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News ~d views from the qc;unpusCenter ~or Appropriate Technology at HumbqJ.qt State Univer-,
sitYj Meata, .California,., ~Ajournal'of hope, sustq.inability an<:1change., .

"Worry- Free',
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Of,f ~ Gr id'Living" ..), '" 'c,'

ARCATA - (A,TNews Service) SomeAThouses'haveachi~vedtotalelectrical ,

and heating independence, carefree use of lighting and use of all the convepiences of .

more d~ca<lent homes. Although CCAT is fof all intents andpu1J'O.sses "off the, gridh,
improvements coming this' Summer will make CCAT that much/ closer to "c1osing the
' , ,) ',.

loop" on energy and resource flow. ," ' ,

CCAT dwellers woiIldhav~ you know: The key is "redu<::e:'and making what they

'c !eel is an astou~dingly easytransiti()nto a]ife~stylelecssconsumptive of all resources"

, ,'is what makes poweri~g their home with photovolta~csand the windniillso much

f-... At the ~nd of '95 Alternati~e Energy Engineering. gave CCAT 'a ~onsidera~le discount
Qn 12 new Trojan L~J6deep cycle batteries. On March29, Craig Worthley ieturnedto
Arca9-from MariI>°sa with a gener1!-torthat is 1;250 watts more 'generating capacity
than the 250 wt powered by the wind now. ' ,

A New Windmill ?The generator

finallr~ame,and Craig Worthley
'How Worthley' and others Intend to maxhnize the new battery storage capacity is
now wants to put it to 'good'use by "

all in this AT Transfer issue., '

,moving the' tower, refin,ing ,the

governor, gears and wings ,-,and
more, Between the windmill, the
CCAT'hada p.he~ominaloutpoliring of cQmmunitY invovement ov~r'the last half pedal power electric, installations
year:' over 2~ students got credit for projects from g~d~ning tQ grey water. That, ,
11ridthe hew solar assisted,
composting toilet, things are
com~ined with our-many ~orks~ops (the record set for largest gathering was 55'at " getting exciting and CCATwant~'to
Rose's ~otion-making workshop!), made last semester' one of o~r mostsuccesfulin, make the house on the'hill ~re
recent memory. the formidabl'e' champion of their "
agenda than it already is:,

and batte~ies have' in
What is CCAT? Whatever You Cali It, ,Don't Waste, it- Ron. common?, ,Pedal Power!
Sutcliffe on CCAT's new composting toilet.
~ 'T'he Sunfrost Calculation. What Are They Doing Now? CCAT's '

.. From Ani tathe Office Manager to Ramona former .residents say what' s up' with
" -Power to the People?

Or Abandonment df ,the Gardener, CCAT's, filled with work, fun themselves. , ' , " ~

r Alternative Energy? .~ wher(:!the electricitY.

flowing through the lines will come from
and thought ~CCAT Bri-efs ,Tell All.
' " '
, ,,~,..,:,.,And.More!

after L998, What do washing machines, drill presses'


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What 18 CCAT? ) ,

The Campus Center for Appropriate Technology began in 1978 when an ambi-
tious' group of students formed a club under the q:1ispicesof Youth Educational
Services '(Y.E.S.) on the Rumboidt State University campus, Arcata, California.
, SubsequentlyCCAT was.granted a lease to the Buck House. ,below) and in an amazing
cooperative effort,' students, faculty and community members completely renovat.ed.
and ~ransformed the dilapidated structure into a demonstration facility for
"alternative,'ecologically appropriate technologies. '

Since then. the pr()gramhas evol,ved into an outr.each and education center
.for thE? campus and local community .This mult,ifaceted demonstratiqn and 'experien-
tial learning center stresses. the importance of s'elf-rel.ianCe and alternative
energy. ,Three live-in'student co-directors, with the support of a'strong troupe
of volunteers,' facilitate the. operations of the program. The di_rectors also dem-
onstrate !:he effectiveness of CCAT's systems.iria residential environment.



A Word From The Lawyer:


The AT Transfer' is ,the newsletter for the Campus Center for Appropriate Technology which is funded
primarilY by the Associated Students of Humb~ldt State University. The views and codtent of The AT
TrC!llsfer are not .censoredor reviewed by the Associated Students. All correspondence may be addressed""" ,.
to:,The AT Transfer, CCAT, HSU, Arcata, CA, '95521. Please also send copies of correspond~nce to:
. Associated Students, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, 9552'1. '

AT Transfer, Spring 1996
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"CCAT, Briefs,
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'The r', It wa$ bu$Y,it wa~good. ,'.

. . Bart, Orlando and Dana Papke were p~wering
. '. . ' ,up the Buck house ~th.bicydes down in the baseinelit
M1 SS10n':
r , ,'with four exercise bikes donated by the HSU P.E. depart-
ment ~d two much more attrattivemodels Ba:rtboug~t
from Eureka':sPro-5port Center. One is alr~ady hi:>°ked '

At t,he ,Campusfor Appioppz'iate up to a battery and has an outlet to hook .up to the~ew .'

,T~Chnology we'value aheaIt,fly planet and 'CCAT battery store. That oJle, along with the rest can'
its ethical treatment. tCAT seeks to' mechanically powerbelt~rinders, buffers, drills and,
, ,
expl6re and develope ~novative solutio~s (when Jillthe parts are donated and/or gathered) a May tag
to the ,probl,eJ?lscaused by the :use-of, clothes washing maGhine., .
certain ,technologies. , ", The SchwinPersonal Trainer 205 Recumbent
cost Barf $350. With a steel lathe 'he cut a groove in the
The mission of ,the CCAT resident~ is to
, fr~>ntwheel where the resistance ,band once, was and put' ,
demonstrate technologies which,
, contribute to ,a healthy environment, on his own belt that hooked up to the generator-withIn a
'eX8Jlline the ethical and social" , neat\y painted black "pallet." Rcan generateup to 150
conseqUences oftha" use of technology, ,
watts; depending on the intensity of the biker. That'll
, and to provide a forum for experiential power a 13 inch color T.V.,a VCR. and juice up' a laptop
learning. battery."',"",,,
, ',The Voit 941 PH will do 100 watts,'and had only a
In fullfilling its mission CCAT w~ll: few a,dditions to be put in plac'e at print time, before it "
: was generating. ' " ,,' .

:-provide students and community with'

The -May,tag'will be hooked .Uponce pieces like.
, hands, on' opportUnities to de,sign,
pulleys, beltS 'and pallets come around. They need a gear
install ~nd evaluate various ,sustainable
C' technologie's
, totran$ferthe c,hain from the vertical of the P.E. bike
. fro~t 'wheel to the horizontal of the !\1aytagspinning axle.
-provide educational opportunities
, ',' Papke says it's all about n~t wasting anYthing,
through semin~rs, 'workshops and. courses including e.~erc,isetime. She likes to read, bike and'
concerning topics important,to,CCAT . generate (or power a tool like the wire,i:>ufferthat's
, '
polishing up~he vintage May tag), all at-the,$am~ ti~e.
-disseminate info:qna,t£on' about itJ3, (More on page 4).
, activities to the local, U.S. and
international community

~integrate'~ucational activities with

I thos~ of HumbOldtState University and
the Environmental Sciences maJor'
H you' have time to chatter, ,
-offer li ving expeiience~ to students, Readbooks '

, .who rely on these technologies by , If you havetime'to read

~esiding at'the Buck ?ouse Walk ~ntofJ1ountain;desert, and.
ocean '
-work with 'government 'arid community If you have time to walk
organizations to aid in furthering the , Sing' songs and dance, ,
I'" , mission of CCAT. ' If. you ..:have time to dance\
Sit, qafetly, you, happy'
Lucky 'Idiot!

