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PREFACE

Communication is at the core of almost all aspects of modern life. Education and health
care rely upon it, as do everyday work and community life, and democratic governance.
Since new communication technology does offer significant opportunities—as well as
grave risks—and because the form of the communication infrastructure of tomorrow is
being shaped today, it is critical that people from all walks of life play more active roles in
this crucial transition period.

New computer-networking technology currently has many attributes that could


undergird communication and technology that is truly democratic. Since it supports
"many-to-many" communication, community, regional, national, and even international
"conversations" on any topic are possible. This new media is unlike traditional media like
newspapers and television that are "one-to-many" (broadcast) or telephones, and letter
writing that are usually "one-to-one."

Although I argue for the development of democratic technology in general, this is


focused on the development of community computer networks, a concrete manifestation of
democratic technology that demands our attention right now. These systems are not
utopian pie in the sky. Five hundred thousand people currently use community networks
and people have launched projects in hundreds of cities and regions in the United States
and around the world.

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LIST OF AREAS

➢ Introduction To Networking And Its Types.


• Peer-to-Peer Networking
• Client-Server Networking
➢ Types Of Networks
• LAN
• MAN
• WAN
➢ Network Devices And Connectivity Components
• Routers
• Repeaters
• Bridges
• Switches
• Gateways
• Modems
• Network Cards
• Servers
➢ Network Topologies
➢ Concept Of Ethernet Cabling
➢ Satellite Communication
➢ SCADA System

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INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

➢ A computer network can be two computers connected:

➢ A computer network can also consist of, and is usually made for, more than two
computers:

FEATURES OF
COMPUTER
NETWORKING

A computer network is

a collection of

interconnected

computing devices

which allows

sharing information

& resources.

Exchanging information through computer networks have become important

phenomenon in day to day activities.

The connection can be done as peer-to-peer or client/server.

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A computer network allows computers to communicate with many other computers

and to share resources and information.

Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication

between computer systems or devices.

Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet

have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs.

Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of

these scientific and engineering disciplines.

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TYPES OF NETWORKING
1. Peer-to-Peer: A network is referred to as peer-to-peer if most computers are similar and
run workstation operating systems:

In a peer-to-peer network, each computer holds its files and resources. Other computers
can access these resources but a computer that has a particular resource must be turned on
for other computers to access the resource it has. For example, if a printer is connected to
computer A and computer B wants to printer to that printer, computer A must be turned
on.

2. Client-Server :

A computer network is referred to as client/server if (at least) one of the computers is used
to "serve" other computers referred to as "clients". Besides the computers, other types of
devices can be part of the network:

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In a client/server environment, each computer still holds (or can still hold) its (or some)
resources and files. Other computers can also access the resources stored in a computer, as
in a peer-to-peer scenario. One of the particularities of a client/server network is that the
files and resources are centralized. This means that a computer, the server, can hold them
and other computers can access them. Since the server is always on, the client machines
can access the files and resources without caring whether a certain computer is on.

Another big advantage of a client/server network is that security is created, managed, and
can highly get enforced. To access the network, a person, called a user must provide some
credentials, including a username and a password. If the credentials are not valid, the user
can be prevented from accessing the network.

The client/server type of network also provides many other advantages such as centralized
backup, Intranet capability, Internet monitoring, etc.

TYPES OF NETWORKS

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1. LAN (Local Area Network): A local area network is a computer network covering a
small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or
an airport.
○ Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of co-axial cable,
but IBM's Token Ring used shielded twisted pair cabling of their own design
○ In 1984 starlan showed the potential of simple Cat3 unshielded twisted pair—the
same simple cable used for telephone systems.
○ This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured
cabling which is still the basis of most LANs today.
○ In addition, fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used. New LAN cabling is more
efficient.
○ Switched Ethernet is the most common Data Link Layer implementation on the
local area networks.

○ At the Network Layer, the Internet Protocol has become the standard.

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○ Other options have been used in the history of LAN development and some
continue to be popular in niche applications.

2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): A metropolitan area network is a large computer


network that usually spans a city or a large campus.

○ A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a


high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link
services to wide area networks and the Internet.
○ MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several
blocks of buildings to entire cities.
○ MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates.
○ A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will
be used by many individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and
operated as public utilities.
○ They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. Metropolitan
area networks can span up to 50km, devices used are modem and wire/cable.

