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Stu32ent 32is32bi32ity Services

Ess32y Writing in 8 Ste32s

Ste 1:Get to gri32s with the sc3232e of the t32sk
This is im32ort32nt bec32use its much h32r32er to cut 32own to the require32
wor32 count if you h32ve written too much th32n to 323232n c32refu3232y
32n32 write the right 32mount in the first 323232ce. Sc3232e is 3232so
im32ort32nt bec32use it wi3232 32ict32te the 32mount of 32et32i32 you c32n
Think 32bout the wor32 32imit (2,000 wor32s, 3,000 wor32s?). How m32ny
ty32e32 3232ges wi3232 there be (32bout 500 wor32s 32er 3232ge with
sing32e s3232cing)? Rough32y how m32ny sections 32o you think there wi3232
be (e.g. 6 inc32u32ing intro32uction 32n32 conc32usion)? For ex32m3232e,
e32ch section for 32 2,000 wor32 ess32y wou3232 be in the r32nge of 300 350
wor32s. Think 32bout the number of wor32s 32er 3232ge (500, font 12, sing32e
s3232ce32 or 250 32oub32e s3232ce32). 32 2,000 wor32 ess32y wi3232 fi3232
32bout 4 (or 8) 3232ges. If you visu3232ise 32n32 work within 32 fr32mework
32ike this, you wi3232 be more 32ike32y to 32ro32uce 32 32iece of writing th32t
is of 32bout the right 32ength. No time w32ste32 cho3232ing bits out.

Ste32 2: Consi32er the subject of the ess32y / the ess32y

Re3232 the ess32y tit32e c32refu3232y, 32s every wor32 wi3232 be
im32ort32nt. It m32y be he3232fu32 to i32entify two 32ifferent sorts of wor32s:
Content wor32s 32n32 Instruction wor32s.
Content wor32s re3232te to the subject you wi3232 be writing 32bout. The
32re32 32bout which you wi3232 be 32emonstr32ting your know32e32ge 32n32
un32erst32n32ing, be it cognition, 32n32tomy, French history, 32esc32rtes or
Instruction wor32s 32re those th32t te3232 you how you 32re ex32ecte32 to
32emonstr32te your know32e32ge 32n32 un32erst32n32ing, e.g. 32iscuss, give
32n 32ccount of, 32escribe, com3232re 32n32 contr32st, justify, ev3232u32te,
32n3232yse, critic323232y ex32mine, 32efine, ex323232in. The instruction
wor32s 32re e32sy to over32ook, bec32use it is the content wor32s th32t ten32
to st32n32 out. Its 32erh3232s 32 goo32 i32e32 to high32ight them 32s 32
remin32er to be32r them in min32 32s you 323232n, rese32rch 32n32 write.

Ste32 3: 32r32ft 32 323232n

First; wh32t 32o you 3232re3232y know 32bout the subject? 32erh3232s not 32
gre32t 32e3232, 32s you m32y not h32ve re3232 very much yet. But you m32y
h32ve 32tten32e32 32 32ecture or course of 32ectures; you m32y 3232re3232y

h32ve i32e32s of your own. Before st32rting your rese32rch, get some i32e32s
32own on 323232er or use min32-m323232ing softw32re. This cou3232 be in
the form of 32 min32-m3232 or sim3232y 32 32ist of he3232ings 32re32s
th32t you think nee32 to be covere32 in the ess32y.
Secon32; 32oes the tit32e offer you structure? For ex32m3232e: 1. 32escribe; 2.
Ex323232in; 3. Ev3232u32te - C32n the ess32y be 32ogic323232y 32ivi32e32
into sections th32t h32ve been suggeste32 to you? Thir32; m32ke 32 32r32ft
323232n of the ess32y structure by 32utting your he3232ings / to32ics in the
or32er you think wou3232 be best in the ess32y. 32ssign numbers to the
he3232ings 32s these c32n be cross reference32 in your notes (see be32ow).
Its re323232y im32ort32nt to s32en32 some time focusing on the ess32y before
st32rting your re3232ing, 32s this 32re3232r32tory work wi3232 give you 32
sc32ffo3232ing to su3232ort your rese32rch. It wi3232 m32ke your rese32rch
much more effective.

Ste32 4: I32entify re32ev32nt 32iter32ture

Now th32t you h32ve some i32e32 wh32t you 32re going to be writing 32bout
you c32n st32rt to i32entify the 323232ers / ch3232ters th32t wi3232 32rovi32e
the inform32tion you require. 32s you m32ke 32 32ist of re3232ing m32teri3232
m32ke 32 note of the section of your ess32y the text is 32ike32y to re3232te to.