- NanaoSakaki
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. , , . AT Tr'ansfer." ,Spring 1996"['
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(Continued from pg. 3)
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. Papke alsosaid it was about recycling thIngs nbt in use~ like the P.E. departments bikes: But ijarf sees
when either the P.E.'departmentwi!J supply the Buck House with its 'newer models ~'many of them ~ and send fitne~s .
training, sports team workouts and physical assessment program participants up td:~CAT' sHuck House to do their bikin~
t!;1ere,not dn~yto power the tCAT battedes, but to sta[ta melding of :the concepts of exercise and g~tting the le~d out,1with
juicing up all the things people use in"their daily lives'"- that more often than not; iequireacoal 'O(petroleum powered,
generator. Perhaps the P.E. department can pOWerForb~s Complex with bikes there, or CCATrfromthereviatransmission
lin,es. The possibilities are endless,- as endless as Bart's bigger goal: Getting the health clubs' of the nation, like Arcata's
..'..Health Sport, to hook up.
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. Greetings from tlJ,eCC~Tvegetable garden! , the CCATway... .
Fiona and Romdna haye been really busy, getting ready for Jenny SimpS,6o was bringing the herb
April's plant sale and veggie startsf6r Spring! The interns' garden ever'closerto ~esthetk perfection. Redwood
have been super helpfu~ in planting and maintaining the Sorrel, Thyme; C~ives, Rbsemarry, Violets, Redwood
" garden: wemulche'd allthe paths, transplanted",overtwenty Yiolers, Chickory; Lem.onBalm~Wild Ginger, Sa,ge were
, artiChokes,plant~d garlic and potatoes, and also got the .growing and being consumed with delight. ' . .
Children's gardengoing,Whoo! Thank you interns! ,The I ,Last September tl1\m tCAT resident Meiine~Mo"<
Lo"veCCAT Day; were afso a great 'h~lp .in gettiIig the McHolland was approached by ,Michael Hackelman, writer
g~rden and greenhouse into functioning order, thanks to of The Home Built Wind Generated Handbook .andcon- .
Jac()band other energ~tichelpers! . . ,trio.utortoHome Power Magazine, with the p,ossibleoffer
Our main goal for this Spring is to provide of a 1,500.wattgeneraior CCATcould replace its.2 50
CCAT with a bounty of food, not a small tas~. .Our .watt generator in the wind.,turbine.
landscapers hiive beenyery helpfulinkeeping the .~ Mo knew it would be quite a project getting it installed
grouJ;lds maintained and making CCAT beaytiful. a~d spok~ withCrai~Worthr~y,-anI~dustJ:"ialT~chnologysenior,t"',
Thanks to evryone wholent a hand. . '. wIth the.Idea ofmakmg a semor project out of It., ,' \t6/
' many helpers around has both its pl.usses , WhooWorthl~y went~own to Mariposa this March to .

'and minuses. ,Although oui gardening endeavors were" pick it up, months~of speculation as to if the 'generator would
actuallymaterialize were over. ,
always rich with learning and shariqg, th~ "production"~
With the new wind turbine,due to be in place in August
, aspect of horticulture was at times compromised. Ramona (and ifsome big ideas of Worthley's come to fruition), along with
'"said "lwasbiimmed this winter at the lackofgrowing...but
the new battery store, bring CCAT residents "worry-free off-grid
we haveto,look at CCAT as a jumping off point for people. living," said Worthley. "
When they come it takes time to go through with them what . . Both the turbinellnd the batteries were donated by. .
needs to be done, time when lsometimeslike to be $etting people interested in proliferating AT and (ealizingCc:ATwa~ a
things done..., . 'C""
great place to do it. .' .'
"But if just one per~on'a year gets influencedto get Worthley wants to maximize their efforts by allowing the
into gardening at their .ownplace, or better, getting involved, generator to drink up,asinuch wind power Mit cairand that.
, in creating su.stainable food ona larger scaJe, then C~AT's mJans ~sing'ahigher tower; rising from a spot south of the house,
dowp. the hill, where there ar~less t(ee$ that create turbulent,
i doqe itsjob.'~ . .
uneven currents. .
t . HallehPaYrnal'd, anotheI' gardener, said they were'
I , 'I" . ,,'
He'ILstiU needs few components to complete the project.
I anxiously awaiting the starts to be ready for planting in
. Namely, a tower, a new governor to pitch the generator away from
.' .~April. 4moog them are: Mustard, Beets, Celery; Basil, the direction of tpe wind .when it's too powerful, the stuff to ,

d Eggplant,'Tomatoes,Cuc].lmber, Ca~taloupe (to stay in the convey the spinningto the generator froIh the "bird," a swivel"for
'. greenho~se), Peppers, Garlic, Potatoes, Kale, Leeks~ the bird and some "wings,"'preferably four.
Quinona, Cabbage,-Lettuce,.Braccoli,Peas and Beans. ,
Worthley.,suggests anyone interested in windpower to. '"

In the fall the gardeners hact planted nitrogen rkh contact Hackleman. "He's been doing this: for 20 years...he's got
Alsike'~loveras a cover crop in the area where Ramona.and ,
all theconnections...knowswhere
',', .
to .find things
because he .

Halleh were putting illthe new Children's Garden, a 20 by always has hIS feelers out", , ,"',

~20 foot plot a few feet north of the windmill. Kids frama . out
'For nowWorthleyis relegaiedto putting his own feele~
to getthe necessary equipment He's hoping PG&E might)." " C
preschool.were on their way to plant potatoes arid onions
have some cables or the tower and someone else might donate the
, they could come back in the winter to harvest.
concrete for the base. As far as what tho~e 1,250 extra (see'p.7)
4 ,I If one of those gets interestedin agriculture

I '
,AT Transfer,.' Spring /
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New Concern for C~ntralized, Rene.wable

, ' El.f;.Gtf'.icity
proc1uctioIl , , ,

'With the agenda behind taking PG&E and the state's two Go to http://lwww.cpuc.ciLgovand see what the CPUC is'
,{: ther utilities' monoploies away expressed by Commissioner Fessler up to. You'll find working groups, calendars, people to contactfor
" as getting California's utility rates down to the nat~onalaverage, we questions and all the options and motions of the utilities and'the'
,know something has to give. " ,",' , decisions. . , '

" Renewablesis probably what. That's why Ultra Power 3 is There's talk of a Public Goods surch~uge,to try and take
scrambling to add tires to itsbiomass.'" over the R&D for renewabies. W~atit all amounts to in the end"
In March PG&E came before the California PubUc,Utility according to,Craig Porter"PG&E ,districtmanager, is the same old
, Commission to ask for the'devaluation of Diablo Cariy?n Nuclear thing, just looking different., " ' "
Power Plant from the $4 billion it was assessed at before its fire up. This is,how it'll look: In 18 mClnthsthe Power Pool will
in 1984 to $2 billion. A regulated utility makes capitolimprove- ", start. 'Every generator will put in electricity and you'll be charged'
ments and comes before their PUC to ask for rate hikes that will based on the average cost, factored every'half-our. If the wind blows
meet the costs of the facilities it deems necess'aryto me~t the real hard and you're a seHer, you'll do well. If your wind farm is
demandsand that,arethe Winningoptions. 'paid
, for, you'll always,doo.k., but maybenot earn enoughto expand
, Thefree-markettodaysays nuclearis a loser:Itproduce~ anddisplacecoal.Willthe fiveyear PowerPoolkill rene~!lbles?
electricity at double th~ cost of the winners -fossil fuels and hydro. Spme, like HSU eccmomistTim Hackett, think it's a mistake. Not a
" ~tseems nice that the nuclear was proven wrong. It was deregulaticm, 'mistakeif your afraidofthe "green power" movement that'~ making
settobegin in '98, that made,PG&E devalueDiablo Canyon. They' inroads in Washington's deregulation hearings.
were also mandated at the outset to shed 50 percent of their fossil- , Washington may go straight to "Direct Access" - where
fuel genenlting capacity, to allow new competitors to have a slice of we'll go in 2003. Direct Access meilns yo~'ll get to chose your. ,
the prime stuff. And California's three big utilities have secured provider. In Washington they're considering "Prospectus Regula-
passage of a Competitive Transition €ost surcharge that will 'be tion"which will require all sellers to reveal their generation sources.
placed on your bill to help them recoup losses in the restructuring,
, With possibilities outlined on their web page like "portfolios" of
like Diablo Canyon, The impetus for deregulation is summed by' sellers including "Premium Service: appliance inspection and
CPUC Commi~sioner Fessler who addressed ttie sfate legislature in servicing and credits for low wattage appliances,': or "Green
Nov. of'94. He said.California had electric rates 150 percent the Pricing: offering renewable energy and efficiency inspections"
,'nationall!verage, 250 percent of neighbors like Oregon and Washing- , Washington anticipates that the public will opt to pay for what
ton. He conce~ed that residential bills, thanks to conservation and a .. PURPAmade them pay for., ' '

