DIVERSITY IN PR

An International Perspective

Priority Issues in Public Relations
Jim Macnamara
BA, MA, FPRIA, AFAMI, CPM

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Incorporating:  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) Pty Limited  MASS Software  MASS Communication Consulting

The pillar of our societies

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Communication
The pillar of our societies

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Communication
Easier said than done

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PR Industry Priorities
In 1992, measurement was not on the PR
industry’s radar Views were:
s s s s s

“PR is intangible” “PR can’t be measured” “PR is about image” “PR is ‘feel good’” “PR is publicity”

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Incorporating:  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) Pty Limited  MASS Software  MASS Communication Consulting

PR Industry Priorities

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Incorporating:  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) Pty Limited  MASS Software  MASS Communication Consulting

PR Industry Accountability
Any publicity is good publicity

Trust me. I’m a communicato r.

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PR Research & Evaluation
International Public Relations Association
(IPRA) study 1994 found:
s

Only 14-18% on average do evaluation
Research Finding USA
75.9%

Australia
90%

South Africa
89.1%

IPRA members
89.8%

Evaluation recognised as necessary Frequently undertake research aimed at evaluating

16%

14%

25.4%

18.6%

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PR Research & Evaluation
Less than 25% use surveys or focus groups

Press clips & ‘gut feel’ most used tools for planning & evaluation

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2001 Media Relations Reality Check, Internet survey of 4,200 members of PRSA, USA
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Reasons for Lack of Research

WHY PR PRACTITIONERS DON'T DO RESEA
70 60 50 40 30 20
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10 0
Media Relations Reality Check Internet survey of 4,200 members of PRSA, USA, 2001

Incorporating: MASS Communication Consulting

Too time Don't know Concern how  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) intensive Pty Limited  MASS Softwareabout res 

Too expensive Not wanted

Reasons for Lack of Research

5% 8

4% 5

4% 3

4% 3 2% 7 6 %

L c of ak m e on y

L c of ak d mn e ad

L c of ak tim e

L c of ak k ow d e n le g

C n rg lie t/O c s in on tra t

O e th r

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Survey by Institute of Public Relations & PR Consultants Association, UK, 2001
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Do clients want it?

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Do clients want it?

“Measure results” was equal fastest growing criteria listed by clients as important in PR
Up 9% in two years s Listed as a top criteria by more than one-third of PR users
s
Important in PR
Overall quality of work Quality of account team Client service Meets deadlines, keeps promises Attention to detail Creativity Honest accurate billing Quality of writing Knowledge of my industry Media placement Chemistry Strategic counsel Measures results

2000
72% 69% 68% 66% 53% 53% 52% 49% 46% 45% 44% 40% 35%

1998
73% 65 64% 68% 51% 44% 48% 46% 43% 42% 38% 42% 26%

% Change
-1% +4% +4% -2% +2% +9% +4% +3% +3% +2% +6% -2% +9%

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Harris/Impulse Public Relations Clients Survey of 4,200 Fortune 500 marcoms managers, USA, 2000

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2001 US Clients Survey
PR Firm Performance in Key Areas
(All Firms Combined) 2001 2000 % Change
Accessibility of account team 86% 84% 2% Chemistry 75% 74% 1% Client service 72% 73% -1% Quality of my account team 70% 73% -3% Quality of management 68% 69% -1% Overall quality of their work 67% 70% -3% Full service capabilities 66% 65% 1% Practice areas match our needs 66% 66% 0% Meets deadlines, keeps promises 65% 66% -1% Knowledge of my industry 64% 63% 1% Involve senior management in my account 63% 67% -4% Fast turnaround on deliverables 60% 62% -2% Access to influential people 59% 53% 6% Stability of staff 59% 54% 5% Strategic counsel 59% 57% 2% Thorough/attention to detail 58% 58% 0% Honest, accurate billing 55% 58% -3% Quality of writing 52% 49% 3% Specialized services we need 51% 46% 5% Creativity 51% 50% 1% Media placement 45% 50% -5% Research capabilities 44% 37% 7% Fair and equitable compensation 37% 42% -5% Measures results 35% 39% -4% International capabilities 33% 30% 3% Harris/Impulse Public Relations Clients Survey Internet capabilities 33% 31% 2% of 3,452 Fortune 500 marcoms managers, USA, 2001

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2000 UK Marketing Survey

Significant dissatisfaction with PR reporting % SATISFIED WITH EVALUATION and evaluation
(Marketing Directors, UK, Dec 2000)
Advertising Sales Prom otion Direct Marketing Public Relations 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

67% 68% 65% 28%

Survey of Marketing Directors, Test Research, UK, 2000
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2002 Company CEO Views
42% of company directors said they would
spend more on PR if they could be more confident of its effectiveness
Consensus Research International, telephone survey of 109 company directors incl. 50 CEO (UK) August, 2002

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A Few Truisms
It is an age of accountability
Best Practice s Benchmarking s KPIs & KRAs s Balanced Score Card
s

Management are bottom-line focussed &
numeric
s

Demand for measurement is growing in the
wake of:
s

The ‘Language of the Dominant Coalition’ is numbers

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Recession s Enron, Worldcom, etc s Increasing regulation s Consumer cynicism

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Communication =
Message Media Receipt Underst and Retain

ImpACT

?