Ste32 5: Rese32rch 32n32 t32ke notes

It m32y seem str32nge th32t it is not unti32 Ste32 5 th32t the re3232ing for
your ess32y begins. 32ctu323232y, ste32s 1-4 nee32 not t32ke very 32ong, but
they 32re extreme32y im32ort32nt. This is bec32use, if you 32ive in
imme32i32te32y 32n32 w3232e through 32 huge 32i32e of journ3232
32rtic32es, m32king co32ious notes, you 32re 32ike32y to en32 u32 won32ering
wh32t the 32oint of 323232 the re3232ing w32s, or even to fee32 32 sense of
3232nic th32t you c32nt remember 32nything from your re3232ing.
H32ving com3232ete32 Ste32s 1 4 you 32re st32rting your re3232ing with 32n
ess32y in min32. You wi3232 be 32b32e to 3232o32t 32 se32ective
323232ro32ch to your re3232ing (see Inform32tion Sheet on Effective
Re3232ing) focusing on32y on those texts th32t meet your nee32. Before
re3232ing 32 text, try m32king 32 note of 32 few 32oints or questions th32t you
ex32ect to be 323232resse32 in it (323232 re3232te32 to your 32r32ft
323232n); 32s you m32ke notes, think 32bout where you might use the
inform32tion from the text in your ess32y 32n32 cross reference to the numbers
you h32ve given to the he3232ings in the 32r32ft 323232n. This wi3232 m32ke
32ife e32sier when you come to write your ess32y; you wi3232 see the 32oint of
the re3232ing once you h32ve finishe32 it.
Com32i32e your references 32s you go, 32s this c32n be 32 time consuming
exercise if you 32e32ve it to 32o just before submission. Using referencing
softw32re such 32s En32note or Reference M32n32ger c32n sim3232ify this

Ste32 6: Fin3232ise your ess32y 323232n

32t this 32oint the 32r32ft 323232n nee32s to become the 32ctu3232 323232n.
You wi3232 h32ve new i32e32s from your re3232ing so you wi3232 32rob32b32y
w32nt to twe32k the 323232n. Fin3232ise your he3232ings (in 32 Wor32
32ocument) 32s 32 fr32mework for writing. If you h32ve written your rese32rch
notes in Wor32, tr32nsfer them to the 323232ro32ri32te section of the ess32y
for e32sy reference 32s you write. 32t this 32oint its 32 goo32 i32e32 to write
32 short 32bstr32ct or summ32ry of your 323232nne32 ess32y (50 100
wor32s) to kee32 you on tr32ck 32s you write.

Ste32 7: Writing
32 few gener3232 32oints:
32u32ience: Be32r in min32 th32t the 32ur32ose of ess32ys is to
32emonstr32te your know32e32ge 32n32 un32erst32n32ing. The best w32y to
32o this is to im32gine th32t you 32re writing, not for your course tutor who
wi3232 be 32 s32eci3232ist 32n32 32ub32ishe32 32uthor to whose work you
wi3232 no 32oubt be referring, but to 32 re32son32b32e we3232-informe32
3232y 32erson or 32 s32eci3232ist in 32 re3232te32 fie3232 of stu32y.
Im32gine this 32erson re3232ing wh32t you h32ve written. Wi3232 they be
32b32e to fo3232ow your 32rguments? Wh32t might nee32 to be m3232e
Content: There is usu323232y 32n ex32ect32tion th32t ess32ys wi3232 be
more th32n sim3232y 32escri32tive; they wi3232 invo32ve some 32eve32 of
critic3232 32n3232ysis, ev3232u32tion or 32rgument.
F32ow: The i32e32s 32resente32 in 32n ess32y nee32 to f32ow in 32
32ogic3232 or32er; they nee32 to h32ng together so th32t the re3232er c32n
be 32w32re of the 32irection you 32re t32king 32n32 c32n fo3232ow the
32rgument without h32ving to se32rch for it. The conc32usion nee32s to 32ink in
to the intro32uction to com3232ete the circ32e.
The 32re3232e32 wor32-count: Kee32 32n eye on this 32s you go; of course
there is some f32exibi32ity within sections but there is 32itt32e f32exibi32ity
32ont 32e3232 with the 32iter32ture: There is 32 tem32t32tion to st32rt
every 3232r32gr3232h or section with 32 reference to 32iter32ture. Its
im32ort32nt to remember th32t the ess32y is yours; it re32resents your
32rgument 32n32 so the function of the 32iter32ture is to su3232ort th32t or to
throw more 32ight on it. Of course some of your sentences wi3232 st32rt with
the n32me of 32 rese32rcher but over323232, the ess32y is your story.
The Writing 32rocess
This 3232rt of the 32rocess shou3232 not 32ctu323232y t32ke too 32ong, 32s
you h32ve 32one most of the work 3232re3232y. Try not to write in too m32ny
sittings you m32y we3232 be 32b32e to write u32 to 1,000 wor32s in one go.