~editerraneanclimate, wereonlyslightlyhigher.Buthe iamentedin " Afterphaseone~mimyfear,renewableswillb,!;dead.Willa

,..,e exodus of 800,000 jobs with aerospace and the defense industry group of investors or a cororation see a 'market for "Green.portfo- , '
recently and said industry stayed away from California because of' lios"? Will there be green sources left with which a green broker can
those rates and that energy interisivebusiness had few options for deal, as theCPUC envisions?, ,
conservation. . " In Porter's PQ&E district there's enough power for the
There:s flaw in the argument that California can better itself county to go on its own, with out PG&E, and over two-thirds of its
by attracting energy intensivebusiness. The Midw~sfhas the ' demand can be met with\vhat three small hydro proje~ts, a couple of
cheapest electric bills and a lower standard ofJiving and heavy' 'cogeneratois atlUlnbcrarid pulp mills andJUltraPower 3.produce.
industry is pulling out and heading to the third'world. Withconsump- , Responding to the question of wheiher or not Arcata,would,
tion growthflat, the market is likely to not support further power beallowed.topassordi,nances inaking a purchasingblock of itself,'
plants to 'cheapen rates. . selecting an conservation portfolio, ethIcal for the 10ng~terri1 '

, 'But California has a lot to c~t. PG&E, losing the gUarantee, econ°lI!Yof the worl~, Steve Layman, senior analyst at the CPUC ,
ofra~e hikes to pay for projects like Diablo Canyon, cut from the- ' who posts his e-mail address, said the'~tilities an: already trying to ,
investors future pocket book. California invested in nuclear only prohibit such actions wit~ codes in the-new rules. After all,'it
sliR.htly more than other"places (though those with tJ:te250 percent inhibits direct access for ihose who'd like to live cheap today and
lower rates with the best hydro and fossil-fuel c'apacity,did the lea-st) don't have the fire to make (hemthink they could live loll.!tenough.

, and the reason for the 150 percent more is conservation,-sub-sidies to see moaning neighbors when the economic shit hits the fan. Or
for weatherization, PV projects; cogeneration (it).factories, commu- ,maybe they don't care. . ," . I -
nity pools and,central climate control units in housing projects), That, , "Arcata,Power and Light" was Arcata'sfirst source of
came after PURPA, Carter's effort to give the nation a competitive' electricity, powered by the Mad River-via a pipe to a pelton water
edge when the day came for petroleum and coal to stop coming out w~eel on 8th and K.-Then it was outdone by John Van<:;e'sscrap'
of the ground economically. Shed,regulation and you shed PURPA wood"fin:!dgenerator. ThenVance and other lumber men had an idea
mandates, the foremost of which required regulated utilities (90 ' for an electric railUne (in 1875) over the Trinirys. It never came,but
percent of non-cogeneration consuinpHcinis from regulated utilities the hYdroplant on the Tnnitythat was to power it powered'the
. in the U.S.) to purchase all the power generated in their area no ,- county until 1964. ,
matter how small, if that generation qualified (usually they Iiav~ ,'Hook into thai web site at least once. And,,so I can do a
. been biomass operations like Ultra Power 3 in Blue take, small good job on my)n-de,pth journalism senior project, due May,3"tell
,b.vdro projects, cogeneration excess like in the Scotia Mill and wind, me, MCIHatch, whatyciu think: .
Vms like AHamorit's). " ','

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'AT, T;rans fer, ~pring 1996
'Ii",;"".... ..- - ~-~- -~--

, Big Questions'
Fair 'Certain ,
a Big Neighbor'
.' " ,
Shadowing CCAT
, ,On April 10, the Lumberjack; HSY's, newspaper, reported the passage ofpropo~ition203 that may give the University $16
million topuildjiBehavioral and SoCial Scienceg-building o"nynion Street, adjacent to CCATon the east side. When completed, the.
, new building will rise six stories and be one of the largest imd tallest buildings in Arcata. The CCA.T.directors, concerned about impacts
that such a project could have on our programs (not to mention qualltyof life), setup an appointment with HSU's director of physical
services; Ken Combs.' " .' .' ,
, ,OnApril16th co"directors Marnin, Gaia and Randy, along with long-time CCATfriend Neil Thompson, metwifh Combs in
his office. Here's the upshot ofthat meeting: / " '

- Ken'Combs is 90% sure that the proposed building will be approved by oursiate'slegislature and the governor, within one yearfrom
ourmeeting. " . ,
-Once approved, HSU would have the funding to finish the
~rchitectural design and would probably begin' construction in
Januaryof 1998. , ' '

-Construction of the building would take about two years and

thus, should be operational for the Fall semester of 2001.
We realize the potential benefits of toe proposed building. It
-wouldcpnsolidat~many of our Behavioral and SoCialScience ,

departments and their professor's' offices into a central location; It

would also houSe HSU's various native american--programs.
Along with these offices, the;buildfng would have classrooms to
,~, ' ,

be used f()r the Behavioral an'! SoCial Sciences (cuITently taught


in many differenllo<Oations on campus). By

moving these offices and classesJnto the new
,~' building, other departments could expand into
! tl:;1enewlyvacated spots: For CCAT the debated
benefit might be increased exposjlre and visibil-
18" (
ity to the community and students.
, The proposed six.storybuilding also
raises many concerns for CCAT as a program
and as a home. The following sufi1marizes only
some of these concerns: , . " ' ,

* Two years of heavy dutyco'nst~ction create a loud nois,e pOllution imposition. Weare concerned not only for the residents who will
have to live-next to the sound of concrete drills and building cranes; but also how it will-affect volunteership.People ~herish the,
serenity of CCAT and are attracted by the prospeCt of relatively quiet gardening, with perhaps the 'loudest sounds being the birds or
., laughteraildchatterof othervolunteers; " . , , .
* Anothertypeof pollution would come via dusfand water (there is an undergound stream under our property) from the site~ During
much of the year, CCA.Tresidents rely heavily on garden provisions and we are concerned about the probable travel of large amounts of
dust and maybe some hazardous materials from the site downhill toCCATs grounds.
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* Other concerns include the loss of the treasured little privacy, that residents have living at CCAT, as well ~s the likely increase in '

~ crime, that comes with increased traffic through the area., ' , " ,~,
. *The physical bonndaries,of CCAT are also somewhat coD1promisedwith the curreJ?-t',design.~ccording to the existing bluepl4lPJ1,
a path wouldtakeout the children's gardens,and comeonlya fewfeetfrom the ~rt entrance. , '

we have b egun t oou tline the r e..a

rema ny, Onsid erati onS_an d con ce rn s, none 0 fWhiC h havebee n a cknow led ged


, ,


by theadministrati~n as of yet.

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. AT Transfer',' Spring 1996 .,' ,'" '" ;,.


. Farther in the.ft).t'Llre I,ooms.