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○ Some technologies used for this purpose are Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
FDDI, and SMDS.
○ These technologies are in the process of being displaced by Ethernet-based
connections (e.g., Metro Ethernet) in most areas.
○ MAN links between local area networks have been built without cables using either
microwave, radio, or infra-red laser links.
○ Most companies rent or lease circuits from common carriers due to the fact that
laying long stretches of cable can be expensive.

1. WAN (Wide Area Network): A wide area network is a computer network that covers a
broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional,
or national boundaries).
○ This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs),
campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are
usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area.
○ Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame relay are
often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. X.25 was
an important early WAN protocol.
○ WANs are often built using leased lines. At each end of the leased line, a router
connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other.
○ Leased lines can be very expensive. Instead of using leased lines, WANs can also be
built using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods.
○ Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions.

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○ WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users
and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other
locations.
○ Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. Others, built
by Internet service providers, provide connections from an organization's LAN to
the Internet.

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NETWORKING COMPONENTS

• Network devices are components used to connect computers or other electronic


devices together so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax
machines.
• Devices used to setup a Local Area Network (LAN) are the most common type of
network devices used by the public.
• A LAN requires a hub, router, cabling or radio technology, network cards, and if
online access is desired, a high-speed modem.
• In a network, one computer is designated as the server, and the others, clients. The
server is connected to an external hub, which the clients are also connected to.
• Now that the computers each have one foot in a common electronic door (the hub),
they can use the hub to pass signals back and forth.
• To direct these signals, the hub contains a device known as a router. Computer in
the network must have a network card installed. These network devices each contain
a unique address.
• In a hard-wired network, special cabling called Ethernet runs from the network card
to the hub. In a wireless network the network cards and router/hub communicate
using radio waves.
• Online access is optional in a local area network, but if included, a single online
account can be shared by all computers on the network.
• When online access is available, the router not only directs traffic on the local
network, but also handles requests made to the Internet and subsequent replies.

• The router acts as a gateway to the Internet, and also serves as a hardware firewall
to keep unsolicited traffic from flowing back into the network from the wild.

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• One can add online access to a LAN by either attaching a router/hub to a high-speed
modem, or by acquiring a high-speed modem that has a router/hub built-in.
• The high-speed modem must be compatible with the online service. Most modems
are designed specifically for use with DSL, cable or fiber optics, though some
models might be made to work with more than one technology, such as being DSL
and cable compatible.

These are:
✔ Routers
✔ Repeaters
✔ Bridges
✔ Switches
✔ Gateways
✔ Modems
✔ Network cards
✔ Servers

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1. Routers: A Router is a device that transfers data from one network to another in an
intelligent way.
– It has the task of forwarding data packets to their destination by the most efficient
route.
– In order to do this, the router has a micro computer inside it. This holds a table in
memory that contains a list of all the networks it is connected.
– Also contains the latest information on how busy each path in the network is, at that
moment. This is called the 'routing table'.

When a data packet arrives, the router does the following:-

• Checks on how busy each path is at the moment


• Looks up all the paths it has available to get to that address.
• Sends the packet along the least congested (fastest) path.

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2. Repeaters: A Repeater boosts the signal back to its correct level.

All signals fade as they travel from one place to another. Each type of network
cable has a maximum useable length. If you go beyond that length, the signal
will be too weak to be useful. Computers on a real network can easily be more
than 200 metres apart.

3. Bridges: A Bridge does just what you would expect it to do - it joins two
networks together so as far as data packets are concerned it looks like one large
network. A bridge is not as capable as a Router - but it is less expensive. A
switch has a number of ports and it stores the addresses of all devices that are
directly or indirectly connected to it on each port.

4. Switches: A network cable can only have one data packet in it at anyinstant.
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So if two or more computers want to place a data packet on to the network at
exactly the same time, then a 'data collision' will take place.

5. Gateways: A gateway converts the data passing between dissimilar networks


so that each side can communicate with each other. i.e. converts data into the
correct network protocol. The gateway is a mixture of hardware components and
software. This is unlike a standard 'Bridge' which simply joins two networks
together that share the same protocol.