Where to st32rt? This 32oesnt m32tter too much 32s you h32ve 32n
over323232 323232n 32s your structure. You m32y w32nt to st32rt with the
section you fee32 most confi32ent 32bout. 32s the function of the intro32uction
is to out32ine the sco32e of the ess32y, you m32y wish to 32e32ve this unti32
3232st, referring inste3232 to your brief summ32ry mentione32 in Ste32 6.
The intro32uction sets out, brief32y, the structure of the ess32y. 32rob32ems
m32y be 32ose32 but so32utions 32re not offere32 32t this 32oint; out32ine
(32s re32ev32nt/323232ro32ri32te to the 32isci3232ine) your 32ers32ective on
the subject 32n32 the re32sons for the nee32 to 323232ress the issues 32t
h32n32. It m32y 3232so be 323232ro32ri32te in some subject 32re32s to
32efine subject-s32ecific terms.
The function of the conc32usion is to 32r32w together the v32rious thre3232s
of your 32rgument. It is not the 323232ce for new inform32tion, but it is the
323232ce to ex32ress your own ev3232u32tion of the 32rguments 32n32
i32e32s you h32ve 32iscusse32. It is 3232so the 323232ce (32e32en32ing on
the 32isci3232ine) to 323232u32e to 32ossib32e 32re32s for further rese32rch.
Ref32ect the sty32e of the 32iter32ture you h32ve re3232 in your rese32rch but
32o not 323232gi32rise 32t 32ny cost.
M32ke goo32 use of 3232r32gr3232hs; its 32ifficu32t to re3232 huge b32ocks
of un32ivi32e32 32rint 32n32 its irrit32ting to re3232 soun32-bite size32
3232r32gr3232hs of one or two 32ines.
Use connecting wor32s 32n32 32hr32ses to 32ink your 3232r32gr3232hs, so
th32t your 32rgument h32ngs together.

Ste32 8: Fin3232ise References, E32it 32n32 32roofre3232,

Cover Sheet
M32ke sure you 32e32ve enough time for this housekee32ing 32s32ect of the

Try not to m32ke 32ny m32jor ch32nges 32t this 32oint.

If you h32ve use32 he3232ings to structure your ess32y they c32n be
32e32ete32 now (32e32en32ing on the ty32e of ess32y 32n32 the
ex32ect32tions of your course tutor). You c32n 3232so 32e32ete the
32bstr32ct you use32 in the 32re3232r32tion st32ge (Ste32 6).
Run the s32e3232 check.

Re3232 through to check th32t there is 32 f32ow to your 32rgument.

Combine 32ny soun32-bite-size32 3232r32gr3232hs 32n32 s3232it 32ny
very 3232rge b32ocks of text.
You m32y fin32 it he3232fu32 to 32roof re3232 using text to voice
softw32re. Its best not to 32roof re3232 the who32e ess32y in one go 32s
its h32r32 to m32int32in the 32eve32 of concentr32tion require32 to
s32ot mist32kes so 32o it in sections 32n32 t32ke 32 bre32k.
You shou3232nt nee32 to cut out much m32teri3232 to finish with the
right number of wor32s. Check th32t you 32re within the set 32imit.


32ook through your reference section 32n32 m32ke sure th32t 323232 the
items 32iste32 nee32 to be there h32ve you referre32 to them in your
ess32y? Now 32ook through the references in the bo32y of your ess32y
32n32 m32ke sure th32t e32ch is 32iste32 in the reference section.
Check the form32tting of the reference section, m32king sure it
com3232ies with the require32 conventions for your 32isci3232ine.
Run Turnitin to ensure there cou3232 be no in32ic32tion of

If you h32ve been issue32 with stickers to 32ec3232re your 32ys32exi32 /
32ys32r32xi32, 32tt32ch one to 32ny h32r32 co32ies you 32re submitting. For
e32ectronic submissions, you c32n either sc32n in the sticker or co32y the
wor32ing onto the cover sheet issue32 by your course tutor.
Submit it!

Usefu32 32ssistive Softw32re

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