'How wondeiful ilis, to 'be, '

the 'university plan to-construct,a hakedlikeatree. ' "

visual arts building on the land I nnlArvlci:1Mibn' .fotmet/1tJroo

u.JYfVl':,J my..,
, CCAT' now occupies. .. we will upda,te;
" Writinginthisbook,a {X)eI11.

./r-Vou on th~ i~slle~related to,this'
~econd buJ.ldJ,ng
J.nthe next lssue CheddngoUttheCCArgoords
of the AT Transfer, " ,J
hea1itigkkis8!jdArr:ataSOl/rlds. "

But for nbw,' if you, share


, One day I'll

our concerns.and/or others that'
, and l7/findsomeoneas nudeas me
you hayeplease write to president
Allistair Mccron~ il.nd
pl~nner KenCo~s;YQ~ can send withouta
~ no'1lo~'or'WtJys"
your,l~tters to CCAT aIfd we ~ill ,Ar1di!asilerJlre;e~
pass them on the NcCrone and Comps.
or\.{)~ willecho th1DUff1/hetrees.
We <:1eeplythank all you, who have,
supported' uS throughout the years, BanishOO
are thou{/1tSofcdmingOOW1
and feel confident our community We'll
will be abie to ,work together with, Thedays..wJlpaisusby... "

,the rest of the University community to 'find worka, to all We'llspendforeverinthesky

ot'.our interests and concerns. But'we will need <:'ill,
of your i-
input...stay tuned, we will keep you updated: ' .. --':[W ",)I ,
.- QI r;v.JI. '

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'.',CCAT Briefs. .." th~ soiaroven design on field,trips to

And now Irecycle all'the time!, , CCAT. "

'(from page' 4),

. SoI)1edays I get as many as -100 , Buttherewasn'tenoughtofill
watts will do, Worthley is certain 'Soon, calls; about when workshops are; when the the demand, so,Jason Sangster and
, . CCAT residents won't have tb monitor ,tours are', than~ you calls, about h()w to, ' MonicaAlbertson are making four
their gauges exceptJorrecording and make a solar oven or h~w to compost" ,
! fflonservati0l1 assessment - as oppos'edto A lot of CCAT developmeptsrequire' First they take an old seed-s~
. ,

, _~aking sure they'll have,eno~ghfor their , financhilsupport, as does getting the word, box (a three by two foot rectangular, '
, lights to study by at night Much of it's a " out about AT. Sean Armstrong tQok on Ii' wood ,box one and a half feet high in the
wait and seejn teirns of tower height...but grant writing t!lsk on behalf of a fellow back:with windowed top that slopes to a ,

, if we get the finanCialsupport and'the who'lI write a:guide and diagram of'. , half foot above the
, ground and has'
, ' ,

political support (for approval, of the' ,: ' , CCAT's electrical system-so future resi- hinges). The inside is insulated arid,'
,desig?), then I'll be happy,'~Worthley said. dents can maintain, operate, lined wi~h aluminum that ISpainted
CCATers;HacklemaQ and ot,hers hope that ,using the book. '., black. .

, comes expedIently. " ,

The intere/>ta business involved in
, ' 9n cooking day you le~it heat

'Anita Morgan's most articulate voice

,photovoItaics, windpower or battery storage .' up in t~e sun while you ready the recipe'
was heatdanswering the CCAT phone. r would have in the dissemination of this'
' - any regular one will do; Time will
Anita, an English major in het' , , information is obviou~, The di~persaLof this, invariably be longer, so you're advised
sophmore year wasCCAT's General book will be proporMnal to the funding it
, '
to not let the kids watch-ihepot for:the'
, Offi(:eManager. , gets to printit corporation becomes
~ boiL A recipe with a twelve minute at
, 'She organized files, sent out, where the tar~etaudience , 350 setting'willtake almqst twiCeas' ,
mailing~ and graduation pledges (contracts is specific, smalI,hoped to become larger ~ong in good sun whiCh ca~ get the\l?ox
, saying you'll be ethiCalin all your careers, and is in the corporation's market. , to 300.. Sheet metal' reflector placed
with specifics regarding sustainable "It tookaoollt a semester to find around the. window foc~s t~e intensity
treatment of the Earth and its people's' the potential source~..." ~ean said, "If just of the sun on the black aluminum
,dignity\ " , ' requires 'going to the library and finding, inside. ,

,Anita knew 11'othingnothing of CCAT foundations and corporations that advertise You ffiight have had enough cOnserva-
,-:,before she carne to,Humboldt from the S.~.- liICeinterests as, writing agrafit tion concern to notiCe how many'pen
I ,Bay Area in'~94. Responding to how she, proposaLnotthat hard, buttime consum: bodies are wasted every time the ink,
ked her job and What she wa~ learning in ing," We hope he inade good pitches. ' runs out so you bought one with
(1 she said, "I love it here...sixhoursa
, .' . "
Last fall ~~ HSU AT class made solar cartridges. You might have had the same
week, it's g~eat.I'm going to leave my. ovens,as a project. Each student ovenj concern about ink jet .' '

other work study.,.everbo?y's so friendly. went to area sc-hoolsthat.first discovered' , printer cartridges so you

ATTJ;Bnsfe:r~ ,'Spring 1996,

~- ~-~~ ~ ~~ """ L :- ~-
, '

Are 'Do_~gNoW~.
Paul sitko, 1995, ',95 - B.S. in physical 'Science and B.A. in,Religious Studies. "Hi, I'm Paul Sitko...The end of
myCCAT directorshipajso marked my'gradu<;ition- from HSU,," t, spent the end of \ '95 and,<the beginning of '96
teaching math to sixth and eighth/graders ,at LaQuinta
, spending AIIril' through September of' 96 hiking the ?acific
Middle School near Indio in southern California.
Crest trail, from the Mexicanbord~r
I 'am
to the Canadian
border. Iim bringing along a
solar battery' charger for my headlamp batteries and I"';vec°l!verted an umbrella'.t,o
fu:nction not only as rain and sun protection" but as a parabolic solar oven calso!!! T don't know whatJ'll'be
doing when I get back but .I've also. got a lot of time to think about it on'the nail!'!.!"
' , ", '

Mike Nelson, 1991, '9!2,~ Special major, B.S. emphasizing renewable energy sources and appropriate technology.'
After graduating in '94 Mike got a job onSL John in t1')eU.S. v~rginISland.S for a'resort~group, Maho Bay Camps
and the Estate Concordia Eco-Tents ,with the, title,' "Systems Manager and Design Engineer." Last fall hewrote.
CCAT: "My job basically consists ofmaihtaining all of thePV and windpowerisystems, batteries, inverters, ',',
monitoring systems:, (passive) solar heatirm systems" pumps, rainwater catchment(s) , composting toilets, etc; I '

also assist the EnvironmentalResource Manager in promoting the use, of Qui solar ovens, solaricemaker,,'
!cqmposting and recycling facilities and gardens. . . I 'm also involved in the desigp of anew' £co- Resort' ; . . about
1100 new,' Eco-Tents' On the other side of the island." People interested, in the progress can cem.tact Mike at
I, ' ,
' .. " '

