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OPTICS

Module No.1 B: Diffraction of light

TUTORIAL:1

1

2

A slit of width a is illuminated by white light. For what value of a does the first

minimum for red light ( = 650nm) fall at = 15o?

When monochromatic light is incident on a slit 0.022 mm wide, the first diffraction

minimum is observed at an angle of 1.80 from the direction of the incident beam. Find the

wavelength of the incident light.

Determine the maximum slit width that could be used if a central maximum angular width

of 0.12 mrad can just be detected and you guess the wavelength of the x-rays to be 0.10

nm.

Monochromatic light of wavelength 441 nm falls on a narrow slit. On a screen 2.16 m

away, the distance between the second minimum and the central maximum is 1.62 cm. (a)

Calculate the angle of diffraction of the second minimum, (b) Find width of the slit.

The distance between the first and the fifth minima of a single slit pattern is 0.350mm with

the screen 41.3 cm away from the slit, using light having a wavelength of 546 nm. (a)

Calculate the diffraction angle of the first minimum. (b) Find the width of the slit

Monochromatic light with wavelength 538 nm falls on a slit with width 25.2m. The

distance from the slit to a screen is 3.48m. Consider a point on the screen 1.13cm from the

central maximum. Calculate (a) (b) (c) ratio of the intensity at this point to the intensity

at the central maximum.

An astronaut in a satellite claims to be able to just barely resolve two point sources on

Earth, 163 km below. Calculate the (a) angular (b) linear separation of the two point

sources, assuming ideal conditions. Take =540 nm and the pupil diameter of the

astronauts eye to be 4.90 mm.

The two headlights of an approaching automobile are 1.4 m apart. Assume the pupil

diameter is 5.0 mm and the wavelength of light is 550 nm. (a) At what angular separation

and (b)minimum distance will the eye resolve them?

TUTORIAL: 2

How many complete fringes appear between the first minima of the fringe envelope on

either side of the central maximum for a double-slit pattern if = 557 nm, d = 0.150 mm,

and a = 0.030 mm? (b) What is the ratio of the intensity of the third fringe to the side of the

center to that of the central fringe?

10

11

12

13

14

1

2

3

4

through a double slit, wielding the

diffraction pattern of intensity I versus

deflection angle shown in Figure.

Calculate (a) the slit widthand (b) the slit

separation. (c) Verify the displayed

intensitiesof m=1 and m=2 interference

fringes.

A certain grating has 104 slits with a spacing of d = 2100 nm. It is illuminated with yellow

sodium light ( = 589 nm). Find (a) the angular position of all principal maxima observed

and (b) the angular width of the largest order maximum.

A grating has 315 rulings / mm. For what wavelengths in the visible spectrum can fifthorder diffraction be observed?

A grating has 9600 lines uniformly spaced over a width 3cm and is illuminated by mercury

light.

(a)What is the expected dispersion in the third order, in the vicinity of intense green line (

= 546nm)? (b)What is the resolving power of this grating in the fifth order? (c) What is the

wavelength difference that can be resolved in the 5th order.

The sodium doublet in the spectrum of sodium is a pair of lines with wavelengths 589.0

and 589.6 nm. Calculate the minimum number of rulings in a grating needed to resolve this

doublet in the second-order spectrum.

Assignment: Theory Questions

Distinguish between Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction.

Using suitable diagram, derive an expression for intensity of Fraunhofer diffraction pattern due to

single-slit using phasor diagram. Also plot the graph between relative intensity V/s angle. (b)

Calculate approximately the relative intensities of the maxima (up to second order) in the single slit

Fraunhofer diffraction pattern.

Derive an expression for the intensity distribution due to Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit.

Deduce the conditions for intensity minima

Use phasor diagram to obtain an expression for the intensity of diffracted light in Fraunhoffers

diffraction due to single slit. Show that the intensities of successive maxima are nearly in the ratio

1:

5

6

7

4

9 2 :

4

25 2 :

4

49 2

Explain the Rayleighs criterion of resolution and obtain an expression for resolving power of a

diffraction grating.

Write a short note on Rayleighs criterion of resolution of images of two objects. Draw a suitable

diagram and obtain an expression for resolving power of a diffraction grating.

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Define the dispersive power and resolving power of a grating. Also derive expressions for

dispersive power and resolving power of a grating.

Explain Diffraction phenomenon and define dispersive power and resolving power for a grating.

A single slit is illuminated by light whose wavelengths are a and b, so chosen that the first

diffraction minimum of acomponent coincides with the second minimum of the b component.

(a) What relationship exists between the two wavelengths?

(b) Do any other minima in the pattern coincide?

Derive expressions for dispersive power and resolving power of a grating.

What is diffraction grating? Obtain an expression for the angular width of the principal

maximum at an angle in diffraction pattern due to a multiple slit diffraction grating.

Explain the term dispersive power of a grating and obtain an expression connecting the dispersion

and the spacing between the slits d.

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