15TH MAY 2016

APLCC 2016


in market but too costly for people to buy)
and its reimbursement approval”.
“Currently all targeted therapy drugs are
available and also reimbursed. The problem
is with immunotherapy drugs like Nivolumab, which currently is sold in Australia
but is not reimbursed. So, one has to buy it
from one’s own pocket. However, the government’s reimbursement decision for this
drug is awaited”.

Equity issue?
Dr Michael Boyer
Lung cancer, which is the most common
cancer worldwide, including the Asia Pacific
region, is a major public health problem. In
2012, there were an estimated 1.8 million
new lung cancer cases (13% of all cancers
diagnosed), and 1.59 million deaths (19.4%
of the total cancer deaths). Despite many recent advancements in the treatment of lung
cancer, there are challenges in the use of
novel regimens.
Dr Michael Boyer, Member, APLCC 2016
Committee and Board of Directors of
IASLC, shared the perspective of Australia.
He is also the Professor of Medicine at the
Sydney Cancer Centre, and Chief Clinical
Officer of the Chris O’Brien Lifehouse in
He said: “There are two main challenges
for Australia. The first is concerning our
national system whereby new drugs are
first made available in the local market and
then approved by the government for cost
reimbursement. So, there could be a time
gap of 6-12 months between the marketing
approval of a new drug (when it is available
Hosted by

Supported by

Dr Boyer calls this “An equity issue where
some people can and some cannot afford
the new drugs till they are approved for
reimbursement. So it would be great to
streamline the Australian system to shorten
this time delay between marketing and
reimbursement approval for new drugs”.
“The second challenge is about education
of patients and doctors to ensure that the
patients get the right drugs at the right time.
But this problem has largely been dealt with
in Australia, even though it may be present in
other countries. Patients on immunotherapy
drugs should be well informed so that they
are able to recognise the side effects and do
the right things to get treated well. Patients
involved in clinical trials get very familiar
with the use of drugs and they play a crucial
role in educating others. As immunotherapy
drugs in Australia were approved even
before they were used for lung cancer
treatment, many oncologists already have
experience of their use, and so do not face
any particular challenge in using them for
lung cancer treatment”, he said.
(continued on page 2)

Conference Secretariat



- Decreasing prices of cancer drugs will
increase their accessibility One of the most pressing problems in
oncology today is the rising costs of cancer
treatment. Cancer medication costs in the US
have doubled during the last decade from
$5000 a month to about $10000-$12000 per
One of the reasons for this could be the high
costs and time period involved in developing
new drugs - it can take more than 15 years
and over $2.8 billion to develop a new drug,
said Dr Gilberto Lopez, a medical oncologist
in Brazil and Chief Medical Officer for the
Oncoclinicas Group - the largest oncologists’
group in Latin America with over 300
physicians. Dr Lopez is also the Associate
Editor of Journal of Global Oncology.
In most markets, interdependence between
demand and supply and free market forces
sets prices of a product/ service. The
healthcare market, however is not an
independently working market — there is
concentration of power either in the national
buyers or in the pharmaceutical industry,
which has a monopoly over its patented
(continued on page 3)



15TH MAY 2016

(Continued from page 1: Challenges in using new lung cancer drugs in Asia Pacific)

Are drugs beyond reach for most
in need?

Is cost blocking access to new

Establishing global genomic
screening system is vital!

Dr Virote Sriuranpong, Associate
Professor, Department of Medicine
Chulalongkorn University in Thailand
and Co-Chair of APLCC 2016 listed
the high cost of medicines as a major

Agreed Dr Purvish M Parikh,
Director of Precision Oncology, and
Research at the Asian Institute of
Oncology, Somaiya Hospital, Mumbai,
India, that to treat an incurable cancer
with expensive medicines is a big
challenge in the South Asia region,
as most countries are low and middle
income countries. Whether the patient
takes treatment from a government
or a private hospital, there are cost
related issues.