I Tom Hagbsrg, 1989,' 90 -Watershed ManagemendHydrology. "Hi. this is Tom Hagberg. writing a fewwords about my
life and how it has been influenced by ,CCAr.,It all started ,in 1987 when I was drawn to some, long'-haired
"hippies" (Jeff 10e and Kurt NeWman) who were CCATdirectors as thetim'e. Their jJeaceful, earth-oriented
philosophy synergized with my thoughts and~ feelings., This philosophy along withymytechnical, background fit\in
perfectly at CCAT,and in'1989and .'90 1 was fortunate to,'be, there' for a year. Of all my experiences at CCATI
most enjoyedshaiing- and giving whatCCAT and Thad toofJer. After CCATI became interesteq in watersheds,and '
streams and that led to a career with the Forest, Service as, a hydrologist. Asa hydrologist Ido'my best to
prevent us from damaging our watersheds" and where we have damaged ,our watersheds T, do my best to promote'
recovery. It is impossible to know what path I might have~fonowedhad Inot experienced CCAT; but I feel as
though I d,.eveloped a pa~sion .for pursuing a.1:i.fe' or' peace with everyone and everyth:l.iig., My ~utureis, unknown but
I know 1 want to continually increase my./understanding of myself and others so thqt r can <create more peace
'-.. among people afldthe Earth. .1 have a huJ'jch tl1at' one must 'sur'render to the dominant paradigm' (walk a mile i;l1
theirsh,Oes) , to "most effectively steer It.'' " " ' ~ '

, , ' '

Todd King, 1985 -

Intercultural Communications, Masters in Education with. a .California State Teaching,
'Cncdential.A.ftetworking in the .Brea for fi veyears (under subcontractors) doing building upgrades and new
I. 'building subcontracting to meet CallfQJ;'nia energy efficie:ncy standards or better, 'l'odd went into business for ~
himseH,doingpower gener~ti-ngsystem.s 'forremot:~
and dendes, based on then heeds,<;ind resources (l.e.. exposure to sun;wlnd and avallablhty
off,:grid and/or
of strong stream'
energy, conscious ~lie~t~. He meets with them VI)
currents) ,.he designs and installS the system(s) .Todd had a ,degree in Solar Energy Design from sierra College
when he' set about ,looking ~or a campus where he could pursue his teachtngcredenti<;i1."I got lost when I was
. looking around at HSU,and' J went up this hill and there was this p~acei the Campus Center for Appropriate'
Technology, and I thought,'
HoWcool, I'm goil).g here.'" '

Carol Landry, 1988, ,'89 :- En'vironmentalResourceoEngineering.After adding the ,second componentto CCAT' s Gr"ey,
~ Water system; Carol gra,duated. She's to on the go to find right' past director said she was somewhere in
tM following itinerary: New Zealand, Venezuel.aandEu.:r.:ope, with a home base ,in Bellingham, washington. '


I' Thomas Dunklin, 1988: '89.,. Geology. Thomas graduated in 1991 and is now in Hsu,d Geology ,Masters program "
, tocusing on the interaction of landuse, channel (stream) process and hill slope. He lives inpetrolia
, wlidie, ~i thout a te\1ching credential, he hastqught math and geology at apri vate high schooL He's'
als,o done work for, the Mattdle Restorat,ion Council, a nonprofit doing watershed' restoration of logged
areas ~ "IthinkCCAT really' helps <people get a handle on how they can, and how to, minimize their
footprints," says Thomas who,was attracted toCCAT by all the fun and energy, there:, ' "

S\1tcliffe,19~3 'c'r:;nvironmental
Ron' ReSO1.m::e'Engii1eeriilgwith a minor in Music, If you want to know,
what's up withRon,read the "Solatrine"article in the last AT Transfer, or the composting toilet
one. in this, issue. Ron will graduate" thisspr~nda:nd. after. he finishes the' new solar assisted 'toilet
at CCAT, in June, 'pe'11head to where he's summered all th~s time: New Mexico"That's where he '

" grew up and where his 'career s,tartedtaking shape and will continue to, He'll return .to c.ohsi:ruction
and hppes to bund clientele subcontracting to make AT in new and old homes,. He already has his card:,
Ron Sutcliffe, Solar :Systems Engineering, ' ,

. ,- ,
Maria Moore, 1992", 93 - EilVironme.ntal Ethics and Technology. Maria graduated in 1994 and went directly to her ~'
mother's place near Santa Barbara to help her recover. from breast cancer, To help out witt! the bills she went to massage.
therapy, school and entered that field, "The great thing about CCAT is getting tolive\Vhat your learning .,It' s 'a shock to
move down to where everyone's copsuming... jus t consuming and hardly caring.., It' s hard here, you have i?uch conflicts, "Maria
said, referring to,things lil\e,hQ.w far she,works is,toofar to bik~l though in Santa Barbara they recycle more~different
items 'than lin Mcata. Maria wp.ntstoreturn to HSUfor studies that ~iU get her into conflict resolution, possibly
, ,ij>(
ps,.Ychology, but she's not sure wether its environmental land use or domestic conflict that she'd be best at,

Nina willliams, 1986, . 87 - B.,S: in Botany, After gr~duating in '89, Nina left her job at the North coagt
Env~ronmentalCl'!nter. and' headed to Colorado where she took off on a,'wild ri,ge of public service jobs that
AT Transf-er, Spring 1996
L c \.
. .


"'-- '-

ended just months ago"with the birth "of her son 'Fritz 'Mob" Williams. Her first. job was wilh theNa~ionalPark Servi(:e
, as' al}: interpretive ranger. After spending a halfcyear inli!W s(:hooland opting out, she took a job with ,the Cit'{ of
Boulder's Open Spa(:e Department, whi(:hadmirtisters 30, ODOa(:res. She. moved arpund from, there' to be(:ome a bo,tanist for
the state, a plant e(:ologist for. the city of Boulder Opi:!n Space and had a job with the new Bou~der County Department of
A '.'.," " 'I', .'.'

W Open Spa(:e.. If she'has another, kid her retirement Irompubli(:,servi(:e (:ould last four years. She and her husband have
, .. bo~ght p~operty in southwest ,Colorado where they' will build an 'Straw bale adobe (whl(:h doesn '):workso. well .in AI;(:atSl,
but,notes Nina.. there are some in Mefidocino. They'll havepassive~ solar and expand en oU'::gridelectri(:al sour(:es as ,

. they (:an"but since her husband does a lot of welding and brf2wing, they (:an,'t tell when they'll be.offthe'grid. She
also plans to ex!?andher gardening .down.there to indudeorgimi(: salj?s toio(:al markets.

. '. ~ .

Nicole Whittick, 1994 ~Journalism.Nkolegraduated 'in. '94 and never 'pursl\ed a ~are,er 'in journalism; She's living-with
her' signifi(:ant other ,Kyle, 'in Samoa (Arcata) and is busy, 'followipg, my bliss." Part Qf. that .will in(:lude a, dream'
home with all; the :AT accoutn2ITlents., Right now all she ',s got is the garden. Nicole wants to start her owr! business and
though'shes' not certain what, we might assume it to, be in the area of river raft guiding, whic? she does supportwprk "
for right now and hapesto make 'it to the full-guide level,soon.She'sarso 'on the office staff of an 'Arcata jewelry
manufacturer. Nicole, says CCAT,10b!1ed a ,(:hunkof awarene'ss about how ,we' make an impact on' the planet .,'The importance
of CCAT is how you can make. what ifs a reali~y, hqw easy it is and why you're obligated ,to do it."
.' 'C. ' .
Michiko Mares, 1994,' '95 ~ Environmental Resource Engineering ,Michiko 'will graduate. in the fall of '96 and have her
ERE degree
with an emphasis in water :quali-ty.
She'11 take 'oHfor
' "
travel in " south east.
'" '
ASijJ. and Japan
- where
she has' ,c-'

family'. Along the way she hopes to get expo8e~ to the av'ailable capacities thn;JUg)J whic)J she can use her expertise, be
it for. an international aid'organization,? manufaytureror a government. She feels CCAT gives people exposure to all '

the ,possibilities for careers in things' t), instead of add to. the problems. '' ,
\ ,
James Everett, 1992; '93 Interdisciplinary -
Enviroqmental Ethics Pplicy and Management. James is now in a graduate
program at the: nQ,tiotls '8 first forestry school: Yale, "Big)Jt now I'm, immersed in southern Appalachian hardwoods. "But
his mail! interest
isbuiiding models to quantify'long-term,
., ' ,
' "
models of forest/yon long-term' " , ,\", , ,'.

