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Conservation of Flaura and Fauna

India has a rich biodiversity and is home to around 1.6 million or nearly
8% of all the species of flora and fauna found in the world. India is also
home to over 86,000 species of fauna including birds, insects, and land
and water animals.
Besides being the only country to have both lions and tigers in its
forests, India is one of the few countries that have a habitat to support
large land animals like the elephant.
The Himalayas harbour some large land animals like the yak and the
shaggy-horned wild ox found in the freezing high altitudes of Ladakh.
Some rare species of wild animals include the snow leopard, the red
panda, the ibex and the Himalayan brown bear.
The wildlife in the Indian rivers, lakes and coastal areas is equally rich
with various species of reptiles like crocodiles and gharials, water
snakes and turtles. There are over 940 different species of fish in India.
In order to preserve world biodiversity, and our natural heritage, fourteen
biosphere reserves have been set up in the country.
Four have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves.
They are the Sunderban in West Bengal, the Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal,
the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, and the Nilgiris spanning across
Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
The government also provides financial and technical support for many
of the Botanical Gardens, since 1992. To protect wildlife, the
Government of India has introduced Project Tiger, Project Rhino and
Project Great Indian Bustard.
In addition, there are 89 national parks, and 490 wildlife sanctuaries and
zoological gardens in India to take care of our flora and fauna.
As per IUCN specifications, the species of flora and fauna can be
classified as normal, extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare or endemic.


Flora is basically the plant life that is present in a particular region or
habitat or at a particular time and fauna is the animal life that is present

in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time. Biodiversity is a

very large topic and somewhat difficult to define adequately in only a
sentence or two. In the very simplest terms, "biodiversity" means the
diversity of life on our planet, which includes genetic diversity, species
diversity, and habitat diversity. Diversity can be defined as the number of
different items and their relative frequency. For biological diversity, these
items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems
to the chemical structures that are the molecular basis of heredity. Thus,
the term encompasses different ecosystems, species, genes, and their
relative abundance." The area of flora, fauna and biodiversity is quite
interrelated. Flora and fauna forms a major part of biodiversity.
India is a land of varied flora, fauna and biodiversity. India is one of the
twelve mega-diverse nations of the World. Two of India's great mountain
ranges, the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats have been
designated among the world's eighteen 'hotspots' of biodiversity. But In
the last few decades we have seen a steady increase in the extinction
rate of flora, fauna etc. all over world including India and so now,
conservation of biological diversity is of paramount importance to the
survival of


Conservation of

biological diversity leads to

conservation of essential ecological diversity to preserve the continuity of

food chains. The genetic diversity of plants and animals is preserved. It
ensures the sustainable utilization of life support systems on earth. It
provides a vast knowledge of potential use to the scientific community. A
reservoir of wild animals and plants is preserved, thus enabling them to
be introduced, if need be, in the surrounding areas. Biological diversity
provides immediate benefits to the society such as recreation and
tourism. Biodiversity conservation serves as an insurance policy for the

We solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve & strengthen
the freedom & integrity of the nation.
We further affirm that I shall never resort to violence & that I will continue
to endeavor towards settlement of all differences & disputes relating to
religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances by
peaceful constitutional means.
Natures Facts
1. Covering less than 2% of the earths total surface, the worlds

rainforest are home to 50% of the earths plants & animals.