Dr Nagahiro Saijo, Chief Executive
Officer of Japan Society of Medical
Oncology, and Member, APLCC
2016 International Committee, gave
an overview of contribution of Japan,
(that has been home to many clinical
trials) for the development of
molecular target drugs and immune
checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer

While there can be a better prognosis
in patients through access to the novel
medicines, Dr Sriuranpong rued that,
“The new medicines are unaffordable
for many people. Thailand is a
developing country and the average
income is low to moderate. It takes a
few years before any new medicine
gets approved to be marketed in the
country. Hence most of the patients
may not be able to access them till the
generic medicines come out and this
could take as long as 5-10 years after
they are approved”.
He gave the example of the new oral
tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs
Gefitinib, Erlotinib and Afatinib,
which give good response in lung
cancers with EGFR (epidermal
growth factor receptor) mutations that
are quite prevalent in Asian countries,
including Thailand. These drugs,
though available in Thailand, are very

“Targeted therapy for lung cancer
treatment is being used in India
and other countries of South Asia.
New oral drugs, like TKIs, can
significantly improve median survival
of metastatic lung cancer patients
with a good response, and appropriate
use of them would benefit a large
number of patients. Now there is more
information about mutations (like
EGFR, BRAF and ALK) and genetic
changes that take place in lung cancer,
and this helps in selecting the right
drugs for the right subset of patients.
So, with an increase in number
of drugs and improved molecular
profiling, doctors are more precisely
able to identify the most appropriate
drug for a particular patient”, he said.
Dr Parikh warned that “It is incorrect
to devise lung cancer control
strategies just around the premise of
tobacco control, as only 50% of lung
cancer cases are tobacco related. The
other causes could be exposure to
hazardous substances like fertilisers,
pesticides, and pollution that can
damage the DNA; lack of exercise;
increased fat content in the diet; and

“At this moment about 70 molecular
target drugs have been approved, 41 of
which (including 22 small molecules
and 19 antibodies) are available in
Japan. 5 molecular target drugs have
been developed in Japan—HDAC
inhibitor Rodipepcin; MEK inhibitor
Trametinib; ALK inhibitor Alectinib;
anti-PD-1 antibody Nivolumab; and
anti-CCR4 antibody Mogamulizumab”, he informed.
“Now a days we are finding many
mutations in lung cancer. Lung cancer
should be reclassified into various
genomic subtypes, and drugs for each
tumour type should be developed.
For this purpose establishment of
nationwide/ global genomic screening
system will be mandatory. Japan’s
‘Lung Cancer Genomic Screening
project for individualized medicine’ is
one such effort. Based on innovative
technology for gene analysis, we
now believe that ‘one-size fits all’
medicine should be converted
to precision medicine. Genomic
screening for the identification
of driver gene will be crucial to
development of new drugs to improv
e lung cancer treatment outcomes in
future”, said Dr Saijo.


15TH MAY 2016

(Continued from Page 1: How much should new drugs cost to worth the benefit?)

has used CL for a number of drugs, including taxol - an anti-cancer chemotherapy
drug. This has resulted in huge savings for the government and made it easier for
the Thai people to access cancer medication. Thailand, however did face some
economic losses when the US government retaliated by deleting some of the Thai
products from their exports’ list. But, CL resulted in overall savings for Thailand’s
economy. More recently in 2012, India imposed compulsory licensing for
anticancer drug Sorafenib tosylate sold under the brand name Nexavar. This
resulted in reducing the cost to US $175 per month - a 97% price reduction”.
Dr Gilberto Lopez

How can we improve access to
cancer medication?
Dr Gilberto Lopez shared different
strategies that low and middle income
countries can take to improve access
to cancer medication.
1) Price control for cancer medicines
can be imposed by governments. But
price controls usually do not work,
feared Dr Lopez. “We have many
examples where price controls have
led to the disappearance of the product
from the market, leaving the customers
with no option but to buy the product
in the black market where prices are
even higher than what they were
initially supposed to be. So
negotiations with the pharmaceutical
industry and use of reference pricing
could perhaps be of more help”.
2) Compulsory licensing (CL) is an
effective strategy used by governments
to drastically reduce drug prices.
During the HIV/AIDS crisis in the
1990s, it was only through use of
compulsory licensing provisions by
countries like Brazil, India and South
Africa that led the industry to lower
prices for ARV drugs in low and
reminded Dr Lopez.
Although CL has not been used often
for cancer, Dr Lopez shared the
few existing examples where this
intervention has worked. “Thailand

