IEEE - 31661

A Novel Approach for Image Enhancement by Using
Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
Method
S.Muniyappan

Dr.A.Allirani

S.Saraswathi

Assistant Professor

Principal

Assistant Professor

Department of Computer Science & Engineering

SRS College of Engineering & Technology Department of ECE

SRS College of Engineering and Technology

Salem.122

mahendra engineering college

Salem.122

Namakkal

smuniyappan@gmail.com

allirani2004@gmail.com

saras_ecein@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

propose a new contrast enhancement technique was

A novel approach for image enhancement by using contrast

aimed at to eliminate these types of problems. Different

limited adaptive histogram equalization method will

contrast enhancement techniques are used to improve the

produces a good contrast images such as medical images. In

contrast of an image such as histogram equalization,

this paper, we propose a new method for image

histogram modification, greedy algorithm, adaptive

enhancement by using contrast limited adaptive histogram

histogram equalization etc. This paper presents here a

equalization method. We propose a general framework

new approach for contrast enhancement based upon

with a adaptive histogram equalization method. We are

contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method.

going to prove its effectiveness in comparison to other

II.

contrast enhancement method.

METHOD:

EXITING

CONTRAST

ENHANCEMENT

histogram

Today many contrast enhancement techniques are

smoothing, Adaptive histogram equalization. Contrast

available they are produce unclear images so we are first

Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization.

discuss the few contrast enhancement t techniques. They

I. INTRODUCTION

are following

The purpose of image enhancement is to produce the

a) Histogram equalization

important procedure of image processing, this procedure

The goal of histogram equalization is to distribute the gray

are to edit the original image to be more look enhanced

levels within an image so that every gray level is equally

contrast for a specific application. The Contrast

likely to occur. Histogram equalization will increase the

enhancement technique will play an important role in

brightness and contrast of a dark and low contrast images.

image processing applications, such as mobile images,

Making features observable that was not visible in the

digital photographs, and analysis of medical images,

original image. It also used to standardize the brightness

remote sensing, and various scientific images. All the

and contrast of images the process of histogram

images should be have several reasons to be providing

equalization is to find a mapping function that maps the

poor contrast for an image because they may be use poor

image input histogram function to the uniformly

quality of the imaging device or lighting of climate so we
1

distributed

Index

Terms

-

histogram

equalization,

output

4th ICCCNT - 13
July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

histogram

function.

Histogram

IEEE - 31661

equalization also seems to be used in biological neural

the

networks so as to maximize the output firing rate of the

corresponding to a different section of the image, and use

neuron as a function of the input statistics. This has been

to reallocate the lightness values of the image. It is

proved in particular in the fly retina.[5] Histogram

therefore convenient for to increase the local contrast of

equalization is a specific case of the more general class of

an image and convey out more detail.

histogram remapping methods. These methods seek to

III. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

adjust the image to make it easier to analyze or improve

A.

visual quality

Equalization

b) Histogram Smoothing

A proposed algorithm was specially developed by

To avoid spikes that lead to strong repelling fixed points

medical images and it provides a good enhanced image

a smoothness constraint can be add the goal. The

better of original images. The CLAHE algorithm

backward variance of the histogram is used to measuring

partitions the images into contextual regions and applies

the smoothness. A smooth can be modify the histogram

the histogram equalization to each one. These evens

will tend to have fewer spikes since they are essentially

produce the distribution of used grey values and thus

abrupt changes in the histogram.

make hidden features of the image more visible. CLAHE

c) Adaptive Histogram Equalization:

is an improved algorithme of AHE. We have enhance The

Ordinary

histogram

equalization

uses

the

calculation

Contrast

of

the

Limited

several histograms,

Adaptive

every

Histogram

same

test images by using proposed algorithm, histogram

transformation derived from the image histogram to

equalization, histogram smoothing, Adaptive histogram

transform all pixels. This works well when the

equalization & enhanced with contrast limited adaptive

distribution of pixel values is similar throughout the

histogram. These mentioned enhancement techniques

image. However, when the image contains regions that

produced following results for the above images Figure 1,

are significantly lighter or darker than most of the image,

represents visual results for the first test image (breast

the contrast in those regions will not be sufficiently

cancer). In visual analysis it is observed that contrast has

enhanced. Adaptive histogram equalization (AHE)

been enhanced to various levels by all the algorithms but

improves on this by transforming each pixel with a

the proposed algorithm is enhancing the image more

transformation function derived from a neighbourhood

precisely in comparison to contrast limited adaptive

region. It was first developed for use in aircraft cockpit

histogram. Histogram equalization, histogram smoothing,

displays.[1] cited in [2].. When the image region containing a

Adaptive histogram equalization.

