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Conclusion.

Based on the data that had obtained for sudden contraction the higher the volume flow
rate the shorter the time taken for 5litre. The highest volume flow rate for sudden contraction is
5.675 x 104 m3/s. The time taken was 8.81s. During this volume flow rate the velocity was
7.2256 m/s. The theoretical head loss was 2.6610 mh2o. The experimental head loss was 3993
mh2o. The loss coefficient was 1.5006. The lowest volume flow rate was 3.808 x 104. The time
taken for 5 litre was 13.13. The velocity for the this volume flow rate was 4.8484 m/s. The
theoretical head loss was 1.1982 mh2o. The experimental head loss 2.002 mh2o. The loss
coefficient was 1.6710. For sudden contraction the diameter 1 is 25mm while the diameter 2 is
10 mm.
For sudden enlargement the diameter 1 is 10 mm and the diameter 2 is 25 mm. The
highest volume flow rate for sudden enlargement is 5.821 x 104 and the time taken for 5 liter was
8.59s. The higher the volume flow rate the shorter time taken for 5 liter. The velocity for the
highest volume flow rate is 1.1858 m3/s. The theoretical head loss was 0.0717 mh20. The
experimental head loss is 3.515 mh20. The loss coefficient is 49.046. The lowest volume flow
rate was 3.376 x 104 which took time 14.81s. The velocity for the lowest volume flow rate was
0.6878 m3/s. The theoretical head loss was 0.0241 mh20 and the experimental head loss was
1.481mh20. The loss coefficient was 61.423.

Abstract
Any time a liquid flow changes direction there is resistance. Since all liquids have
weight, they also have momentum. This means the liquid will always try to continue moving in
the same direction. Because the liquid is trying to flow around the outer edge of the fitting, the
effective area of the fitting is reduced. The effect is similar to attaching a smaller diameter pipe
in the system. The velocity of the liquid increases and the head loss due to friction increases.
Pipe fittings and valves disturb the normal flow of liquid, causing head loss due to friction. There
are two basic methods currently in use to predict the head loss in pipe fittings and valves. They
are the "K factor. Factors that affect Head Loss are flow rate, inside diameter of the pipe,
roughness of the pipe wall, viscosity of the liquid, length of the pipe, and fittings. In this
experiment the objective was to obtain a series of readings of head loss due to pipe fitting at
different flow rates and to determine the loss coefficient for sudden contraction and sudden
enlargement of pipe fitting. In this experiment for sudden contraction is diameter 1 is 25 mm and
the diameter 2is 10mm. While for sudden enlargement the diameter 1 is 10 mm and the diameter
2 is 25mm. The higher the volume flow rate the shorter the time taken for 5 liter. For sudden
contraction the lowest experimental head loss was 2.002 mh2o. The highest experimental head
loss was 3993 mh2o. For sudden enlargement the higheest experimental head loss was 3.515
mh20. The lowest experimental head loss was 1.481mh20.