However Dr Lopez warned that the new free trade agreements (FTAs) have been
including clauses that do not allow the signatory countries to use CL. This is a
disturbing development that will deprive many countries from using CL to rein in
3) Price discrimination or market-based differential pricing is a relatively new
concept in healthcare. Price discrimination is the concept of charging different
prices for the same product/service from different consumers, based on
consumers’ ability to pay.
According to him, price discrimination should work for pharmaceutical
companies also as their major expenses lie in drug development and not in the
marginal cost of producing one extra tablet.
There are companies today that have a pricing policy of charging lower rates
from lower income countries. There are many instances of price discrimination
working to advantage. Dr Lopez gave the example of Brazil where, recently,
several companies decreased the cost of Hepatitis-C medication by more than
80%, making it accessible to all those with Hepatitis-C infection. There are some
examples of price discrimination for cancer medicines as well.
Dr Lopez listed the problems that beset price discrimination strategy:
• Companies may worry that somebody might buy the medications in a cheaper
jurisdiction and then resource (export) them back to more expensive
jurisdictions. But there can be international control mechanisms to prevent this
• There could be political backlash - citizens of rich countries might resent
paying higher prices in order to subsidise costs in developing countries.
But people will have to realise that access to medicines is a matter of right for
all, and not just a matter of trade
• Some medications are so expensive that even after massive price decreases of
80% they still might not be affordable in some low income countries.
4) Generic medicines are another very valuable way to access affordable
medication, once the patents expire.
5) Biosimilars are now being developed in the field of oncology for the more
expensive monoclonal antibodies such as Rituximab and Cetuximab.
Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need to find and adopt means to regulate the
prices of the expensive cancer drugs.


15TH MAY 2016

Medical Oncologist,
New Delhi, India

Oncologist, Dhaka,

“Tobacco cessation must get top priority as it by itself will
drastically reduce incidence of lung cancer. We also should
recognize that incidence of lung cancer is increasing in
non-smokers too, including women - due to genetic
mutations and passive smoking. Many of these cases are
getting diagnosed in stage-4 of the cancer, perhaps because
the disease becomes symptomatic in nonsmokers at a late
stage only and also because health of females is generally
ignored in a country like India. India is a TB endemic
country and TB mimics lung cancer symptoms, so
physicians often start with anti TB treatment (ATT), and
advice biopsy only after ATT fails. General physicians
must be well informed to not ignore early symptoms of
lung cancer and recommend biopsy early on, to diagnose
the disease as early as possible”

APLCC 2016 delegates striking a pose

“For poor countries like Bangladesh, it is important to
prioritize prevention of lung cancer. Motivating people
to stop tobacco use is an evidence-based way to prevent
lung cancer and other tobacco related diseases. Early
detection is important and this is not easy in my country.
Lung cancer cases are often misdiagnosed as TB. Only
when they fail TB treatment they are referred to tertiary
care hospitals for diagnosis for lung cancer. As core needle
biopsy is not done, so targeted therapy is less popular and
most of the times we do chemotherapy. Palliative care is
very important in the context of my country as majority
of our patients present with very advanced stage of lung
cancer. Palliative care is needed even during initial
presentation of the disease and not just for the terminally