There are about 9,500 different types of grass in the world,
About 400 billions gallons of water is used everyday.
The winter of 1932 was so cold that the Niagara Falls froze.
It takes 100 years for a caves stalactite to grow 1inch.
A giant Sequoia named General Sherman is the largest tree in the

7. Although Polar Bears have white fur, their skin is black.
8. Everyday 50 to 100 species of plants & animals become extinct.
9. Bamboo can grow up to 3feet in one day.
10. Goats have rectangular pupils.
11. Broccoli is a vegetable with a nervous system. It can feel pain.
12. 94% of life on Earth is Aquatic.
13. Sharks are immune to all known diseases.
14. Tarantulas can survive 2 & and a half years without food.
15. There are a million ants for every person on Earth.
Going, going, gone
The figures are astounding. 50% of tropical forests gone. 20% of coral
reefs destroyed. Over 50% of mangroves lost. Few of the worlds natural
habitats remain untouched by mankinds progress.
As we destroy wild places, so we also destroy the futures for
innumerable species. Recorded extinction rates have risen over the last

century; 22% of mammals and 12% of birds are now at risk of extinction.
A third of all amphibians are considered to be either threatened or
already extinct.
For all these groups the primary cause of extinction risk is loss of natural
Less is known about the lower organisms where species loss is likely to
be much higher some experts estimate that we are already losing
some 27,000 species a year!
Squeezing the planet
Our growing human population needs space to live and feed itself;
growing expectations of consumers in developed and emerging
economies place additional strain on an overtaxed natural world. At this
rate we risk undermining the very processes that underpin our planets
productivity and resilience.
In our oceans, the destruction that mankind has caused is less
immediately visible. However evidence now shows that over-fishing has
caused declining stocks and has pushed species to the brink of











acidification (linked to global warming) now risk undermining the

functioning of ocean systems.
Biting the hand that feeds
We already see examples of how loss of natural habitats leaves local
human populations vulnerable be it to landslides following the removal
of hillside trees, or to coastal destruction when the protective barrier of
mangroves has been cleared.

Clearing rainforests for timber and agriculture only releases more

greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere, contributing to climate
Globally, over 1 billion people rely on fisheries as their primary source of
protein and are at risk from the ongoing decline in fish catches.
In future habitats and species will both face risks from a changing
climate. Indeed, it is now recognised that maintaining natural habitats
could be a key factor in enabling not only wildlife, but also human
populations, to adapt to climate change.
The need for protection
Maintaining natural habitats in the face of ongoing threats is essential.
Globally 12% of land has been set aside as protected areas. However,
declaration of such areas is not enough. Without effective on-the-ground
management the biodiversity and habitats of these sites will continue to
be lost.
Across the worlds seas and oceans only a pitiful 0.6 per cent has been
declared as protected and again effective protection needs more than
a line on the map.

Securing the future

One of FFIs key goals is to increase the area of land and sea under
effective conservation management. Join us in helping to secure a future
for the worlds most threatened natural sites.
There are many different ways to ensure the survival of natural habitats.
Key to success is finding the right people who will be able to manage the
site into the long term, be they government agencies, communities or

NGOs. However appropriate solutions will depend on the unique

situation at each site.
Traditional approaches include supporting the establishment and/or
effective management of state protected areas. However, protected
areas may also be established by local NGOs, communities, individuals
or even businesses.
In other cases formal protection is not appropriate, and conservation
agreements with landowners may be a more pragmatic solution to
protecting natural habitats.
Policy changes (such as in coastal and fisheries management) may
promote the creation of no-take protected zones within marine habitats.
The opportunities of carbon finance through Reduced Emissions from
Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) schemes provide new ways to
promote the protection of key forest areas.
Increasingly, opportunities to support communities to develop their own
forms of community protected areas are emerging linked to land
rights, tenure and long-term sustainability of the environment on which
these communities rely.
In parallel, some big businesses are also taking measures to better
manage their own land holdings taking active measures to protect
natural habitats and species for the future.

Biodiversity Protection: Steps Taken By Indian Government

India is signatory to several major international conventions relating to
conservation and management of wildlife. Some of these are Convention

on Biological Diversity, Convention on International Trade in Endangered

Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Convention on the
Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals etc. Financial and
Technical assistance is provided to State/Union Territory Governments
for protection and Management of Protected Areas as well as other
forests under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes.