?

?

?

“Taking responsibility for how your
messages are received” Research answers these questions …

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Other Barriers – or Excuses?
Too expensive? Too time intensive? Too hard?

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Cutlip’s PII Model
Social and Cultural Change Number who repeat behaviour

IMPACT

Number who behave as desired Number who change attitudes Number who change opinions Number who learn message content Number who attend to messages and activities

IMPLEMENTATION

Number who receive messages and activities Number of messages placed and activities implemented Number of messages sent to media and activities designed Quality of messages and activitypresentation

PREPARATION

Appropriateness of message and activity content Adequacy of backgroundinformation base for designing program

PII Model of Evaluation by Cutlip, Center & Broom, 1993

Lindenmann’s ‘Yardstick’ Model
ADVANCED
Measuring:

LEVEL 3

Behaviour change Attitude change Opinion change

INTERMEDIATE

LEVEL 2

Measuring: Retention Comprehension Awareness Reception

OUTPUT
Measuring:

LEVEL 1

Target audience reach Impressions Media placement

Watson’s Continuing Model

Dr Tom Watson, 1999

Watson/Noble ‘Unified Model’
1. 2. 3. 4.
INPUT STAGE Planning & Preparation

OUTPUT STAGE Messages & Targets

IMPACT STAGE Awareness & Information

EFFECT STAGE Motivation & Behaviour
Tactical feedback Management feedback

IPR PRE Process

Audit
Where are we now?

Setting objectives
Where do we want to be?

Results & evaluation
How did we do?

the PRE process
Ongoing measurement
Are we getting there?

Strategy & plan
How do we get there?

UK Institute of Public Relations (IPR) Research & Evaluation Toolkit, 2001

‘Pyramid Model’ of PR Research ‘Pyramid Model’ of PR Research
Applicable Methodologies:

OUTCOMES
(Functional & organisational evaluation)

Number who . change ..…..……………………………………………….. Quantitative surveys (large scale structured) behaviour …...…………………………………………….. Sales; Voting results; Adoption rates; Observation Number who ….. change attitudes ……….…………………………………………… Focus groups; Surveys (targeted) (eg Customer, Employee or Shareholder Satisfaction); Reputation studies

OUTPUTS
(Process & program evaluation)

Number who understand messages..……………………………… Number who retain messages …….………………………………… Number who consider messages ……....….. ………………………… Number & type of messages reaching target audience ……………………… Number of messages in the media ……………..….`…………………… Number who received messages ………………...……………………….. Number of messages sent …………………………………..………………..

Focus groups; Interviews; Complaint decline; Experiments Interviews; Focus groups; Mini-surveys; Experiments Response mechanisms (1800, coupons); Inquiries Media Content Analysis; Communication Audits Media Monitoring (clippings, tapes, transcripts) Circulations; Event attendances; Web visits & downloads Distribution statistics; Web pages posted

Quality of message presentation …………………………………………………. Expert analysis; Peer review; Feedback; Awards Appropriateness of message content …………………………………….………….. Feedback; Readability tests (eg. Fog, Flesch); Pre-testing

INPUTS
(Formative research)

Appropriateness of the medium selected ………………………………………….…….. Case studies; Feedback; Interviews; Pre-testing (eg. PDFs) How does target audience prefer to receive information? …………….…………..……… Academic papers; Feedback; Interviews; Focus groups What does target audience know, think, feel? What do they need/want? ………………… Observations; Secondary data; Advisory groups; Chat rooms & online forums; Databases (eg. Customer complaints)

© Copyright J im R. Macnamara 1992 & 2001

‘Top 10’ PR Research Tools
(A) Behaviour changed (B) Attitude changed (C) Awareness increased

‘TOP 10’ RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES:
 Surveys  Interviews (self administered)  Feedback forms/mini surveys (eg. at events, in publications)  Media Content Analysis (incl. DIY software programs)  Web analysis of visits & info downloads  Response mechanisms (1800 numbers; competitions, etc)     Pre-testing (eg focus gps, PDFs) Case studies Consultative or advisory groups Secondary data (existing research)

OUTCOMES

(A) (B) (C)

