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- Advanced Functions 12 Answers
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4

Solve Rational Equations

and Inequalities

Proper lighting is of critical importance in surgical

procedures. If a surgeon requires more illumination

from a light source of ﬁxed power, the light needs to

be moved closer to the patient. By how much is the

intensity increased if the distance between the light

and the patient is halved? The intensity of illumination

is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

to the light source. The function I _ k relates the

d2

illumination, I, to the distance, d, from the light

source. If a speciﬁc intensity is needed, the distance

needs to be solved for in order to determine the

placement of the light source.

Solve.

a) __ 4 4

3x 5

b) ___x5 3x 2

__

x2 3x 4 x2 1

Solution

a) __4

4

3x 5

4 4(3x 5), 5

x⬆_ Multiply both sides by (3x 5).

3

4 12x 20

12x 24

x 2

x5

___ 3x 2

b) __

x 3x 4

2 2

x 1

x5

___ 3x 2

___ , x ⬆ 1, x ⬆ 1, x ⬆ 4 Factor the expressions in the denominators.

(x 4)(x 1) (x 1)(x 1)

(x 5)(x 1) (3x 2)(x 4) Multiply both sides by (x 4)(x 1)(x 1).

x2 6x 5 3x2 10x 8

2x2 4x 13 0

4 √

(4)2 4(2)(13) 2x2 4x 13 cannot be factored.

x _____

2(2) Use the quadratic formula.

4 √

120

__

4

4 2 √

30

__

4

2 √

30

__

2

x

Solve __ 2x2 3x 5 .

___

x2 x2 6

Solution

x

__ 2x2 3x 5

___

x2 2

x 6

Multiply both sides by

x(x2 6) (x 2)(2x2 3x 5), x ⬆ 2 (x 2)(x2 6).

x3 6x 2x3 7x2 11x 10

x3 7x2 5x 10 0

Use technology to solve the equation.

You can solve using technology Graph the function y x3 7x2 5x 10.

directly from the initial equation.

With a graphing calculator, you Then, use the Zero operation.

can graph both sides separately

and find the point of intersection.

With a CAS, you can use the

solve operation directly. Other

methods are possible.

Use the solve function or the zero function.

Example 3 Solve a Simple Rational Inequality

2 10.

Solve __

x5

Solution

Method 1: Consider the Key Features of the Graph of a

Related Rational Function

__2 10

x5

2

__ 10 0

x5

2 10x 50 0

___ Combine the terms using a common denominator of x 5.

x5

10x 52 0

___

x5

10x 52 .

Consider the function f(x) ___

x5

The vertical asymptote has equation x 5.

The horizontal asymptote has equation y 10.

The x-intercept is 5.2.

The y-intercept is 10.4.

y

12

10x 52

8 f共x兲

x5

4

共5.2, 0兲

4 0 4 8 12 16 x

4

8

16

From the graph, the coordinates of all of the points below the x-axis satisfy

the inequality f(x) 0.

10x 52 0 , or __

So, ___ 2

10, for x 5 or x 5.2.

x5 x 5

In interval notation, x ∈ (, 5) ∪ (5.2, ).

Method 2: Solve Algebraically

2 10

__

x5

Because x 5 ⬆ 0, either x 5 or x 5.

Case 1:

x 5

2 10(x 5) Multiply both sides by (x 5), which is positive if x 5.

2 10x 50

52 10x

5.2 x

x 5.2

x 5.2 is within the inequality x 5, so the solution is x 5.2.

Case 2:

x 5

2

__ 10

x5

2 10(x 5) Change the inequality when multiplying by a negative.

2 10x 50

52 10x

5.2 x

x 5.2

x 5 is within the inequality x 5.2, so the solution is x 5.

Combining the two cases, the solution to the inequality is x 5 or x 5.2.

Example 4

Rational Inequality

x2 x 2

Solve ___

Reasoning and Proving 0.

Representing Selecting Tools x2 x 12

Problem Solving

Solution

Connecting Reflecting

Communicating Method 1: Solve Using an Interval Table

x2 x 2

___ 0

x2 x 12

(x 2)(x 1)

___ 0

(x 3)(x 4)

From the numerator, the zeros occur at x 2 and x 1, so solutions

occur at these values of x.

From the denominator, the restrictions occur at x 3 and x 4.

A number line can be used to consider intervals.

4 x 1 2x3

x 4 1 x 2 x3

⺢

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Use a table to consider the signs of the factors on each interval. Pick an arbitrary

number in each interval. The number line is broken into ﬁve intervals, as shown.