{Jroduct ivity , so ~hat hopefully, 'on an econ0mic basis, 'severe disturbance" of soil and undergrowth can be discouraged. '

The economic basis is r('generation rates opserved in the various/II)odels. If industry heads are truly apathetic, about
the future ot their children or their investors even sooner, then, says James, ',t)Je only alternative is 'convincin,g the,
government to, step ,in. . .

:0 Y~et:e DiCarlo, 1989, '90 - B,N. i~ J~JUrnalism, minoT in Appropriate Technology. ;'After graduating, penniless! 1. )Iloved )

,bacjk t08an Dieg-o for free. r,oomarid board untilacquiripg enough furidsto move back here. At this time, JTlY be,st job W9-S 'I
a three year internship withtheCity ofSsan Diego Waste Management Dept, where I developed a pilot food and yard '
waste compostingprojectwhich WQ,S,used, in a lal1dfill revegetatprpgram. My goat is to remain in resource collservation
and pursue a degr~e in i tto enhance my resume'; Unfort\Jn a, minor in APpropri'ate Technology isn' tcompetl tive il1 the job: fi

Iqarket. But I'm indebted to all the rational, intelligent, energetl(: and truly enjoyable people :whoI met through CCAT , ii
arid, theA.T. program. Memories6f them keep ne and happy, Thanks.'" ' " ,

Billy Lydgate,
" 1989, \90 -- Natural Resource ,Planning .,Billy is now in a grad\jate prog,ram studying Watershed Manag!2IT\.Ent
" , ' , " .' "

at HSU and has been doirig streasm research in the City of Arcata StrQ,nd Watersh~d program for ,the past .few yeQ,rs. He's
a new homeowner applying greywater, rainwgter catchment, native :p+ant landscaplPg and he's working an solar,
alcsess. 'He wants to make the world smaller by g~ttirig7 people to consume more from what their local environment
Produces. ' , '" ... '

Kurt Ne\l/llla~, 1986 - E~vironm~nta~ Resource Engineering. Despite (:oming doWn with Multiple Sclero:sis a year after
graduating and not, "having anyone hold their breath: for my cure," Kurt stiil pursues the knowledge he' started,
acquiring; when he came to CCAT. Kurt studies sustainable f9restry, lives across the 101'from HSU arid still keeps in
touch withCCAT.

Peter Holmes, 19'86, '87 - Politica'1 Science: Peter' was a ERE major' until he decided it w~'sn't for him and opted for
Political S'cience. Aftet graduating in '90 i he moved to Vi~ginia and aft'erworking in restaurants for a biL)'1e got a
job with aTjUe Insurance corporation doin? lesearc)J.Title insura!}ceis insurance that your newly purchased property
has. no outstanding claims to it ,such thatsomeo1)e will come forth saying their great ,grandfather won 'a quel that th~y
can prove meantyotlr land was his ,grandfather's ,and now his. If such 'a person comesfotward then/the insurance company
Jays for the claimant' s compensation. Peter said it' s put what,'he learn~d at tCATi:Ouse where he is ".- an
apartment in a communitywitjlOutrecycliI19 facilitiesaq spread out and as inclusive as Arcata' s., lie asserts,he is
I not e'nergy . effident. "
"The Pllilding just isn't set up that wayand.the>o\'mers here
have no incentive to fix it up," .

~ t'iI'Ifays Peter. , "~, ' ,', '
'~ere: are the rest ~)"fthe 'past di:t~ct--ors???
,If y~u know~ -'where they are, drop us .
a line, pleaSe! !t' sgrea~, t,oknow these ~hirigs,:and we also hope' to ~o a
20th anniversary reunion, and. want to find as tnanypeople of the past. as
possible.. . I
. '1
" 'C. ." I
ATTranJ fe:r;;,. spring 1996 I "

Parking Lots to Ga:cden' Plots. , Now!

,I Don:,.McMil,laX?-'and DAWN), c'

I admit tohavitlg oncesuPI?ort,ed The Nature Conservancy.' Its membership solicitations enticed with
glossy,images of .happy wildlife ,.saved .by' co,ntributions l.ikemi~e., However:, another: slick image with Nature
Conservancy insignia jarred me to my senses., " "

, 'In this irnaQ'e a faniilyposed at The 'conservancy'~ Cosumnes River Preserve. Sharing the f()r,eground
~withthefamily , '
was a factory-polished
, ,/ , "
Ci:J.dillacDeville. , Captioning
this ,picture,
disjointed assertions
claimed 'Cadillac's lltmost concern, both for theircustomers~ safety and., for biological integJ;'ity.. Below
thismessageglei:!med:,The Nature Conservancy's oak }eaf logo. Then I encountered the same logo in '

promotions for GMtrucks. (For hoth ads, see Audubpn, May/June' 95.) TheConser:vancysatisfied, my
telephone iriquirfes about these ads only ~ith id ownhamefbrits;'transaytions ,with GMand Cadillac:
Cause-Related Marketing. , .' ' -'

Car maker ~ donations in exchimge for The Conse,rvancy' ~ apparent stamp', of, approvpl on their products
, seemed as fitting as though the AritericanLung Association had acceptea" funds from Philip. Morris in exchange
for the non-profit's logo licensed to appear inthe tobacco' giant's advertising. Few, trait~ of Urlited
States re,sidents seem more'antagonistic' to"~res>erving habitat for divei-se 'living co.mmunities,than our
. unwillingness to question, let alone kick, aut,omotive addiction. . , '

, ,After publishing an appeal to boycott the car-coddl~I).gconservancy and seeing only negative
, responses to mY proposal, by ConSerYCj.ncy supporters; 'I 'determined that Conservancy rank and 'file were as
unwilling to cOTI&ider 'the organization's' complicity with car, makers as is the general public to question
the'r:ation's reliance on the autom05ile. ]3uildingopposition, th;r:ough collective' action, to The
I! conserva~C;:Y's,cooperatiori ~n ,car sales appeared futile. '

" , ,But my brusti wi~h The Nature ConservanCy's auto-dependent reality led to'an id~afor a conservation,
OJ;ganlzatioh focused, ,like The ,Nature'CoIfseryancy, ,on' influencin'iJ: land use patterns but ,also concerned with
fos'teringeconomic independence from motor:' vehicl,es. '"The envisioned organizatiori wguld operate much Hke
Babitat fqrHumanity, soliciting contributions to a r:evolv~rg fund. Th~s)Eund,would .lend to inner-city ,

community agencies (cooperatives, collectives) for purc.l1asj,ng parking lots and other over-.,pavedr:.eal "
estate, 'The cooperatives would remove pavement,and so,;, 'and harvest the plot. They would be responsiBle,
for, repaying a. mortgage to the revolving fund: Members 'of 'borrowing collectives would decide how their
-; wouldprcjdu~e ,"
payment revenue;
they couldexp~ctsavings ongroceii~s "
if members eat "",' , ", t,' " " , ',,'

what,the~'ve grown, orthey mlght plant cash, CrOps. Once 'the: mortgage, has beenpayed, ,the collectlve would '

own the real estate., So long as the land is. left open and unpaved, the colle.;:tive'would det~rmine its use.
'Such a re\rolvingC fund could enable people, left behind 'by suburban "progress" toregaln a sense of' communal;
wellbeing,~eaffi0ning ,ties, 1'liththe earth. ' , '.' " ' "

To dE!'mi::mstrate that i11.I=Jer~pitycori1ITl1mities couldbe~ome

, livabIeby rejecting a currency of (nuclear
"I and petro dollars in favor of anec6nomy wed \ to photosynthe'tic,
, (2cologicalrea,Hty wou;ld lessen,. public and' , ' ' , " ,

