

velocity of 8.00 m/s. There is a constant force of friction acting on the block. The block comes to

rest after travelling 3.00m. For this motion calculate

(a) the change in the kinetic energy of the block

(b) The change in the potential energy

(c) The coefficient of friction.

(d) Repeat the calculation using the work-energy theorem.

15

16

17

Potential energy is energy related to the

position of the different components of a

system.

The different components interact with each

other

Can be associated with only specific types of

forces

18

The system is the Earth and

the book

Do work on the book by lifting

it slowly through a vertical

displacement

W = F .r

W = (mg )r

There is no change in kinetic

energy since the book starts

and ends at rest

19

The quantity mgr is identified as the change in

gravitational potential energy Ug.

If we choose Ug=0 at the surface of the earth then we

can define the gravitational potential as

If h>0 the object is above the surface of the earth

If h<0 the object is below the surface of the earth

Units are joules (J)

Ug a scalar

20

The work done in

changing a springs

length by x is called the

elastic potential energy of

the spring:

Us = kx2

The elastic potential

energy can be thought of

as the energy stored in

the deformed spring

The stored potential

energy can be converted

into kinetic energy

Us =

1 2

kx

2

Us = 0

21

The sum of potential and kinetic energy is

called mechanical energy

Emech=K+U

K=kinetic energy U=potential energy

When the forces acting in a system are

conservative then the mechanical energy

is conserved:

K f + U f = Ki + U i

K f Ki = U i U f

K = U

22

Example 4: A ball of mass m is dropped from a height h=10m above the ground.

(A) Neglecting air resistance, determine the speed of the ball when it hits the ground.

(B) Determine the speed of the ball when it is 1m above ground.

23

energy to calculate the speed of an object after

is released from a spring that is compressed

by an amount x.

24

The work done by friction in a system is

always negative. Friction is removing

mechanical energy (dissipating energy)

from the system.

The mechanical energy is not conserved

when friction is present.

Instead we have that the change in

mechanical energy equals the work done

by friction

Emech = Wfriction

25

Example 5:

The mass is attached to

a spring, the spring is

compressed and then

the mass is released

A constant friction force

acts

The block will be pushed

by the spring and move

off with some speed

Block and surface is the

system

The force of friction is

decreasing the total

mechanical energy

What is the velocity of block after is released?

26

800 m. Her parachute opens immediately and she lands on the ground with a

speed of 5 m/s.

(a) How much energy has been lost due to air friction in this jump?

(b) What is the average frictional force exerted on the parachutist during her fall?

27

28

spring of stiffness k = 200 N/m. The other end of the spring is connected to a

fixed vertical wall. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the mass and the

table is = 0,3. The spring is suppressed by x1 = 30 cm with the mass

remaining in contact with it, then released free to move.

Calculate:

(a) The elastic potential energy of the compressed spring.

(b) The kinetic friction on the mass.

(c) The speed of the block when the spring reaches its natural length.

(d) The distance it moved further before it stopped.

30

Exercise 3: A block of mass 5.00 kg is set into motion up an inclined plane with an initial velocity

of 8.00 m/s. There is a constant force of friction acting on the block. The block comes to rest after

travelling 3.00m. For this motion calculate

(a) the change in the kinetic energy of the block

(b) the change in the potential energy

(c) the force of friction and the coefficient of kinetic friction

31

32

Exercise 4: A 10.0-kg block is released from point A as shown in the Figure. The track is

frictionless except for the portion between points B and C, which has a length of 6.00 m. The

block travels down the track, hits a spring of force constant 2250 N/m, and compresses the spring

0.300 m from its equilibrium position before coming to rest momentarily. Determine the

coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the rough surface between B and C.

33

34

a wall and passes through it. The bullet comes out of the wall with a speed

u2 = 150 m/s.

Find:

(a) The loss of energy E of the bullet.

(b) If the wall is 8 cm thick, what is the resistive force F the wall exerts on the

bullet assuming that it remains constant during its motion through the wall?

35

36

(a) What is the potential energy stored to the spring?

A box of mass 3.5 kg is placed in front of the above compressed spring.

(b) Find the speed that this object will gain after it is released.

(c) If on the box is exerted a constant force of friction equal to 5 N, for how long this

force must act in order to stop the body?

37

38

spring of constant k = 2000 N/m. Suppose that after the body collides with the

spring it remains on it. Using energy considerations, or otherwise, evaluate the

maximum compression of the spring.

39

40

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