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ECE611

Lecture 10

Active Filters

Ayman H. Ismail

ICL

Ain Shams University

Outline

Introduction

Filter Implementations

Filter specifications

Phase delay and group delay

Quality factor

Frequency Response visualized

Filter approximations

Butterworth

Chebychev

Elliptic

A. H. Ismail

4/24/2016

Outline(cont.)

Bessel

All pass

Scaling

Filter realization

Biquads/Cascaded biquads/ Taw Thomson

Multiple loop feedback

LC ladder

SFG

Gyration

State space synthesis

A. H. Ismail

Introduction

Filters are two port circuits used to process the magnitude

and/or phase of the source signal in a certain predefined way.

Filters find various applications in modern communication

systems and most instrumentation systems.

such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. In 1950s it was

recognized that size and cost reduction could be achieved by

replacing the large and costly passive inductors with active

circuitry. Since then active filters became used intensively in

many signal processing applications.

A. H. Ismail

4/24/2016

Introduction

In mid 1970 s sub system integration started and fully

integrated active filters have been realized. Since then many

techniques have been used for filter implementation: Analog Filters

Continuous-time analog filters

Discrete-time analog filters

Digital Filters

A. H. Ismail

Digital Filters

The dynamic range of the filter depends on the number of

bits used to represent the signal.

Cons: If a digital filter is to process an analog signal, an A/D converter and

D/A converter are needed at its input and output respectively.

high power dissipation especially if high dynamic range is required

(lower power for modern technologies).

Not adequate for high frequencies due to the sampling operation

required before the A/D converter.

Pros: In general, the advantages of digital filter are that of digital circuits

namely its low sensitivity to process parameter variation and its noise

and interference immunity.

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Continuous-Time Filters

Two popular methods for implementing continuous time

filters, namely R-C active filters and Gm-C filters.

Cons: filter coefficients in continuous time filters is determined by the

product of dissimilar elements such as capacitors and resistors

(transconductors), therefore coefficients are sensitive to process

variations. The coefficients are of 30% accuracy. For this reasons

continuous time filters have on chip tuning circuit for adjustment of

the filter characteristics.

Gm-C filters have higher operating speed (few 100MHz) than RC active

filters, whose speed is limited by Opamp GBW to few 10MHz.

RC filters can achieve higher dynamic range (90dB) than Gm-C filters

(40-70dB)

A. H. Ismail

Discrete-Time Filters

Switched capacitor filters can attain relatively high dynamic

range ( 90dB)

Cons: Can not be used for high speed signals due to:

OTA limited GBW

Charge injection and clock feedthrough

Requires anti-aliasing filter

technologies. This is solved by using switched op amp or enhanced

switch adding extra complexity to switched capacitor circuits.

has typical matching accuracy value of 0.1%.

A. H. Ismail

4/24/2016

Filter Implementations

circuits) course slides, Stanford University

A. H. Ismail

Filter Implementations

A. H. Ismail

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Response Characteristics

circuits) course slides, Stanford University

A. H. Ismail

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Phase Delay

Assume that a signal composed of two sine waves

Then

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To avoid distortion of the output signal

Phase distortion occurs when the phase is nonlinear , i.e. the

derivative of the phase is not constant. In general, the

condition for no phase distortion is

d ( ) ( )

0

d

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Phase delay

p

( )

Group delay

d ( )

d

If ()=k, k a constant no phase distortion

For a linear phase filter g=p=k

Note that filters with ()=k +c are also called linear phase

filters, but introduce phase distortion. Note that such phase

response does not meet above condition for phase linearity.

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Quality Factor

The term Quality Factor (Q) has different definitions:

Component quality factor (inductor and capacitor)

Pole quality factor

Bandpass filter quality factor

For any component with the transfer function

Quality factor is defined as

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For Inductor

For a capacitor

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circuits) course slides, Stanford University

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Quality Factor for Bandpass filter

Integrated Circuits) course slides, University of

California Berkeley

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(CT)

Real poles

Complex poles

Complex zeros

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Magnitude Response

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Phase Response

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(DT)

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Filter Approximation

The first step involved in the design of filters is to find a

magnitude characteristic, |H (j)| that satisfies the given

specifications. There are commonly used approximations

namely Butterworth, Chebyshev, Inverse Chebyshev, Elliptic

and Bessel approximations.

