Saurav dhyani

ERP Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and human resources. It is a software architecture whose purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. Built on a centralized database and normally utilizing a common computing platform, ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise wide system environment. Advantages  Complete integration of systems across the departments in a company as well as across the enterprise as a whole.  Only solution for a better project management.  Better Customer Service.  The ability to streamline different processes and workflows.  The ability to easily share data across various departments in an organization  Improved efficiency and productivity levels  Better tracking and forecasting  Lowers costs  Customization.  Integration among different functional areas to ensure proper communication, productivity and efficiency  Order tracking, from acceptance through fulfillment  The revenue cycle, from invoice through cash receipt  Eliminates the problem of synchronizing changes between multiple systems - consolidation of finance, marketing and sales, human resource, and manufacturing applications  Permits control of business processes that cross functional boundaries  Provides top-down view of the enterprise (no "islands of information"), real time information is available to management anywhere, anytime to make proper decisions.  Reduces the risk of loss of sensitive data by consolidating multiple permissions and security models into a single structure.  Facilitating business learning, empowering, and building common visions Disadvantages  Customization of the ERP software is limited...  Re-engineering of business processes to fit the "industry standard" prescribed by the ERP system may lead to a loss of competitive advantage.  ERP systems can be very expensive.  ERPs are often seen as too rigid and too difficult to adapt to the specific workflow and business process of some companies—this is cited as one of the main causes of their failure.  Many of the integrated links need high accuracy in other applications to work effectively. A company can achieve minimum standards, and then over time "dirty data" will reduce the reliability of some applications.  Once a system is established, switching costs are very high for any one of the partners (reducing flexibility and strategic control at the corporate level).  The blurring of company boundaries can cause problems in accountability, lines of responsibility, and employee morale.  Resistance in sharing sensitive internal information between departments can reduce the effectiveness of the software.  Some large organizations may have multiple departments with separate, independent resources, missions, chains-of-command, etc, and consolidation into a single enterprise may yield limited benefits.

ERP SHORT NOTES

Saurav dhyani

Common Module In ERP  Opportunity tracking & management  Logistics.  Material Requirements Planning (MRP). Evolution  Material Requirements Planning (MRP).  Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II).  Enterprise Resource Planning.  Money Resource Planning (MRP III) ERP Suppliers  SAP Business Suite  JD Edwards Hidden Cost In ERP Training Integration and Testing

Sales & Marketing. Manufacturing. Human Resource.

Purchasing. Financials. Inventory.

BAAN Oracle Microsoft Axapta / Microsoft Navison

Peoplesoft Ramco

Critical, but effort and cost is often underestimated Links between modules and between ERP software and external systems Expensive, complex, dangerous Need ‘best and brightest’ from business – how to replace them? Implementation team needs to stay in place All change and upheaval – impact on organization’s morale BPR

Customization Data Conversion Consultants Staffing Delayed ROI Post-ERP Depression

Dr. Michael Hammer defines BPR as”… The fundamental rethinking and radical re-design of business processes to achieve dramatic improvement in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, services and speed.” BPR 6 Principles are suggested to streamline the work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality, time management and costs;-

ERP SHORT NOTES

Saurav dhyani

1. [ Objective] Organize around outcomes, not tasks
2. Identify all processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign/ urgency for resources optimization 3. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information. 4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they are centralized 5. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results 6. Put the decision point where the work is performed and build control into the processes 7. Capture information once and at source. CRM ‘The infrastructure, attitude and service, which enables the delineation of and increase in customer value, and the correct means by which to motivate valuable customers to remain loyal, so that they buy again.’ OR The management of all customer interactions which an enterprise indulges in, with a focus on managing and optimizing the customer life cycle. OR A process that brings together relevant information about customers, sales, marketing, effectiveness, market trends and responsiveness. Types of CRM • eCRM – this refers to “electronic” customer relationship management, which is online or web based. • ERM – this is an ideal, called Enterprise based Customer Relationship Management, where the entire organization is completely customer focused. • PRM – or Partnership CRM – where optimisation of value, for the customer and the partner i.e. the internal customer is optimised • SRM- or Supplier Relationship Management- focuses on the vendor chain • m CRM - or mobile CRM – it involves the use of wireless technologies in CRM • Operational CRM - also called ‘front office CRM’ – it involves the areas where direct customer contact occurs • Analytical CRM- or “back office CRM”- involves understanding activities which occur in the front office, and implementing down the value chain. Also called strategic CRM CRM Consist of  Customer identification  Customer understanding – environment, organizational and personal  Customer service delivery  Customer relationship consolidation  Innovation  Retention Data Mining