Biodiversity of India and need for protection

India is one among the 17 mega diverse countries of the world. But
many plants and animals are facing threat of extinction. To protect
the critically endangered and other threatened animal and plant species,
Government of India has adopted many steps, laws and policy
Steps Taken By Government for Biodiversity Protection
Indian Government has taken various biodiversity protection steps.
Important measures include :

1. The Central Government has enacted the Wild Life (Protection)

Act, 1972. The Act, inter alia, provides for creation of Protected
Areas for protection of wild life and also provides for punishment
for hunting of specified fauna specified in the schedules I to IV
2. Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 have
been framed for protection of wetlands, in the States.
3. The




of National



Conservation of Aquatic Eco-System also provides assistance

to the States for management of wet lands including Ramsar sites

in the country.
4. Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been established for control
of illegal trade in wildlife, including endangered species.
5. Wildlife Institute of India, Bombay Natural History society and
Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History are some of
the research organizations undertaking research on conservation
of wildlife.
6. The Indian Government has banned the veterinary use of
diclofenac drug that has caused rapid population decline of Gyps
vulture across the Indian Subcontinent. Conservation Breeding
Programmes to conserve these vulture species have been
initiated at Pinjore (Haryana), Buxa (West Bengal) and Rani,
Guwahati (Assam) by the Bombay Natural History Society.
7. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme Integrated Development of
Wildlife Habitats has been modified by including a new
component namely Recovery of Endangered Species and 16
species have been identified for recovery viz. Snow Leopard,
Bustard (including Floricans), Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine
Turtles, Dugong, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar
Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet,
Indian Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdons
8. Under the Recovery of Endangered Species component of the
Centrally Sponsored Scheme Integrated Development of Wildlife
Habitats for the recovery of endangered species viz. Hangul in
Jammu and Kashmir, Snow Leopard in Jammu and Kashmir,





Pradesh, Vulture in Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat, Swiftlet in




Islands, Nilgiri

Tahr in


Nadu, Sanghai Deer in Manipur governement has spend lakhs of

9. Protected Areas, viz, National Parks, Sanctuaries, Conservation
Reserves and Community Reserves all over the country covering
the important habitats have been created as per the provisions of
the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to provide better protection to
wildlife, including threatened species and their habitat.

Financial and technical assistance is extended to the State

Governments under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes, viz,

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats, Project Tiger and
Project Elephant for providing better protection and conservation
to wildlife.

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has been

empowered under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to

apprehend and prosecute wildlife offenders.

The State Governments have been requested to strengthen

the field formations and intensify patrolling in and around the

Protected Areas.
Important Indian Acts passed related to Environment and Bio
1. Fisheries Act 1897.
2. Indian Forests Act 1927.
3. Mining and Mineral Development Regulation Act 1957.
4. Prevention of cruelty to animals 1960.
5. Wildlife protection act 1972.
6. Water (prevention and control of pollution) act 1974.

7. Forest Conservation Act 1980.

8. Air(prevention and control of pollution) act 1981.
9. Environment Protection Act 1986.

Biological Diversity Act 2002.


Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers

(recognition of rights) act 2006.

Policies related to Environment and Bio Diversity
1. National Forest Policy.
2. National






Environment and Development.

3. National Policy and macro-level action strategy on Biodiversity.
4. National Biodiversity Action Plan (2009).
5. National Agriculture Policy.
6. National Water Policy.
7. National Environment Policy (2006).


Conserving Gujarat's Flora &

If you have visited Gir since the forest
opened for tourists after the monsoon, it
would have been difficult to miss the
new kids on the block. This season has
been marked by the birth of 90
cubs, which is a rise of 20% as
compared to last year. It was the
young Simbas who hogged the
limelight is how the Times of India
described the euphoria as the
forest reopened.
But the good news does not end here.
There is a story within this story, which
makes one even more proud of Gujarat
and its efforts to conserve the Asiatic
Lion. Every season 75 cubs are born
but this time the higher number is
attributed to the increase in the
lioness population. The female-male
ratio stands significantly improved- from
76 lions and 100 lionesses, the number
now stands at 97 lions and 162