APLCC 2016 - a snapshot of Day II

Cutting edge lung cancer science at APLCC 2016

APLCC 2016 - a snapshot

Day II of APLCC 2016 - full of academic and
scientific learnings

Day II of APLCC 2016 - scientific exchanges

Delegates from various specialities attending
APLCC 2016

Delegates participating in Q&A in
APLCC sessions

Must attend - poster presentations at APLCC 2016

Dr Francoise Mornex, Member, IASLC Board of
Directors at APLCC 2016

Poster presentations at APLCC 2016 - a hallmark


Interactive Q&A are important part of sessions


15TH MAY 2016

Vice President of
Philippines Society
of Medical Oncology

Oncologist, Chiang
Mai, Thailand

“In Philippines, there are cancer education and advocacy
campaigns for prevention of breast cancer, but none for
lung cancer. Lung cancer diagnosis is often late. People
come for checkup only when they are symptomatic by
which time the cancer is already in an advanced stage.
Regular annual checkups are expensive and not covered
by government insurance. Access to modern medicines
is another problem. Chemotherapy is there, but is not
covered by health insurance. TKI agents are available but
are very expensive. New generation immunotherapy drugs
are being used just in clinical trials and not available in the
market. Palliative care is another big challenge. Most
patients, if they can afford, prefer to stay in the hospital,
where there are pain management units. For me it is a big
challenge that I have patients who require palliative care
but it is not available”

“Early diagnosis of lung cancer is very important, as
patients can go for curative surgery. Only 20% of my patients present themselves in early stages—1, 2 or early 3—
of the disease. Many of them are scared to go for surgery
and prefer to try herbal medicines that cause more harm
than good.
Smoking cessation and reducing air pollution are important
prevention tools. Though we have good antismoking laws,
more teenagers are smoking now. It is proven that screening
helps in early diagnosis of lung cancer and mortality
reduction. Right now we have screening programme for
heavy smokers.
We should do molecular testing as we now have targeted
therapy that has less toxicity, better efficacy and improved
survival. But it is very expensive. Immunotherapy gives
hope for still better treatment, but then again cost is very

Prof David Carbone, President IASLC at APLCC 2016

Do not miss poster presentations at APLCC 2016

Interactive Q&A at APLCC 2016 sessions - b

Interactive Q&A at APLCC 2016 sessions

Q&A sessions have important dialogues too

Prof David Carbone President IASLC
at APLCC 2016 - in sessions

Prof David Carbone President IASLC
at APLCC 2016

Sharing and discussions are important for
scientific exchanges at APLCC

Senior oncologists reviewing poster presentations
at APLCC 2016

Session of Day II in progress at APLCC 2016



15TH MAY 2016

Dr Ekaphop Sirachainan who is the Vice President of Thai Society of Clinical
Oncology (TSCO); faculty at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University; and a
member of the Local Organising Committee of APLCC 2016 shared the
highlights of some of the interesting oral and poster presentation abstracts.

Dr Ekaphop Sirachainan

Few oral presentations highlighted
by Dr Sirachainan:

Few poster presentations especially mentioned
by Dr Sirachainan:

• Award winning abstract of Dr. Takashi Seto, Department of Thoracic
Onclogy, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Japan, presents the results
of ‘Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) could not show the overall
survival (OS) benefits of patients with extensive disease small cell
lung cancer (ED-SCLC): A Japanese randomized phase III trial’. The
study concluded that PCI after response to chemotherapy could not
show the OS impact in patients with ED-SCLC.

• Award winning poster ‘Studying the cost-effectiveness analysis
of second-line EGFR TKI in Thai patients with Advanced NSCLC’
by Ms.Tanavadee Siritanadeepun,, King Chulalongkorn Memorial
Hospital, Thailand. The study concluded that in Thai patients with
NSCLC, second-line EGFR TKI is cost-effective, as compared to
second-line chemotherapy.

• Award winning abstract of Dr. Keunchil Park, Samsung Medical
Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, South Korea,
on ‘Phase III trial of second-line Afatinib versus Erlotinib in patients
with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: tumour genetic analysis
and survival outcomes’. The study found that OS (overall survival)
and PFS (progression free survival) benefits with Afatinib over
Erlotinib was consistent in all molecular subgroups analyzed.

• ‘Mixed responses (MR) to systemic therapy in NSCLC patients
evaluated by PET/CT indicate clinical significance for predicting
survival and genetic intertumoral heterogeneity’ by Dr Zhong-Yi
Dong, Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, China. The results showed
that MR was not a rare event in NSCLC patients and tended to occur
in advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with TKI. MR may
result from inter-tumour heterogeneity and serve as an unfavourable
prognostic factor for survival.