 Data mining is the process of extracting patterns from data. Data mining is becoming an
increasingly important tool to transform this data into information. It is commonly used in a wide range of profiling practices, such as marketing, surveillance, fraud detection and scientific discovery.  Data mining can be used to uncover patterns in data but is often carried out only on samples of data. The mining process will be ineffective if the samples are not a good representation of the larger body of data. Data mining cannot discover patterns that may be present in the larger body of data if those patterns are not present in the sample being "mined". Inability to find patterns may become a cause for some disputes between customers and service providers. Therefore data mining is not foolproof but may be useful if sufficiently representative data samples are collected.

ERP SHORT NOTES

Saurav dhyani
The discovery of a particular pattern in a particular set of data does not necessarily mean that a pattern is found elsewhere in the larger data from which that sample was drawn. SAP R/3

ERP SHORT NOTES

Saurav dhyani

SAP R/3 Modules

Supply Chain Management Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers. Supply Chain Management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-inprocess inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption (supply chain). Supply chain management must address the following problems:  Distribution Network Configuration: number, location and network missions of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, cross-docks and customers.  Distribution Strategy: questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared); delivery scheme, e.g., direct shipment, pool point shipping, cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping; mode of transportation, e.g., motor carrier, including

ERP SHORT NOTES

Saurav dhyani
truckload, LTL, parcel; railroad; intermodal transport, including TOFC (trailer on flatcar) and COFC (container on flatcar); ocean freight; airfreight; replenishment strategy (e.g., pull, push or hybrid); and transportation control (e.g., owner-operated, private carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL).  Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities: The above activities must be well coordinated in order to achieve the lowest total logistics cost. Trade-offs may increase the total cost if only one of the activities is optimized. For example, full truckload (FTL) rates are more economical on a cost per pallet basis than less than truckload (LTL) shipments. If, however, a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs, there will be an increase in inventory holding costs which may increase total logistics costs. It is therefore imperative to take a systems approach when planning logistical activities. These trade-offs are key to developing the most efficient and effective Logistics and SCM strategy.  Information: Integration of processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, potential collaboration, etc.  Inventory Management: Quantity and location of inventory, including raw materials, work-inprogress (WIP) and finished goods.  Cash-Flow: Arranging the payment terms and methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain. Just In Time ust-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency.

Main benefits of JIT include:  Reduced setup time. Cutting setup time allows the company to reduce or eliminate inventory for "changeover" time.  The flow of goods from warehouse to shelves improves. Small or individual piece lot sizes reduce lot delay inventories, which simplifies inventory flow and its management.  Employees with multiple skills are used more efficiently. Having employees trained to work on different parts of the process allows companies to move workers where they are needed.  Production scheduling and work hour consistency synchronized with demand. If there is no demand for a product at the time, it is not made. This saves the company money, either by not having to pay workers overtime or by having them focus on other work or participate in training.  Increased emphasis on supplier relationships. A company without inventory does not want a supply system problem that creates a part shortage. This makes supplier relationships extremely important.  Supplies come in at regular intervals throughout the production day. Supply is synchronized with production demand and the optimal amount of inventory is on hand at any time. When parts move directly from the truck to the point of assembly, the need for storage facilities is reduced.

ERP SHORT NOTES

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