OUTPUTS

EXAMPLES: - Newsletter printed - Publicity gained - Event held - Web site posted EXAMPLES: - Story list & copy for newsletter - Information for news release - Speaker list & program for event - Design & contents for Web site

INPUTS

No cost

Low cost

© Copyright Jim R.
Macnamara

Vas t qu ava of res antitie s ilab e le o arch - of n ten the W FRE eb E

1st floor, 87-97 Regent St Chippendale, NSW, 2008 Australia Fax: 61 2 9698 1032 Tel: 61 2 9698 1033 E-mail: info@masscom.com.au

Incorporating:  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) Pty Limited  MASS Software  MASS Communication Consulting

1st floor, 87-97 Regent St Chippendale, NSW, 2008 Australia Fax: 61 2 9698 1032 Tel: 61 2 9698 1033 E-mail: info@masscom.com.au

Incorporating:  CARMA International (Asia Pacific) Pty Limited  MASS Software  MASS Communication Consulting

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Case Studies

Award winning campaigns
s

Can provide

Often documented in detail as examples of Best Practice

important planning info on strategies that work
s

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Eg. product recall strategies, crisis communication, etc

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Cas all e stu typ die s es are of on th e f We ree b

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Consultancy & Advisory Groups Utilise existing groups; or Establish groups for dialogue
They provide a forum for identifying information needs, media preferences, etc s Also provide direct feedback at little or no cost
s

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P bro RE-T etc chure ESTIN can s G be , news of don l e w etters , ith PD Fs

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Response Mechanisms
 1800 numbers  Coupons, fax-back forms  Competitions for reader or viewer entry  Quizzes

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Web Analysis
to track inquiries, info downloads, etc

Con sid UR er spe Ls for cific PR

Increases in visits & downloads of info can be tracked

Dates

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Media Content Analysis

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Media Analysis?
 Clippings are quantitative, not qualitative:
Include neutral & negative coverage s Include competitor & opposition coverage s Sometimes in unimportant or irrelevant media, etc
s s s s s s

 What impacts your target audiences are:
Leading/dominant positive & negatives messages ‘Share of voice’ compared with competitors & opponents Total audience reached (‘Impressions’ / ‘Opportunities to See’) Reaching specific targets (audiences or markets) Trends over time (ie. repetition and consistency)

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Jim R. Macnamara UK199499-8797-01

US$495 once only price

Part of a specialist suite of PR & communication research tools …

Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP

Version 2.0

COMaudit

®

xxx

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Interviews & Surveys
 Interviews can be low-cost DIY  Surveys can measure:
s s s s s

 Events, publications, employee
communication, etc  Available at low cost –
s
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Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP

Awareness Attitudes Needs • What do they want to know? Preferences • How do they want to receive it? Changes in awareness or attitude • Before & after for benchmarking

10 PROforma survey questionnaires on MASS COMaudit®)

Version 2.0

COMaudit

®

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Even FREE publ surv ic domai n eys a vaila ble

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Shared & Omnibus Surveys

Include PR questions in market, brand & customer research
Q. What sources of information do you rely on for information? Rank • Ads, editorial articles, Web, etc s Q. What messages do you recall about the brand • Ad imagery, facts, testimonials, experiences such as
s

events, etc

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PR Research
Is possible at low cost & even no cost
s

And takes little time for basic planning and evaluation

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The Real Barriers to Measurement

PR has been/is process & outputs focussed;
lack of strategic commitment to outcomes
Information dissemination s Focus on quantitative measures – eg. clippings s Using ‘bad science’ measures such as AVEs
s s

Lack of SMART objectives
s

Lack of knowledge of research
Lack of a research culture in PR s Reliance on experience & ‘gut feel’
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Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Timely

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To NOT do measurement …
Is not communicating
s

Is irresponsible
s

As there is no evidence of impact or outcomes Investors’ and taxpayers’ funds are spent without accountability

Is possibly unethical?

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The Key to the Future
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? Corporate Citizenship? Reputation management? These also are
processes and outputs
s

What is the OUTCOME
all companies & organisations seek
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Not an end in themselves

?
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Sustainability
Corporate sustainability Organisational sustainability Government sustainability National sustainability Economic sustainability Environmental sustainability Human sustainability

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Public Relations
 Builds mutual understanding with communities  Enhances relationships  Maintains ‘permission to operate’
s

These are valuable & indispensible contributions to businesses, organisations & governments

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PR Measurement

RESTRUCTURE COMMUNICATION 2000-2001
100 90 80 70

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60 50 40 30 20

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10

Conclusions – Call to Action
International intellectual leadership by IPRA National PR bodies should make research &
evaluation a top priority in training Educators should increase focus on research in PR & communication courses Practitioners need to rise to the challenge
To be COMMUNICATORS s Achieving demonstrable OUTCOMES
s

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