• Award winning abstract of Dr. Ken O’Byrne, Princess Alexandra
Hospital and Queensland University of Technology, Australia,
presents results of a global Phase IIb trial on ‘First-line Afatinib
versus Gefitinib in patients with EGFR mutation positive NSCLC:
efficacy and safety in Asian patients’. The results showed that Afatinib
significantly improved PFS, TTF (time to treatment failure) and ORR
(overall response rate) versus Gefitinib in EGFRm+ patients.

Abstract of Hao-ran Zhai, Pulmonary Division, Guangdong
Lung Cancer Institute, China on ‘An alternative bronchial division
procedure in right upper lobectomy (RUL) indicates better operative
outcomes for lung cancer patients’. It compares an alternative surgical
method of RUL with the conventional method with regard to
safety and feasibility. The abstract concludes that conducting right
upper lobectomy with the surgical procedure of aBVA via VATS
(Video-assisted thoracic surgery) could result in better clinical
benefits for primary lung cancer patients in terms of perioperative
outcomes—less operative time and surgical costs— safety and
technical feasibility.
• Abstract of Hong-Fei Gao, Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute,
China, on ‘Study about Plasma dynamic monitoring of soluble c-Met
level for EGFR-TKI treatment in advanced non-small cell lung
cancer’. The study results showed that quantitative soluble c-Met
in plasma by ELISA provided a non-invasive and sensitive assay to
predict EGFR-TKI prognosis.

• ‘Impact of T790M genotype on post-progression survival of patients
with exon 19 deletion versus those with L858R mutation’ by Dr Ee
Ke, Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, China. The study found that
patients with L858R mutations in T790M-negative subgroup would
probably survival longer than those with exon 19 deletions.
• Award winning poster ‘Salvage radiotherapy for locoregionally
recurrent non-small cell lung cancer after resection’ by Dr. Jae-Sung
Kim, Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang
Hospital, South Korea. The review concluded that patients with
locoregionally recurrent NSCLC showed favourable survival
outcomes with salvage RT. Young age, single site recurrence, and the
use of concurrent chemo radiotherapy were good prognostic factors
of overall survival.
• Award winning poster on evaluating ‘Quantification of EGFR
mutations in plasma circulating DNA by Droplet Digital PCR for
patients with advanced NSCLC’ by Dr Qiu-Yi Zhang, Guangdong
Lung Cancer Institute, China. The study concluded that plasma could
be a novel surrogate in case of insufficient tissue specimens for EGFR
gene detection. Droplet digital PCR could be a potential tool for
quantification of EGFR mutations in plasma circulating DNA.



15TH MAY 2016

APLCC 2016 Awards:

Delegates are welcome to see the award winning abstracts at APLCC 2016 (travel grants, best poster and best oral presentation awards).
Below are more details:
Abstract ID




Mr. Aditya Manna
Dr. Qi Zhang
Dr. Hong-Fei Gao
Dr. Yaxiong Zhang
Dr. Zhong-Yi Dong
Dr. Lan-Ying
Dr. Jun-tao Lin
Ms. Ee Ke
Dr. Hao-ran Zhai
Dr. Divyesh Kumar


Abstract ID





Prophylactic cranial irradiation could Dr. Takashi Seto
not show the overall survival benefits
of patients with extensive disease
small cell lung cancer



First-line afatinib versus gefitinib in
Dr. Ken O’Byrne
patients with epidermal growth factor
receptor mutation positive non-small
cell lung cancer (LUX-Lung 7):
efficacy and safety in Asian patients



Impact of dose adjustment on afatinib Prof. Yi-Long Wu
safety and efficacy in epidermal
growth factor receptor mutationpositive non-small cell lung cancer:
post-hoc analyses of LUX-Lung 3/
LUX-Lung 6


Phase III trial of second-line afatinib Dr. Keunchil Park
versus erlotinib in patients with
squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
(LUX-Lung 8): tumor genetic analysis
and survival outcomes

South Korea


Abstract ID





The Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of
Second-line Epidermal Growth Factor Siritanadeepun
Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
in Thai Patients with Advanced
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer



Salvage radiotherapy for locoregionally Dr. Jae-Sung Kim
recurrent non-small cell lung cancer
after resection

South Korea

The Cellsearch Veridex technology
improves diagnostic accuracy of l
eptomeningeal metastases in lung