Therefore, the problem of finding an adequate |H (j)| that

satisfies the specifications reduces to the selection of one or a

combination of these approximations and determining its

order.

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Butterworth Approximation

Butterworth approximation was first proposed by Butterworth

in 1930

The normalized magnitude square-characteristics of

Butterworth approximation is

The normalized magnitude square characteristics 3-dB point

(half power point) occurs at = 1.

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Butterworth Approximation(cont.)

The |H(j)| can be expanded to

zero at = 0. This characteristic is always referred to as the

maximally flat magnitude characteristics.

For >>1

Therefore the attenuation

The gain drops by 20n dB/decade in the stop band.

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The Butterworth pole are located on a circle with radius = p

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Response

Moderate phase distortion

Figure: H.K, EECS 247 (Analog-Digital Interface

Integrated Circuits) course slides, University of

California Berkeley

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Chebyshev-I Approximation

The normalized magnitude square-characteristics of

Chebyshev approximation is

the nth order is defined as

Actually the above expression can be

proved to be a polynomial

This function will have values ranging

between 1 and 1/(1+)2 (ripples) in

the range 0 1.

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Chebyshev-I Approximation(cont.)

For >>1

group delay, but sharper transition band compared to

Butterworth

As more ripple is allowed in the passband, sharper transition

band and poorer phase response

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29

Location

Transfer function has poles, but no zeros

Poles located on an ellipse inside the unit circle

The more allowed ripples (corresponding to higher Q poles) in

the passband, the narrower transition band, the sharper cutoff, and the poorer the phase response

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Response

Ripple in passband

(Analog-Digital Interface Integrated Circuits)

course slides, University of California Berkeley

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31

Chebyshev-II Approximation

Contrary to Chebyshev I, Chebyshev II filter approximation has

ripples in the stopband not in passband, sharper transition

band compared to Butterworth, and zeros in stopband.

Passband phase more linear compared to Chebyshev I

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Response

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Elliptic Approximation

The elliptic filter approximation function has finite zeros

leading to a very steep transition band.

The elliptic approximation is characterized by equal-ripple

variation in both the pass band and stop band.

The magnitude square-characteristics of elliptic

approximation is

Where

or

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Zeros Locations

The elliptic filter approximation has imaginary zeros to sharpen

the transition band

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Response

reduced stop-band attenuation at high frequency

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Bessel Approximations

Thomson obtained the low pass

functions such that the group

delay is maximally flat at the

origin.

As expected the magnitude

characteristics of Bessel

Thomson filter is far inferior to

the previous three types (poor

stopband attenuation)

Poles of the Bessel approximation

are relatively low Q

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37

Comparison of Filter

Approximations

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Comparison of Filter

Approximations(cont.)

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In some cases the magnitude response is of the prime

concern and the phase response or the delay accompanying is

simply accepted.

If both magnitude and delay function are important, it is

usually preferable to realize the given magnitude function as

possible. If the accompanying delay is not satisfactory an

additional block, known as phase linearizer or delay equalizer

is introduced.

The group delay directly affects the waveform of the signal in

the time domain. For audio applications, the different delays

experienced by signals of different frequencies are not

noticeable to human ears.

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On the other hand, in the transmission of video signals, if

different frequencies of the signal do not experience the same

delay the picture gets distorted. This means that the phase

response of video filters is of great importance.

Delay equalizers are all-pass network functions that do not

affect the magnitude response of the filter that they equalize

its delay. Usually delay equalizers are of second order sections

having transfer function

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41

The value of Q

determines the shape

of the delay function

against frequency.

When Q is below 0.577

approximately, the

delay is monotonically

decreasing.

When Q is high the

delay function will have

a peak. The higher Q

the sharper the peak.

with o = 1 and different values for Q

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delay of A Butterworth Filter

It is required to equalize the delay of an 3rd order low pass

Butterworth filter.

A second order delay equalizer with Q = 0.5 and o = 1 is used.

A. H. Ismail

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A. H. Ismail

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Resultant Delay

Using the 3rd order Butterworth filter cascaded with the

second order delay equalizer leads to a nearly constant delay

throughout pass band.

