1.0.

Objective
1.1. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is corrupted by noise.
1.2. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is under the influence of inter-symbol interference (ISI) only.
1.3. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is both under the influence of inter-symbol interference (ISI) and
corrupted by noise.

2.0.

Theory
In communication systems, the waveform present at the receiver
(user) is unknown until after it is received otherwise, no information would
be transmitted and there would be no need for the communication
system. More information is communicated to the receiver when the user
is “more surprised” by the message that was transmitted. That is, the
transmission of information implied the communication of messages that
are not known ahead of time (a priori). Noise limits our ability to
communicate. If there were no noise, we could communicate messages
electronically to the outer limits of the universe by using an infinitely small
amount of power.
The two primary considerations in the design of a communication system

are as follows:
1.

The performance of the system when it is corrupted by noise. The
performance measure for a digital system is the probability of error
of the output signal. For analog systems, the performance measure
is the output signal-to-noise ratio.

2.

The channel bandwidth that is required for transmission of the
communication signal.
There are numerous ways in which the information can be

demodulated (recovered) from the received signal that has been corrupted
by noise. Some receivers provide optimum performance, but most do not.
Often a suboptimum receiver will be used in order to lower the cost. In
addition, some suboptimum receivers perform almost as well as optimum
ones for all practical purposes.

the processing circuits normally consist of a super heterodyne receiver containing a mixer. Make sure all the equipment is turn off after the experiments is done. Figure 1 shows a general block diagram for a binary communication system. 4. 3. Make to put back all the equipment to its place. Matlab Software 4.2.0. 4. . The threshold device produces the binary serial-data waveform m(t). For bandpass signalling. such as OOK.4. These circuits produce a baseband signalling analog output r0(t).1. General binary communication system. Do not conduct experiment with wet hand. Equipments 3.0.1. Safety Precaution 4. the processing circuits in the receiver consist of low-pass filtering with appropriate amplification.Figure 1. The analog baseband waveform r0(t) is sampled at the clocking time t = t0 + nT to produce the samples r0(t0 + nT). Personal Computer (PC) 3. 4. Always wear lab coat. an IF amplifier and a detector. For baseband signalling.2. The receiver input r(t) consists of the transmitted signal s(t) plus channel noise n(t).3. which are fed into a threshold device (a comparator). BPSK and FSK.

b) The step (d). 2. 1. 4 and 5 bits/sec with voltage amplitude =1 and sampling frequency = 10 4. 3. Voltage amplitude 2. Voltage amplitude. Measured BER 8. Bit rate 4. Bit error packet error 5. 2. (e) and (f) is repeated and comment. Procedure 5. The results for each graph is comment. Sampling frequency 3. Two graph is plotted with is a graph of BER against each of the varying parameters for both theoretical and measured BERs and a graph of BER against SNR (dB) for each of the varying parameter for theoretical and measured BERs. number of bits in a packet and number of packets) is identified in the files.6. Measured packet error rate (PER) e) Steps (d) is repeated by varying the following parameters.1. c) The 2 missing files is created before the system is executed. fsamp = 2.2. 4 and 5 (V) with sampling frequency = 10 and bit rate = 1. Matlab program is executed and the value of the following parameter tabulated. Part 2 a) By going back to its original state. voltage amplitude. binseq_tx 3.14 and 10 Hz with voltage amplitude = 10 and bit rate = 1. 3. A=2. Bit rate =2. a Q-function. Part 1 a) The following Matlab function M-file are given which represents a basic digital communication system that transmits an Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) signal n the presence of nose in the channel: 1. sampling frequency. The files are: 1. binseq_det The function of these files is explained n the result.0. d) The 2 function is completed. the performance of the system if it is under the influence of inter-symbol interference (isi) without noise is considered and the coding of the program is identified and changed. 3. . Theoretical BER 7. 5. 1. a function to generate bytes of pseudorandom binary sequence. Sampling frequency.5. Number of bits for the whole transmission 6. b) The main specifications for the ASK signal (bit rate. test_noise 2.

Part 2 and Part 3 is compared and contrasted. . (e) and (f) is repeated and comment. b) The step (d). Part 3 a) The performance of the system if it is under the influence of both isi and noise is considered and the coding of the program is identified and changed.5.3. c) The overall results obtained in Part 1.