,private investment, ihm()re pighways and suburban pave,ment. ~'rE!volvingfund diI'ected at r:estoring ,paved
urban, deserts to agricultural fertility cduld 1,11timately preserv(2 vital rural land~capesoutside city
'I limits by reducing pre;:;sures to pave theI!l., , ' ,,'

r , Manyhurdies remain for such a f,4ndto become operational. ,Respopsety

I t1:is article may show enough'
interest" t-o ,expedi te founding such an orgi:J.nizati0n. Alone,. 'I lack, qdequate knowledge of, UJ;-ban planning,
j" thedepavlng process, fundraiHng; and the worKings of a hon-profit o:rganization to make it work'.' However,
if 6th~rs contribute time,talent,' and money' t'o-this cause, it might, become a source, of renewal for' wasted
hurn~ communi t~es . ' .. ; , " ( , " : ' ','

, A low.,.key .start~up project might,pe to' pool prosPective ,names 'for t1'\e organization., Names already

~ 'suggested include: Depave ,America!, DAWN: Depave A, Wasted, Nation, Gardens Not Pavement, Habita,tfor ALL
,and p9-rkiqg Lot:s'into _Breadbaskets. Offe.tsof know-how or financial'~upp~rt, 'too, would ,be of gteat ' '
assistance. Finally, if someorgan;L"ation already existsfcjr the purpose I envision" I would want to throw
j , iny energy "
behind the
' ,
, ,'. ,','
groupi'atherth~ ',""
setting'1,1p something to 'distr,act,
from and " ,+"- ~

'.,competewi th it;, I need to hear from anyone, already doing $u(:h work. '

0, I' " ' ",' ',' " , , ,,", '

r Through Jl1ne, '96, I may be reached by phone at {707)822~154~or emaiL <>.

I expectma~lforWarded at least until ~arly1997 through,my curren:\': postal address: P.O. Box 4.832, Arcata
CA 95518~4?32".Donatlons should be earmarked foJ:' America! and,be mailed, aI;ld payable 'to th~ Alliance,
) fora PavingM6ratorium, P.O"Box 4~47; A,rcata CA 95518. ,Should: this, article's proposed depavif\gfund not
emerge; donations will be"turned over to the Al1iapce's road-fighting budget. (The Alliance accepts tax-
deduc:tible' donations; the c,oordianHng founding member, Fossil Fuels Policy Action 1nstitute,is a non- @~
profit 501 .Ie) (3) corpo,ration.) , ' '\

t 10 I
AT TransferI" , Spring' 1996 '~
d-.. .L~--- .I.
,,-, = = a-



,((p Apex-to-foundation clues:

1 ,Electric\ty and hot" ". come,from
different types o~ solar panels.
3. ~akes place in' a worm bin"
4. " ovens can reach"350° :vith no com-
'bustion. "

5. Hot: . . a drawer with radiant barrier

and insulation


West~to~~ast clues: .
" 2. Type of window"curtainthat closes
"" )

ve~tically_" "

3. Line loss plagues low

4. "Recycles'dead stuff II

7. Producer of hexagonal wax- cells II

8-. -Bacillus ." keeps greywater "

6. H.E.C. Human Convert~r 9. Straw- walls have insulation
11, Compound bulb has .culinaryvalue: ~CAT value'ofR 50.
"cash crop" 10.- Rush. Plant of the grey water
12, water catchment system with an animalname. i "

, 'Its blue flowers
." have culinary use in
13. - manure: plants tu"rned
salads to "enrich soil
15. To steep in liquid without boiling .~
16. "Good. advice: fragrant herb

~(tO '

AT. 'Transfer~ Spy ing 1996 J rJ
, , , '

ATT (Appropriate Toilet,'Technology),

I' 'since about 1980, as one ,of the'
t alternative technology demonstrations at There~s 'No Excuse To Let It Go\Jl!
CCAT, there's been a composting toilet. The 'To Waste When Ron's On The' .
toilet has been in operation for almost the
t '
entire ti,me ur> to October of,' 95 .At

that' Case, So Get, On Your Butt and

time, it was taken out oCservice for re- ,Start Compostingl ' .

design work tl}atreflects what c°.!llpostiilg

, to,ilet technology has.developed' since. ,~' ,
"Th,e CCAT design is a modified,"Farallones Composting 'privy" shown ,in Sim Van del' Ryn's 1978
The Toilet Papers..' It's a batch system oompos,ting toilet - allowing the two batc;::hes to remain il1'
place as long as the oWner likes. ,At CCAT the batch isolation time' was typically one year..
-, The design had no provisions f9r monitoring or regulating cri,ticalcomposting parameters.
The CCAT residents used considerable guess work in monitoring the moistu;r:e content of the pi,les.
The compost was de'siccated at times, saturat,ed and ,full of, pools at others. A lac'k of knowledge'
about how to maintain and keep the system in'a dynamiccomposting state ,compounded the problems.
Since the residents
rotate and are residingthere for only a Year; no single
was able to ,

get anins):inct for how the system' operated,underthe directionof a ,human )-, if it could operateas
, such at, all. , '" .'
"Temperatures in the composting chambers were ,not high enough to allow for. efficient compost-
irig,. The chart tpe mean temperature
shows Of the, compost each week of ,~he, year - showing that the'
mean temperature fell between 60 and.85 degrees F from 1984' to '93. Organic matter,will biologi-
'cally d,igest (compost)' at"these temperatures, but it's a slow process and l'acks the: temperatures
nee4ed for ~asteutizatiori {killin~ ~athogenic bacteria)...," "
Other problems occurred: Odors.associated with human urine and feceshecame more 'prevalent
as the aerobic activity decreased - which happened as a result of (:001 temperatures. Because 10"';,
anaerobic activityme~ns both mor~ pathog~ns and the need to help the process along by stirring the
piles, thE:) .danger increased perhaps exponentially,.

Livin9With The Toilet

It was the use,r'
s ,xxesponsibil,itytoadd one can (ap'rox.:. 04 cubic ft.) of carbonaceous materi~l 0)1
(usuall'ywood sha\Tings,froma local wood shop) to ,the £lrst chamber after ,every use. Some resldents
'felt compell,ed to give the b?-cteria a mo:r;,e diverse diet:
, (likegardE!Dwast'e an,d' dead leaves). ,
, Urine WqS kept' from entering the chambers
by a
catchment funnel that ran 'the urine to a five gallon con~
tainer the residents periodically emptied. The piles,in
both the first ,and second (s'upposedly pasteurizing), chamber
were stirred 'with a hoe and shovel about ,once a ,week. The
,temperatures in each of the, chambers was recorded at this,'
time. Since the piles were' usually aerobically active, ,

odors experienced, during this ti!!ledid not 'usually inspire

complaints. T~e most frequent complaint. of odor,Occurred
when emptying the urin,e or when the batch', went without
maintenance ior too long. ' , ' '

Once, a year the fallow,or secondchamber,was emptied

and the compost placed beneath 'the ornamentiU shrubs and trees 01
the property-: The compost was covered with a layer of soil' and al
that time the cont~nts' of chamber 1, the active, receivingcham~
bel', were moved to position 2, .the fallow ,chamber. This, was' the
beginning of t~e'-one-year'isolation period for the, number ,2 slot
batcl;1'. (Someof the; old compost was added to chamber 1 to sees
the 'batch, with the desired bacteria). "

The Re-De,sign .
,This'spr'inga group of students undertook the' toilet re-design
" Project, Ron Sutcliffe, a graduating senior in Environmental '

Resources Engineering, based his senior project on the re-design

concen trat
ing on ,"soiaI' assist,,!nce" as a 'mea~s of bringing~e

temperature levels into the proper range: Kurt Boenen,also

ERE senior, was an active volu'nteer
, .

in. the project so that he

could bec~me familiar with the technology. Daniel Schroder is 1n

the new Environmental Science program ,and pa~ticipated as partial fulfi,llment~ofhis