A recent study revealed that Asiatic lion

cubs survive much better in Gujarats
Gir forests as compared to Africa. The
study revealed that 56% of cubs in Asia
survive beyond three years, the age
when the cub moves out of its pride. In
contrast, the number of African lions
that live beyond two years is 20%!
The census of lions in 2010 stated
that the population of Asiatic lions
in Gir has grown by 13% over a
period of 5 years, taking the total
to 411. Usually the growth rate
stands between 5 to 7% but the
latest figures indicated a sharp
surge. That time, Shri Narendra Modi
had called it Gujarats gift to the world
on the states golden jubilee.





The success at Gir is just one of the

countless examples of the Gujarat
Government to preserve the flora
and fauna of the state. This is an
issue about which Shri Modi is

passionate. He
correctly written that conserving our
environment and nature has been a part
of our culture for ages. He has always
called for living in harmony with Mother
Nature without causing any harm to our
Another example of an effort to
preserve our fauna is the Blackbuck
National Park, which has been hailed as
conservation. The National Park, which
is in Velavadar is one of the few sites
where Blackbucks are found in such
large numbers and the number of
Blackbucks have constantly risen due to
favourable conditions in the park. The
Park is home to rich biodiversity,
which is made possible due to
combined efforts of the park
authorities and the local people.
Authorities say they have not heard
of a single case of poaching in the
last ten years! This again shows, with

participation, a lot is possible.





In February this year, it came out

that India witnessed a 23.34 sqkm
increase in its mangrove cover between
2009 and 2011 thanks to the efforts of
none other than Gujarat! A report by the
Forest Survey of India commended
Gujarats role in planting mangroves.
Mangroves are regarded as productive
wetlands and are home to many flora
and faunal species, many of which are
critically endangered.
Home to a quarter of the nations
mangroves covering 1046 sqkm, Gujarat
is home to the second highest
mangrove cover after West Bengal.
Having the nations longest coastline,
Gujarat is an ideal atmosphere for
mangroves to flourish.
To restore this precious ecosystem the
Gujarat Ecology Commission launched a
restoration project with Community

Based Management. This not only

included mangrove plantation but also
spreading awareness. In an extremely
commendable move, the Gujarat
Government allotted Rs. 15.21
crore in the 2011-2012 budget for
enhancing the mangrove cover.
Under Shri Modis guidance, the
initiatives to increase tree cover in
cities. In this regard special mention
must be made about Gandhinagar,
which was recently hailed as the Tree
Capital of India.Latest figures show that
54% of the city is under green cover,
making it 416 trees for every 100
people in the city. At a time when
urbanization puts the growth of trees
under threat, Gandhinagar is a perfect
point of inspiration.
The total forest area has gone up
from 1291 (thousand hectares) in
2001 to 1833 (thousand hectares)
in 2011. In 2003 there were 25.1
crore trees outside the forest cover
and in 2009 the number went up to

26.9 crore. Shri Modi intends to take

this number further up to 35 crore over
the next decade.
Van Mahotsavs

This is the brainchild of Shri Modi and

determination towards preserving our
forests. Shri Modi enhanced public
participation in the planting of trees.
Since 2005, Van Mahotsavs has spread
into various parts of Gujarat, creating a
mass movement for a greener Gujarat.
The 2012 Van Mahotsav commenced
from Mangadh, a beautiful village in
Panchmahal, which is home to Tribal
heroes of Gujarat who waged a war
against Colonial rulers in 1913 and lost
their lives at the hands of colonial
brutality! Shri Modi inaugurated Smriti
Van as a tribute to these martyrs.
Preserving Aquatic Life

