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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

COURSE CODE
BNP 21403

EXPERIMENT CODE

EXPERIMENT 4

EXPERIMENT TITLE
BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

DATE

24 MARCH 2016

GROUP NO.

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/
DR NOR HASLINA

TUTOR
CIK AMNANI

DATE OF REPORT
31 MARCH 2016

SUBMISSION

ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISPLINE
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INTRODUCTION:
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PROCEDURE:
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RESULTS & CALCULATIONS


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ANALYSIS
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DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS

DISCUSSIONS:
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FOR LABORATORY REPORT:

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:
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CONCLUSION:
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SUGGESTION & RECOMENDATIONS


/5%

REFERENCES:
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TOTAL:
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EXAMINER COMMENTS:
RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP:

STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to
not accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in it
is true.

1)
Group Leader
_________________________________________(Signature)

Name

TSAI KAI LEN

Matrix No.
:

AN 1400
2)
Group Member 1
__________________________________________(Signature)

Name
:

AMIR LUQMAN BIN ATAN

Matrix No
:

AN 140186
3)
Group Member 2
__________________________________________(Signature)

Name
:

SITI NUR FATEHA BINTI MOHD PAIZ

Matrix No.
:

AN 140185

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO:
2

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
EFFECTIVE DATE:
FEB. 2016

OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

AMENDMENT DATE:

OBJECTIVES

To understand the concept of biochemical oxygen demand in a given


water/wastewater sample.

To determine the biochemical oxygen demand in water/wastewater sample.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this course students are able to:

Describe the importance of BOD in the environmental studies.

Evaluate the water parameter quality in domestic wastewater sample and water
supply.

Identify problems and use their generic skill to solve problems.

Develop their ability to work in group.

INTRODUCTION

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) test measures the ability of naturally occurring
microorganism to digest organic matter, usually in a 5 days

incubation at 20 C by analysing the depletion of oxygen. BOD is the most commonly


used parameter for determining the oxygen demand on the

receiving water of a municipal or industrial discharge. BOD can also be used to


evaluate the efficiency of treatment processes and is an indirect measure of
biodegradable organic compounds in water.

The BOD test is normally required by a regulatory program. For this experiment two
analytical methods for testing and reporting BOD5 will be examined; dilution method
(EPA method 405.1 and Standard method 5210 B) and respirometric method (using
BODTrak apparatus by Hachcompany).

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO:
2

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
EFFECTIVE DATE:
FEB. 2016

OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

AMENDMENT DATE:

INSTRUMENTS /APPARATUS / CHEMICAL / REAGENTS

Chemicals / Reagents

pH calibration buffers: pH 4.00, pH 7.00 and pH 10.00

Nutrient salt solutions (prepared by technician);

Phosphate buffer solution: 8.5 g potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) are


dissolved in approximately 500 mL distilled water and 21.75 g Di potassium hydrogen
phosphate (K2HPO4) are added, followed by 33.4 g di sodium hydrogen phosphate
(Na2HPO4. 7H2O) and 1.7 g ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). The solution is made up to 1 L
and the pH of this buffer should be 7.2.

Magnesium sulphate solution: 22.5 g magnesium sulphate (MgSO4. 7H2O) is


dissolved in distilled water and the solution made up to 1 L.

Calcium chloride solution: 27.5 g of anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2) are


dissolved in distilled water and the solution made up to 1 L.

Ferric chloride solution: 0.25 g FeCl3.6H2O is dissolved in distilled water and the
solution made up to 1 L.

Dilution water: 1 mL of each of the nutrient salt solutions is added to 1 L deionised


water and aeration carried out for several days (at least 12 hours) in the dark. Mix
thoroughly and bring temperature to 20 +

3 C.

Note: Prepare dilution water 3 to 5 days before initiating BOD test to ensure that the
BOD of the dilution water is less than 0.2 mg/L.

1 N of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 or 1 N sodium hydroxide, NaOH

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
TECHNOLOGY
LABORATORY: CIVIL
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

Apparatus /Instruments

300 mL glass stoppers BOD bottles

EDITION:
REVISION NO:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

2
FEB. 2016

Incubator regulated at 20+ 1 C

pH meter

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
TECHNOLOGY
LABORATORY: CIVIL
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

Dissolved oxygen meter

EDITION:
REVISION NO:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

2
FEB. 2016

Air pump

500 mL Measuring cylinder

Beaker

Volumetric flask, 1000 mL

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO:
2

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
EFFECTIVE DATE:
FEB. 2016

OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

AMENDMENT DATE:

PROCEDURE
Determination of sample size

Use formulas in Calculation section to calculate the minimum and maximum


estimated of sample size.

Pre-treatment of samples (Neutralizing samples)

Caustic alkalinity or acidity can prevent bacteria from growing during the course of
the BOD test. To prevent this, samples which have pH values higher than pH 8.0 or
lower than pH 6.0 must be neutralized to pH 7.0 before the test is performed.

50 mL of sample was poured into a 100 mL beaker.

The pH of the sample was measured using a pH meter. The pH 6.5 7.5 were
neutralised.

The pH value was recorded.

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO:
2

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL
EFFECTIVE DATE:
FEB. 2016

OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

AMENDMENT DATE:

BOD5 measurement

The sample of estimated BOD5 (400 mg/L for influent and 60 mg/L for effluent) was
prepared.

4 unit of 300 mL BOD bottle was labelled separately for each influent and effluent.
One bottle was for blank solution and another three bottle for sample.

Each bottle was partially filled with dilution water and the volume of sample size was
added differently based on calculation. For influent, the 2nd bottle ( labelled as 1 ) was
added with 2.7 ml of sample, 3rd bottle ( labelled as 2 ) was added with 3.9 ml of
sample and the 4th bottle ( labelled as 3 ) was added with 5.0 ml of sample. The 1st
bottle ( labelled as blank ) was filled with distilled water only. For effluent, the 2nd
bottle ( labelled as 1 ) was added with 16.75 ml of sample, 3rd bottle ( labelled as 2 )
was added with 23.5 ml of sample and the 4th bottle ( labelled as 3 ) was added with

30.25 ml of sample. The 1st bottle ( labelled as blank ) was filled with distilled water
only.

FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION:

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO:
2

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT: BIOCHEMICAL

EFFECTIVE DATE:
FEB. 2016

OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

AMENDMENT DATE:

The initial DO for each bottle was determined and data was recorded on Results
section.

The bottle stoppers was inserted and the top of each bottle each was filled around the
bottle stopper with dilution water.

The remaining bottles was placed in the incubator at 20C and incubated for five days.

At the end of exactly three days (+3 hours), the final DO content of the incubated
bottles was determined. The result was recorded on data sheet.