6. Modems: Modem came from the combination of the words called modulator
and demodulator. A modem converts the digital data from the computer into a
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continuous analogue wave form that the telephone system is designed to deal
with (MODulation). The reason for this is that the telephone system was
originally designed for the human voice i.e. continuous signals. The modem also
converts the analogue signal from the telephone network back into digital data
that the computer can understand. (DEModulation).
Standard modems come in two forms:
-- Internal modem: An external box that links to your computer either through a
serial or USB port, or an internal modem that is plugged directly to the
motherboard inside the computer.
--External modem: Up to quite recent times, modems connected to the standard
telephone line at speeds up to 56 kilobits per second. This was OK until
broadband became available which offers ten times the speed. However many
people still have to use a 56Kb modem to connect to the internet because their
local exchange has not been converted to broadband as yet.
--Wi-Fi modem: In addition to telephone modems, radio has now become very
popular as a means of connecting to the internet. The device that allows you to
do this is called the Wi-Fi modem

7. Network Cards: A network interface card (NIC) is also called a network


adapter. It is a type of expansion board (printed circuit board), which looks like a
thin plate. There are microchips and other electronic parts soldered to the board.

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--The NIC is the device that enables you to establish a link between your
computer and the network cable. In computer networking, a NIC provides the
hardware interface between a computer and a network.

-- A NIC technically is network adapter hardware in the form factor of an add-in


card such as a PCI or PCMCIA card. Some NIC cards work with wired
connections while others are wireless. Most NICs support either wired Ethernet
or Wi-Fi wireless standards.

--Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network
cables, while Wi-Fi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers).

--In new computers, many NICs are now pre-installed by the manufacturer. All
NICs feature a speed rating such as 11 Mbps, 54 Mbps or 100 Mbps that suggest
the general performance of the unit.

8. Servers: A server is a computer program that delivers a service to clients. The


server and client programs are usually, but not necessarily, running on different
computers communicating over a network. A web server delivers a web page
when requested by a web browser (called client in this context). The predefined
way a server and client communicates is called a protocol. For instance, HTTP is

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the protocol used between a browser a nd a web server.

Services provided by Internet Servers:

1.World Wide Web

2. the domain name system

3. e-mail

4. FTP file transfer

5. chat and instant messaging

6. voice communication

7. streaming audio and video

NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

• The physical layout of a network is its topology. Three prevalent types of


network topologies are Bus, Star and Ring.

• Topology of a network depends on Media Access Method and type of cables


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used.

• Large networks that span a wide physical area may use a combination of
Topologies.

a) Bus Topology: In a bus topology each node (computer, server, peripheral etc)
most often serves as the backbone for a network. The set-up cost is relatively
low. It is difficult to troubleshoot as the cabling is not structured.

b) Star topology: In this topology, each node has a dedicated set of wires
connecting it to a central network hub. A star topology is relatively easy to
troubleshoot due to its structured wiring. The failure of one connection will not
usually affect the others.

c) Ring Topology: A ring topology features a logically closed loop of cable - a

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ring. Data packets travel in a single direction around the ring from one network
device to the next. Each network device acts as a repeater, meaning it regenerates
the signal. If one device fails, the entire network goes down.

d) Hybrid Topology:

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• CONCEPT OF ETHERNET CABLING

--Ethernet: The most popular media access method to desktops. Works in star
and/or bus configurations, Ethernet networks transmit data over utp, thin-coaxial,
thick-coaxial and fiber-optic cables at rates of 10 mbps. Fast Ethernet refers to
100 mbps transfer rate. The "10" refers to the Ethernet transmission speed - 10
mbps. The "base" refers to baseband. The last character referred to the maximum
cable distance in hundreds of meters. In 10 base t and 10 base f. The t and f refer
to the cable types (twisted-pair and fiber-optic).

-- A straight-thru cable has identical ends.

--A crossover cable has different ends.

--A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections.

--A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for
connecting two hubs.

--A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green
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set.

--Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are always solid
colored.

--Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown is always on
the right, and pin 1 is on the left.

--No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will
be susceptible to crosstalk.

--Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not run parallel
with power cables, and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing
components.

Types:

• Straight-through cable
• Crossover cable
• Rolled cable

Straight –through cable is used to connect:

• Host to switch or hub

• Router to switch or hub

• Only pins 1, 2, 3, and 6 are used.

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Cross-over cable is used to connect:

• Switch to switch

• Hub to hub

• Host to host

Rolled-over cable is used to connect:

• A host to a router console serial communication port.

• In Hyper Terminal.

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SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to SATCOM) is an artificial satellite


stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications.

 Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits,


other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits.For fixed (point-to-
point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology
complementary to that of submarine communication cables.