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Cascaded connection

of biquads and first

order secions

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and first order sections

In this realization method, second order (and first order if

filter order is odd) sections are cascaded to implement the

high order transfer functions. The general transfer function of

a second order section is

functions then each of them is implemented.

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and first order sections

Biquads cascading is easy to design and tune, but the

resulting filter suffers from high sensitivity to component

variations. Therefore this technique not suitable for

implementation of high Q or high order filters. Typically,

integrated continuous time filters use biquads to realize filters

only up to ~5th order

circuits) course slides, Stanford University

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and First Order Sections(cont.)

There are three main degrees of freedom for the design of

cascaded biquads: Pole-zero pairing, i.e., which poles with which zeros of H(s)

will be paired to form each biquad

The position of each biquad in the cascade (biquad

ordering)

The distribution of the overall gain among the various

biquads

The above degrees of freedom greatly affect the dynamic

range of the overall filter, so they must be considered

seriously in the design phase.

A. H. Ismail

49

Pole-zero Pairing

Recall: complex pole near the j axis creates an elevation in

the magnitude response at frequencies around the imaginary

part of the pole. A zero at a similar location creates a deep

notch in the magnitude response at frequencies around the

imaginary part of the zero.

If such a pole and zero are very much apart in the s-plane, and

they are paired together to form a biquadratic function, the

minimum value in the magnitude response inside the pass

band will be much lower than the maximum value

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Pole-zero Pairing

Therefore, the dynamic range of the input signal is squeezed,

because the input signal can not be very large in order to

avoid the nonlinear operation, and it can not be very small at

the same time to avoid burying the output signal in noise at

frequencies near zero.

Therefore, to decompose a high order filter function it is

recommended to pair each pole with nearest zero starting

with the pole with highest Q.

A. H. Ismail

51

Biquad Ordering

The determination of the best sequence may be a very difficult

task especially in the case of having a larger number of

sections. For N sections there exist N! different combinations

for the biquad sections.

For correct arrangement of biquads, the frequency of

maximum magnitude of each biquad should be determined.

Then the biquads should be arranged such that neighboring

biquads have their maxima frequency as far apart as possible.

Low pass biquad sections and band pass sections should be

placed in front, while high pass biquad sections should be

placed last. This is carried to eliminate the low frequency noise

as possible.

A. H. Ismail

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Biquad Ordering(cont.)

Arranging the biquads from low-Q to high-Q provides smooth

transfer functions from the input to the intermediate nodes,

and hence, helps to minimize harmonic distortion, but the

output will suffer from significant noise peaking near the

corner frequency due to the last stage with high-Q

Reversing the ordering will allow the later stages to filter out

the noise peaking near corner frequency, and may also filter

out harmonics (but not intermodulation).

A. H. Ismail

53

Gain Distribution

The overall gain of the filter should be distributed such that all

stages utilize the maximum available swing (or less than max.

available swing) as the input tone is swept across all

frequencies

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Passive LC Ladder

The passband response of ladder filters is much less sensitive

to component variations when compared to a biquad cascade

Poles tend to move together

The normalized values of Ls and Cs corresponding to a filter

approximation is obtained from filter tables of CAD tools

A. H. Ismail

55

Gyration

Gyrators are 2 port networks first introduced in 1948 by

Tellegan. The matrix describing the gyrator 2 port network is

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Gyration

Gyrators are used in active filter implementation due to their

impedance inversion property. This property can be used to

realize inductor-less filters starting from LC ladder.

ZL=1/SC then

This means that the circuit formed by loading the gyrator with

a capacitor is an inductor with inductance

A. H. Ismail

57

Transconductors

It is straight forward to show that two cross transcoductors

implements the gyrator matrix

A grounded gyrator implementation using transconductors ,

where the gyrator is loaded with grounded impedance ZL

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Transconductors(cont.)

A floating gyrator can be implemented with 2 grounded

gyrators

Also

Va Gm1 Vb Gm3

Therefore

A. H. Ismail

59

Gyrators

Active circuits

are used to

simulate the

impedance of

coils and

resistors

(gyration).

Hence,

transforming

the LC ladder to

an active filter.