Gujarats commitment to protect the

flora and fauna extend beyond our
lands, into the seas. The state Forest
organizations launched a campaign to
protect the whale sharks in our
waters. The
awareness and the fishing communitys
emotional appeal too made a great
difference. Till June 2012, 286 whale
sharks have been successfully rescued.
Shri Modi has penned a book,
Convenient Action in which he has
listed out ways in which Gujarat has
mitigated the menace of climate
change. During his historic Google+
Hangout he shared his vision for the
protection of the environment and laid
great stress on the same.
Under Shri Narendra Modi leadership,
Gujarat has scaled new heights of
development in every sphere and one of
the proudest successes has come in the
protection of Gujarats flora and fauna.
The efforts here are a part of a larger
vision to make Gujarat a land that

further lives in harmony with Mother

Nature, for the benefit of its people and
the countless trees and animals who
share our great land with us.

Nature a physical setting where emerald and verdant

greenery of flora and variety of beautiful fauna are dwelling
peacefully in the wilderness making it pleasant and blissful.
Sometimes aesthetically and more often for satiating the basic
necessities, peoples inclination towards nature is always
treated beautifully, because generosity of nature knows no limit.
Wait! Give a pause, and think. What we are giving in return?
Are we not violating the natures rule by attacking the animals,
lacerating the trees and making the environment polluted? The
list of carelessness towards nature can be made to look huge,

but cannot be shortened with mere remorse and sorrow. The

time has actually come to ACT.
It is true that people carry out anything to get their wish
nurtured and they do not mind abandoning the gods gift i.e.
nature. Our Mother Earth is adorning a thick layer of plants,
trees, etc, while the diverse kingdom of wild animals is keeping
the environment alive with their unique presence. Apart from
the biosphere budding on the Earth, human beings are heavily
tapping the natural resources that have brought many wild
animals on the verge of extinction. And, not to forget the
extreme weather conditions, which are also repercussions of
human activity. Since, there is no substitute of Mother Earth,
and also no other way to dwell in peacefully in the nature, here
are some steps that will act as a savior in current alarming
Develop consciousness for protecting wildlife
It would be a big lie to deny that a bunch of harm has been
caused to wildlife in India due to unawareness of the people.
But now, one should not lose the opportunity to come forward
and speak about the issues on the wildlife as they can speak.
Anyone can lend a hand by paying a serious attention to it.
Shout from the terrace, make hoarding or become a part of the
march with a motto of conservation of wildlife. One and all can

be the voice of thousands of nave wildlife species that cant

say a word or share emotions with anybody.
Raise Awareness by spreading DVD among friends and
Whether it is about Tiger parts trading, or poaching of other
animals, dissuading is the need of the hour. Documentary films
made on some famous wildlife destinations such as Corbett
National Park, Kaziranga National Park Assam, Bandhavgarh
tiger reserve can be a tool for making the unaware aware
about the facts of poaching. This work of art could pique many
conscious leading to take action for concern.
Heave a united voice for the continued existence of wildlife in
Every second day people come across news of poaching or
killing of animals on TV. Tons of nature lovers and wildlife
enthusiasts have started showing up themselves to save the
endangered wild creatures. Moreover, they are raising voice,
writing letters to the TV channels and sending emails to the
government departments. There were times when people
would wait for the fallout, but now everyone is uniting to uphold
the kingdom of wildlife species.
Stern punishment for poachers

Poachers should be given severe punishment for assassinating

or illegal capturing any wildlife species in national parks.
Indiscriminate killing must lead to punishments.
Few most important steps that one must take into deliberation
when in Wildlife Sanctuaries or Bird Sanctuaries in India

One must follow the conventions written by forest

department; it reflects the demureness of a human being
while visiting a forest.

One should dispose of garbage in the dustbin or carry with

him/her to keep the environment clean and green.

While entering a forest, a person must not perturb the

serenity of jungle with the sound of the horn.

While passing through the woods one must avoid getting

down the vehicle as it could be dodgy.

Safeguarding the wild species has to be a prime objective in

todays most demanding times because animals and other
creatures really need our help.