 They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles,
planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which
application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible.

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a. Geostationary Orbits: The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was
first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a
fixed position to an earth-based observer.

- A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over
the equator.

-The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based
antennas, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operate effectively without the
need for expensive equipment to track the satellite’s motion.

-Basically for applications that require a large number of ground antennas.

b. Low Earth Orbits: A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400
kilometres above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve
around the earth) of about 90 minutes.

- Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of
roughly 1000 kilometres from the sub-satellite point.

- In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground
position quickly.

-For local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires
uninterrupted connectivity.

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APPLICATIONS OF SATCOM

1. Telephony: The first and historically most important application for communication
satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony.

The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line
telephones to an earth station, where they are then transmitted to a geostationary
satellite. The downlink follows an analogous path.

2. Satellite Television: Television became the main market, its demand for simultaneous
delivery of relatively few signals of large bandwidth to many receivers being a more
precise match for the capabilities of geosynchronous comsats.

Two satellite types are used for North American television and radio: Direct Broadcast
Satellite (DBS), and Fixed Service Satellite (FSS).

a) Fixed service satellites: Fixed Service Satellites use the C band, and the lower portions
of the Ku bands.

Normally used for broadcast feeds to and from television networks and local affiliate
stations (such as program feeds for network and syndicated programming, live shots,
and backhauls).
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Also used for distance learning by schools and universities, business television (BTV),
Videoconferencing, and general commercial telecommunications.

b) Direct broadcast satellites: A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that


transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to 24 inches or 45 to 60 cm in
diameter).

Direct broadcast satellites generally operate in the upper portion of the microwave Ku
band.
DBS technology is used for DTH-oriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite TV services, such
as DirecTV and DISH Network in the United States.

3. Military Uses: Communications satellites are used for military communications


applications, such as Global Command and Control Systems.

Examples of military systems that use use communication satellites are the MILSTAR,
the DSCS, and the FLTSATCOM of the United States, NATO satellites, United
Kingdom satellites.

4. Navigation: One of the fascinating applications of satellites is GPS (Global Positioning


System). Its primary application is navigation.

There is a network of 24 satellites LEO satellites spaced equally around the world in
overlapping pattern for this purpose.

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SCADA SYSTEM

Concept: SCADA is an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.
SCADA refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in
other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages
and controls the data. SCADA is a term that is used broadly to portray control and
management solutions in a wide range of industries. Some of the industries where SCADA
is used are Water Management Systems, Electric Power, Traffic Signals, Mass Transit
Systems, Environmental Control Systems, and Manufacturing Systems.

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SCADA- In Process
There are many parts of a working SCADA system. A SCADA system usually includes
signal hardware (input and output), controllers, networks, user interface (HMI),
communications equipment and software.

○ The term SCADA refers to the entire central system.

○ The central system usually monitors data from various sensors that are either in
close proximity or off site (sometimes miles away).

○ For the most part, the brains of a SCADA system are performed by the Remote
Terminal Units (sometimes referred to as the RTU).

○ The Remote Terminal Units consists of a programmable logic converter.

○ The RTU are usually set to specific requirements, however, most RTU allow human
intervention, for instance, in a factory setting, the RTU might control the setting of a
conveyer belt, and the speed can be changed or overridden at any time by human
intervention.

○ In addition, any changes or errors are usually automatically logged for and/or displayed.

○ Most often, a SCADA system will monitor and make slight changes to function
optimally; SCADA systems are considered closed loop systems and run with relatively
little human intervention.

○ One of key processes of SCADA is the ability to monitor an entire system in real time.

○ This is facilitated by data acquisitions including meter reading, checking statuses of


sensors, etc that are communicated at regular intervals depending on the system.

○ SCADA can be seen as a system with many data elements called points. Usually each
point is a monitor or sensor. Usually points can be either hard or soft.

○ A hard data point can be an actual monitor; a soft point can be seen as an application or
software calculation.

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S tru c tu re o f E n te rp ris e S C A D A S y s te m
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Computer Networking
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WORKS CITED

• Computer Networks

By Andrew S. Tanenbaum

• Computer Networking

By Douglas Comer and Prentice Hall

• www.ongc.co.in

• www.amazon.com

• www.about.com

• www.tech-ict.in

• www.wikipedia.com

• Google Search Engine

• Bing Search Engine

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