Select test values of x for each interval. Check whether the value of

(x 2)(x 1)

___ in each interval is greater than or equal to 0.

(x 3)(x 4)

For example, for x 4, test x 5.

(5 2)(5 1)

____ 28

_ 0, so x 4 is part of the solution.

(5 3)(5 4) 8

Continue testing a selected point in each interval and record the results in a table.

x in the (x ⴚ 2)(x ⴙ 1)

___ ___

(x ⴚ 2)(x ⴙ 1)

Interval interval (x ⴚ 3)(x ⴙ 4) (x ⴚ 3)(x ⴙ 4)

()()

__

(, 4) x 5

()()

()()

__

(4, 1) x 2

()()

()(0)

__

1 x1 0

()()

()()

__

(1, 2) x0

()()

(0)()

__

2 x2 0

()()

()()

__

(2, 3) x 2.5

()()

()()

__

(3, ) x4

()()

The same data are shown in a different format below. The critical values of x CONNECTIONS

are bolded, and test values are chosen within each interval.

The critical values of x are those

x 5 ⴚ4 2 ⴚ1 0 2 2.5 3 4 values where there is a vertical

asymptote, or where the slope

(x 2)(x 1)

___ of the graph of the inequality

0 0

(x 3)(x 4) changes sign.

x2 x 2

For the inequality ___ 0, the solution is x 4 or 1

x

2

x2 x 12

or x 3.

In interval notation, the solution set is x ∈ (, 4) ∪ [1, 2] ∪ (3, ).

The solution can be shown on a number line.

x 4 1

x

2 x3

⺢

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

A graph of the related function, f(x) ___

x2 x 12

y

6

x2 x 2

4 f共x兲

x2 x 12

2

8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x

2

4

6

x2 x 2

Enter the function f(x) ___

x2 x 12

and view its graph.

Either visually or by checking the table,

you can see that there are asymptotes

at x 4 and x 3, so there are no

solutions there.

Use the Zero operation to ﬁnd that the

zeros are at x 1 and x 2.

Using the graph and the zeros, you

can see that f(x) 0 for x 4,

for 1 ≤ x

2, and for x 3.

< KEY CONCEPTS

>

To solve rational equations algebraically, start by factoring the

expressions in the numerator and denominator to ﬁnd asymptotes

and restrictions.

Next, multiply both sides by the factored denominators, and simplify

to obtain a polynomial equation. Then, solve using techniques from

Chapter 2.

For rational inequalities:

• It can often help to rewrite with the right side equal to 0. Then, use

test points to determine the sign of the expression in each interval.

• If there is a restriction on the variable, you may have to consider more

than one case. For example, if __ a b, case 1 is x k and case 2

xk

is x k.

Rational equations and inequalities can be solved by studying the key

features of a graph with paper and pencil or with the use of technology.

Tables and number lines can help organize intervals and provide a

visual clue to solutions.

C1 Describe the process you would use to solve __ 2 3

__ .

x1 x5

1

C2 Explain why ___ 0 has no solution.

x2 2x 9

4

C3 Explain the difference between the solution to the equation __ 3

__

x5 x4

and the solution to the inequality __ 4 __ 3 .

x5 x4

A Practise

For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to Example 1. 2. Solve algebraically. Check each solution.