Dr. Yang-Si Li



Quantification of EGFR Mutations in
Plasma Circulating DNA by
Droplet Digital PCR from Patients
with advanced NSCLC

Mrs. Qiu-Yi Zhang



Pulmonary Resection in Elderly
Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung
Cancer; Prognostic Factors of
Long-Term Mortality

Dr. Sophon



Governments of Asia Pacific nations and other countries in the world commit to reduce
mortality due to lung cancer (and other NCDs) by one-third by 2030
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by governments • SDG 3.c: Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment,
at UN General Assembly 2015 and some of the targets to deliver by development, training and retention of the health workforce in
developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small
2030 include:
island developing States
• SDG 3.4: By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from
non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and • SDG 3.d: Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular
developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and
promote mental health and well-being
management of national and global health risks
• SDG 3.8: Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk
protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to
safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines
for all
• SDG 3.a: Strengthen the implementation of the World Health
Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all
countries, as appropriate
• SDG 3.b: Support the research and development of vaccines and
medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that
primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable
essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha
Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms
the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular,
provide access to medicines for all


15TH MAY 2016

“As I am a radiation oncologist so my priority
is treatment with radiation therapy. In a large
number of lung cancer patients, chemotherapy
is used for treatment of the primary tumour
in the lung and quite often we need to give
radiation to control the primary tumour. In some
cases - even in case of surgery - the patient is
still at high risk and the tumour often comes
back after some years in 20% - 40% cases. If
patient has lymph node metastasis, there is
high rate of tumour recurrence in the chest. In
such situations, alongside treatment with chemotherapy, radiation
is given to control the tumour. Radiation improves locally recurrent
microscopic metastasis in the chest”
Dr Prasert Lertsanguangsinchai, President of Thai Association
of Radiation Oncology; member APLCC 2016 Local Organizing
Committee; faculty, Department of Radiation Oncology,
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
“These are exciting times in the treatment of
lung cancer. Much progress has occurred in
prevention, screening and therapy of lung
cancer over the last years. Much needs to be
done, but patients can be offered hope for
effective and minimally toxic personalised
therapies. Molecular profiling is a crucial step
in determining optimum patient care. Science
is increasingly impacting patient care with
molecular biomarkers and tailoring therapy to
individual genetic profile.

“Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy
(SABR) has been a major development in
treatment of lung cancer in last few years. The
SABR holds the promise of not only curing
early stage operable lung cancer but doing so
with patient comfort and convenience, and
minimal toxicity. We need to do randomized
clinical trials to make sure that this approach is
beneficial though. There are trials commencing
in North America and Europe and we may be
joining one of these trials in Australia. There
are sessions on SABR at APLCC 2016 and I do hope delegates will
benefit from these to stay abreast of latest developments in role of
SABR in early stage lung cancer”
Dr David Ball, Member, APLCC 2016 International Committee;
Chair of multi-disciplinary Lung Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer
Centre, Australia; Recipient of IASLC Merit Award, 14th WCLC
(2011); Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation

It is our hope that the participants at APLCC
2016 will take the newest scientific advances back to their respective
local communities and implement the most up-to-date cancer care to
the lung cancer patients in their communities.”

“Just like other cancers, if lung cancer is
diagnosed when the disease is in an early
stage then there are more chances of cure with
surgery. If it is an advanced case of lung
cancer then chances of cure are less. Hence
the first thing is to identify whether N2 lymph
nodes are involved or not – only then we should
progress ahead and manage patients properly.
Some physicians and surgeons are still
relying on non-invasive staging approach like
CT scan or PET scan. We should encourage treating doctors to get the
status confirmed whether it is N2 disease or not. So the key is to do
investigative staging for mediastinal node”

Dr Chong Kin Liam, Member APLCC 2016 Committee; Chair of
APLCC 2014; Professor of Medicine, University Malaya Medical
Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Former President, Malaysian
Thoracic Society

Dr Punnarerk Thongcharoen, Thoracic surgeon in Thailand’s oldest
and largest hospitals - Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol
University; and member, APLCC 2016 Local Organizing Committee


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• Twitter conference hashtag: #APLCC2016
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