12 Environmental Ethics and Technology class.
AT Transfer, Spring 1996
I. ... .- '-- - -- ... ....
The 're~design focussed on the need to create a,better, environment for ,the compos,ting microorgan-
isms. If' the compost 'can be 'warmed to 120 to 150 degre,es F, then Jhe heat, loving (therIJlOphillic) bacte.,.
ria' will thr~ve. On<;:e tohe heat this level the"bact~ria can further cI;eate their own heat and
sustain the temperatures without' too much assistance. If the batch stays at 140 degrees or above long

~ enough"
Solar Assistance,
the compost will
pasteurized, and thus'
free ,of
pathogens, " '

The composting toilet needs ,fresh'air'to remain aerobic. rhe original design took air from the basement
a}:1d cycled it through the chambers, around toe c~nis'ters.This air is l!sually "cool" 'too cQol.for the.
'"I compostingbatches to sustain and{or begin creating, temperatures high enough. The first component of
,the re-des~gn was t()feed the composting chambeI;sair from the'apex bf the attic ~ which is quite warm,
, especially
, . 'when the ,sun , is . shinning. , ' ",' ' ,
Another componentwill be a 'solar,thermalloop of antifreezefed,throughthe'rooftophot water
heaters. The liq'uidwill be run around the'containers and the hea't will"transferto the b~tches.
In additionto the solar assistsa vent fan 'will be added to increasethe amount of air' circula,~
" ' ,), "

tion aroun~ is separatedfiom the house).Two recording

the compost.'(Theentireair circ\llation t~er-
,mometerswillallow the users to determine if the piles have achieved minimum time/temperature levels -
,that produce p,athogen' fIef'!compost. The composting chambeL will be, "super-insulated" to help.preserve
the heat gained through bacteria! "lI\etabolism
and solar assistance. ~ '

And finally, there'll be a 'th,ermostatthatsenses the upper temperature limit that the. favored,
bacteri;a <;:an withstand and at that,upper limit it 'will divert both solar heat souI;ces away from the
chambers.TJ;1e only sol\rceof heat will then be through microbial metabolism ('respiration from burning
fecal calories). ,', ' ' " ,

"These little critters know when its too hot and now thethermophillic1yavaiiabie
, heat energY'
, 'will self-regulate and that ensures ))lle temperatureswon't exceed upper limits," Sutcliffe said.

, "In the U.S. the present form of composting toilets have been
for over 20 years,' as part of;a ,"back to nature"
culture. Ma!1y people have active (composting) , t
tQilets which perform fine for their needs,
'whi~e,6thers'experienceChronic problems and
nightmares. New advanCes which address'these,
'problems along with public health fears and
~rea:l concernshave be en SlOW in rnater ial iZing.
'-'But today we're experien.cinga resurgence of' , , ,

, ' , interest and research" '

, "r" can't directly.recommend'one comme'r-

,cialunit or one particuiardesignasrepre-
'~enting the state of the art composting
~oilet; But there's books ou~ now ,that begin
to address recent developments intbe'
I' science.There's also a,handful of dedi-,
c'atedindi viduals ,worki'hg' professiona,lly,
that ~ave set their sightsupon creatinga
functional, opei,mal,u'ser friendly,design
which~ actually does the job,'" Sutcliffe '

said. " ' "

job, , That
Ron says, is making', a 'rich, '

humus soil, amendment. and,eliminat'ingthe' 1

diseaSe causing organisms',' "With~ut both ~
features,""he says, "the toilet" doesn't' '~

,really do the ,job. '

Sutcliffe recommends ,t:.he following

1\ 'Future Fertility, by John Beeby, availabie

, ' J' '

for about $23 f1;omEcology ActlOn, 5798

Ridgewobd Rd" Willits, cCA, 95490. Ph.
(7U7) 459 ~O150~ '

I, The TQi-let Papers, by Sim Van der Ryn; available

from Chelsea Green Publishing, 'p.O. Box 4'28, White

'" ~'-iver Junc~i'on, ,vr, ,05001 . '

You can reach Ron Sutcliffe at H.C. 60 Box 137, Quemado,NM",

AT Transfer, Spring' 1996
CCAT .Brief.s'
. (from pg.7)
. .
-bought .the ink injector .bottles. ButD~nMac ~'Folks arid Businesses
KU we thank for
Millan took it as(ep further. generousdonati~ns: ()1
. Da'ri found a.way to refill regular pen Solutiqns
Stems using a syringe and he found a way to Bruc~ Emad
,get ink into the disposable injectbrs. His only i..~ly
OwYang . ....

prbblem: W:here~o get the ink, Be got the run

Abundant Li:fe.Seed Co ~
aromid trying to get beyond the call to one ink Fresb,water ,Farms
.supplier that said the in}csupply is proprietary Pearson's
-(contr~cted ,for and cannot go to anyone else). The North Coast Co~op. .

The search isn't over but, while CCATdoesn't Sunfrost,

. .

.like to be negative, .there are people wtto stand. . Fox Farm

to lose some money if those pen carcasses HSUGrounds Crew
become eternal iQ.khousings not needing. A;'cata,Gla~s
. :replacement and to a lesser extent, if those ink .,Alternat"i veEnergy' Enginee~ing
. injectors become reusable tools to get Mr. .and. M:rs. Barmann andth.eir'
. hi your (or a shops's) well into the printers of ,son, past director Mathew - Barmann ' .

the world.
.Wonderful Volunteers, I;nterns, Employees
and Others -who have been involved.: .
, .
J9~Ericson,Uni~ersity Center Opera-
tions . , . .'. .

Ethan, la~dscapirig ~ tail,rs

Rob, gardens
,All' tour. guides.
Ti~, work shops; ellectriCalsystems , (Dl
~~llY, bread workshops.

Rose,lotion w<;>rkshops .

Harry Wells', spirmimg ";l°rkshops


AleX;i '-crO<?het workshop

Sean;. gr'ant:writi~. .', .
Ron, oh so,many 'wOrkshops, support. and
, composting toDet work, .
, r

. .' . , . . . ,

. On the subject ofdei~gulation,it' s iIiterEistingto l)Ote the 'ground that has yet to ,be covered in conservation, now given
its biggest force from publicm'afldate, .through ~ubsidies make our utilities150percen~ the national average but our
biil average. The money goes to PG&E and PG&E. to give electricity credits fo purchasers of things li~e a'Sunfrost
Refrigerato.r... - . ,
The higher rates were appraved iiz the expectation that one day we would be sitting pretty, set to t?ke on ~he world. (or just
. kii::k back), ,with' our input free ,and biomass electrici ty. ,Now the forces of want I of perception 0.£ nQt' enough,.of .1~cking, as
represented -by Pete Wilson and. his CPUCeommissionersand the big business.esthat might noteven exist (because they're all
headed to the third world) but he thinks .are not coming-to California becauSe of, high ele.ctr;icity rates, all.t'hreaten to put
an eIJd to what can,bedone. But let'S not get emb~oiledin the victim myth.~Let's buya.Sunfrost . ,
The.average Humboldthousehold uses 8,760,kwattslyr 7 spends $963.60 onll cent Fates. Sunfrost. uses 200kwatts a ye,;Jr. The
average refrige: ,1,320, a 1;120. difference. The1,320 is 15%,of the ho.uge's use. . . .
There are a~out.J7,B50 households in the.PG&EHumboldt district. Total residential consumption is 33i,570,00Dkwatts, or
331,570 megawats/yr. Assuming 95% owrithe typical refrige., 'we find 1, 892 hOuses with Sunfrosts andJ5, 957 without .Sunfrosts ,
are' using 378,5dOkwattsiyr andiwv-sunfrosters are using 47;463,340. . ,.'

. If they. used Sunfrosts they'd save.,us 7,191,500 kwatts a year. ' ~~"


. ,

. JI4
AT' Transfer, $p,ring 1996
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