A. H. Ismail

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In this filter realization technique, it is the operation or

function, i.e., the equations that describe the topology of the

LC ladder, that is simulated. That is to say that instead of using

the active circuits to simulate the impedance of coils and

resistors (gyration), they are used to simulate the voltages and

currents in the LC ladder

Both voltages and currents in the LC ladder are treated as

voltage signals and they are considered state variables.

The number of independent state variables is equal to the

order of the filter.

The signal flow graph (SFG) realization technique is best

understood using an example

A. H. Ismail

61

Example (Gm-C Filter)

It is required to implement an active filter (G m-C filter)

corresponding to the 5th order passive LC ladder shown

using SFG. The equations describing the operation of the

LC ladder are

Typically Rs=RL,

and hence DC

gain =-6dB

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Example (Gm-C Filter)

A. H. Ismail

63

Example (Gm-C Filter)

Note that the number of state variables is five [V1, V2, V3, I1,

I2] and equal to the order of the filter)

To simplify the design the transconductors used to implement

the active filter are chosen equal to 1/Rs = 1/RL = Gm.

The currents in all the equations above are divided by G m to

transform all state variables to voltages. This yields the

following set of equations

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Example (Gm-C Filter)

where

A. H. Ismail

65

Example (Gm-C Filter)

Previous equations can be represented by the following block

diagram. The active filter can be implemented by replacing

each block with an integrator (5 integrators).

The SFG simulation is called also leapfrog simulation due to

the similarity between the block diagram and the so-named

childrens game.

A. H. Ismail

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Example (Gm-C Filter)

The main problem with signal flow graph simulation is the

difficulty of obtaining simple equations that can be

implemented with first order integrators in some cases,

especially in case of signal flow graphs representing bandpass

filters.

Typically Gm is selected =1/Rs=1/RL

Gm=1/Rs=1/RL

CL1= L1 Gm2

CL2= L2 Gm2

A. H. Ismail

67

Example (Op-Amp RC Filter)

Similarly an active Opamp-RC filter corresponding to the 5th

order passive LC ladder can be implemented using SFG

V V

1

1

R*

V1 s 1 I1

V1 (Vs V1 ) I1R*

*

Rs

Rs

Sc1

Sc1 R

V V

V1 V2

*

I1 R 1 2

I1

S L1

SL1

R*

( I R* I 2 R* )

V2 1

Sc2 R*

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Example (Op-Amp RC Filter)

V V

V2 Vo

*

2

o

R I 2

I 2

S L2

SL2

R*

1 1

R* 1

Vo I 2 Vo

Vo I 2 R* Vo

RL Sc3

RL Sc3 R*

A. H. Ismail

69

Example (Op-Amp RC Filter)

R*

1

*

V1 (Vs V1 ) V1

*

Rs

Sc1 R

V V

*

1

2

V1

S L1 R *

R *2

(V V2

V2 1

*

Sc2 R

*

V V

2

o

V2

S L2 R*

R *2

*

R* 1

Vo V2 Vo

RL Sc3 R*

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Example (Op-Amp RC Filter)

A. H. Ismail

71

Example (Op-Amp RC Filter)

In this slide R* is

mentioned as

simply R.

RL=Rs=R

A. H. Ismail

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Scaling

Previous expressions had the frequency normalized. (cutoff

frequency of the filter is assumed 1 rad/sec)

This is done to standardize the basic theory and design of the

filter, and then the filter is adapted to different applications in

a process called scaling.

Frequency scaling refers to dividing each inductance and

capacitance in the obtained passive network with a scaling

factor Kf, such that what occurs at in the original network

occurs at Kf.

A similar process, is impedance scaling, carried to set the

values of the resistors, capacitors and inductors in the

obtained passive network to realizable values.

A. H. Ismail

73

Scaling

Impedance scaling is carried out by multiplying all resistors

and inductors with a scaling factor Kz and dividing all

capacitors with the same factor. This does not affect the

transfer function of the passive filter.

Node scaling (voltage scaling) is used to optimize dynamic

range. Scaling filter nodes means scaling the voltage levels at

the filter nodes such that the maximum value of voltage levels

at all nodes is the same. Usually this requires using unequal

transcoductors, which can not be easily matched. Therefore,

in practice, only filter nodes, which contribute to nonlinearity, are scaled. (more about node scaling later)

A. H. Ismail

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LC ladder Denormalization

38

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