pixel's neighbourhood is fairly homogeneous, its
histogram will be strongly peaked, and the transformation
function will map a narrow range of pixel values to the
whole range of the result image. This causes AHE to over
amplify small amounts of noise in largely homogeneous
regions of the image.[4].. This method used to improve
the contrast of the images. It varies from histogram
equalization with respect that the adaptive method make

Fig 1. a) Original image
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4th ICCCNT - 13
July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

b) Histogram equalization

IEEE - 31661

c)

Histogram

smoothing

d)

Adaptive

histogram

c) Histogram smoothing

equalization

d) Adaptive histogram
equalization

e) Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
e) Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization

The evaluation of Proposed Enhancement technique

The human visualization is not considered as benchmark

produces better quality values for enhanced image.

for image quality, so to estimate the accomplishment of

Following table1 represents the comparison of CLAHE

above mentioned algorithms quality metrics have been

with others. The derived results are again giving better

calculated for the output images to from the original

values to Proposed Enhancement method followed by

image. the bellow images Figure 2

Adaptive Enhancement. The exiting method are also

represents the

mapping of enhanced images histogram level

producing images having quality values, but less good
than Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
Different methods

Contrast level

Histogram equalization

220

Histogram smoothing

248

Adaptive histogram equalization.

250

Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram

260

Equalization
Fig 2. a) Original image

b) Histogram equalization

Table 1 comparison of CLAHE with exiting methods
3

4th ICCCNT - 13
July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

the histogram using clip limit, the contrast limiting

ALGORITHM STEPS:

procedure has to be applied for each neighbourhood from
which a transformation function is derived. CLAHE was
developed[3] to prevent the over amplification of noise
that adaptive histogram equalization can give rise to.
4. Interpolation allows a significant improvement in
efficiency without compromising the quality of the result

Fig 3. Flow chart of Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram

Fig 4. a) CLAHE with Clip Limit= 0.11

Equalization algorithm
1. Obtain the inputs: Specifies the number of tile rows
and columns and set the clip Limit and number of bins
for the histogram used in building a contrast enhancing
transformation. Higher values result in greater dynamic
range at the cost of slower processing speed. Clip limit
for contrast Enhancement technique is normalized from 0
to 1 limits contrast enhancement. Higher numbers get the
result in more contrast.
2. Processing the inputs: specifies the real clip limit
from the normalized value if necessary, pad the image
before splitting it into regions

b) CLAHE with Clip Limit= 0.22

3. Process each row and columns region (tile) thus

the above figure 4 represent the Contrast Limited

producing gray level mappings and

Adaptive Histogram Equalization with various clip limit

make a histogram

for this region using the specified number of

level. The Clip limit for CLAHE is normalized from 0 to

bins, clip
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4th ICCCNT - 13
July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

IEEE - 31661

1 limits contrast enhancement. Higher numbers get the
result in more contrast. The following table1.1 represents
the performance of the CLAHE with various clip limit
and contrast level of the output image
CLAHE with Clip Limit

Contrast level

0.11

258

0.18

260

0.22

265

Table1.1

d) Adaptive histogram equalization and mapping

Performance of the CLAHE with Various Clip

Limit

e) Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
and mapping for the enhanced image

Fig 5. a) Original image and mapping

IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper, contrast limited adaptive histogram
equalization approach for contrast enhancement has been
proposed for breast cancer images. on comparing this
approach with the existing popular approaches of
b) Histogram smoothing & mapping for the enhanced

Histogram equalization, histogram smoothing, Adaptive

image

histogram equalization it has been concluded that the
proposed technique is giving much better results than the
existing ones.
V. REFERENCES
[1] D. J. Ketcham, R. W. Lowe & J. W. Weber: Image
enhancement techniques for cockpit displays. Tech. rep.,
Hughes Aircraft. 1974

c) Histogram equalization & mapping for the enhanced

[2] R.A. Hummel: Image Enhancement by Histogram

image

Transformation.

Computer

Processing 6 (1977) 184195.

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July 4 - 6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

Graphics

and

Image

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[3] S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, et
al.: Adaptive Histogram Equalization and Its Variations.
Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 39
(1987) 355-368.
[4] K.Zuiderveld: Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram
Equalization. In: P. Heckbert: Graphics Gems IV,
Academic Press 1994, ISBN 0-12-336155-9
[5] Acharya and Ray, Image Processing: Principles and
Applications, Wiley-Interscience 2005 ISBN
0-471-71998-6
[6] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E.Woods, Digital Image
Processing. New York:Addison-Wesley, 1992.
[7] M. A. Sid-Ahmed, Image Processing: Theory,
Algorithms,

and

Archi-tectures.

New

York:

McGraw-Hill, 1995, ch. 4.

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