1. Determine the x-intercept(s) for each function. a) __4

3

Verify using technology. x2

x1

a) y __ b) ___ 1

1

x x2 2x 7

x2 x 12 c) __2 5

b) y ___ __

x2 3x 5 x1 x3

2x 3 d) x _5

c) y __ x 4

5x 1

x 1

e) _ x 34

__

d) y ___ x 2x2

x2 3x 2

x3

f) __ x2

__

x4 x6

For help with question 3, refer to Example 2. 5

__

2 (x 2)(x 1)2

c) __ d) ___ 0

3. Use Technology Solve each equation using x4 x1 (x 4)(x 5)

technology. Express your answers to two x2 16 0 x4

x 2 __

e) ___ f) __

decimal places. x 4x 5

2

x x6

5x

a) __ 3x

__ For help with question 5, refer to Example 4.

x4 2x 7

5. Solve each inequality using an interval table.

2x 3

b) __ 5x 1

__ Check using technology.

x6 4x 7

x2 9x 14 0

a) ___

x

c) __ x2 4x 1

___ x2 6 5

x2 x3

2x2 5x 3 0

b) ___

x2 1

d) __ 2x2 3

__ x2 8x 16

2x 3

2

x2 1

x2 3x 4

c) ___

0

For help with question 4, refer to Example 3. x2 11x 30

4. Solve each inequality without using technology. 3x2 8x 4

d) ___ 0

Illustrate the solution on a number line. 2x2 9x 5

a) __ 4 1 b) __7 7

x3 x1

6. Write a rational equation Reasoning and Proving 10. Solve. Illustrate graphically.

Representing Selecting Tools

that cannot have 2 3_ 29 16 5 _

1

a) _

x x b) _ x x

x 3 or x 5 as Problem Solving

a solution. Explain 5 _ 3

2 _ 30 7

c) _ d) 6 __

Connecting Reflecting

6x 3x 4 x1

x __ 2x by graphing the functions 3.

11. The ratio of x 2 to x 5 is greater than _

7. Solve __

x1 x2 Solve for x.

5

f(x) __ x and g(x) __ 2x with or without

2x 1 __ x1

x1 x2 12. Compare the solutions to __

x7 x3

using technology. Determine the points of 2x 1 __

and __ x 1.

intersection and when f(x) g(x). x7 x3

8. Use the method from question 7 to solve x 1

__

13. Compare the solutions to __ x 3 and

x 3x . x4 x5

__ __ x4

__ x 5.

x3 x5

__

x1 x3

9. Solve and check. 14. A number x is the harmonic mean of two

1 3_ 2 2 5 1 numbers a and b if _1 is the mean of _

1 and _

1.

a) _ b) __ _

x x x1 x x a b

a) Write an equation to represent the harmonic

12 x 8

c) _ x

d) __ 1

__

1 mean of a and b.

x x1 1x

2x __ 2x b) Determine the harmonic mean of 12 and 15.

e) __ 1

2x 3 2x 3 c) The harmonic mean of 6 and another

7 __ 4 __ 3 0 number is 1.2. Determine the other number.

f) __

x2 x1 x1

15. Chapter Problem Light pollution is caused by 16. The relationship between the object distance, d,

many lights being on in a concentrated area. and image distance, I, both in centimetres, for

Think of the night sky in the city compared to a camera with focal length 2.0 cm is deﬁned by

the night sky in the country. Light pollution the relation d __ 2.0I . For what values of

can be a problem in cities, as more and more I 2.0

bright lights are used in such things as advertising I is d greater than 10.0 cm?

and ofﬁce buildings. The intensity of illumination

is inversely proportional to the square of the

✓Achievement Check

distance to the light source and is deﬁned by the 1 4 and

17. Consider the functions f(x) _x

formula I _ k , where I is the intensity, in lux;

2 . Graph f and g on the same grid.

g(x) _

d2 x

d is the distance from the source, in metres; and

a) Determine the points of intersection of the

k is a constant. When the distance from a certain

two functions.

light source is 10 m, the intensity is 900 lux.

b) Show where f(x) g(x).

a) Determine the intensity when the distance is

c) Solve the equation _1 4 _ 2

i) 5 m ii) 200 m x x to check

b) What distance, or range of distance, results your answer to part a).

in an intensity of 1

d) Solve the inequality _ 2

_

x 4 x to check

i) 4.5 lux? ii) at least 4500 lux? your answer to part b).

18. a) A rectangle has perimeter 64 cm and area 21. Math Contest In some situations, it is

23 cm2. Solve the following system of convenient to express a rational expression

equations to ﬁnd the rectangle’s dimensions. as the sum of two or more simpler rational

23 expressions. These simpler expressions are

l_ w called partial fractions. Partial fractions are

l w 32 P(x)

used when, given _ , the degree of P(x)

b) Solve the system of equations. D(x)

is less than the degree of D(x).

x2 y2 1

Decompose each of the following into partial

xy 0.5 fractions. Check your solutions by graphing the

19. Use your knowledge of exponents to solve. equivalent function on a graphing calculator.

1 1 Hint: Start by factoring the denominator, if

a) _ __ necessary.

2x x2

1 _ 1 a) f(x) ___ 5x 7

b) _ x2 2x 3

2x x2

20. Determine the region(s) of the Cartesian plane b) g(x) __7x 6

for which x x6

2

a) y _1 6x2 14x 27

c) h(x) ___

x2 (x 2)(x 3)2

b) y

x2 4 and y __ 1

x2 4

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