Week 1 Practice Worksheet

PSY/315 Version 6

University of Phoenix Material
Week 1 Practice Worksheet
Prepare a written response to the following questions.

Chapter 1
1. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:

a. Nominal: Variable that has two or more categories, but there is no intrinsic ordering to the
categories. An example of a nominal variable would be gender.
b. Ordinal: A variable used to rank a sample of individuals with some characteristics, but differences.
An example of this would be intervals.
c.

Interval: Allows for the degree of difference between items, but not the ratio between them.

An example could be the temperature used on a Celsius scale, with its two defined points
and then separated into 100 intervals.
d. Ratio scale: An interval scale in which distances are stated with respect to a rational zero rather
than with respect to the mean. An example of a ratio scale would be mass and length.
e. Continuous: A variable that is not restricted to particular values. An example of a continuous
variable would be reaction time.
f.

Discrete: Variables that can only take on a finite number of values. All qualitative variables are
discrete.

g. Quantitative: Variables that are measured on a numeric or quantitative scale. An example of this
variable could be a country’s population, or the speed of a car.
h. Qualitative: Variable that has no natural sense of ordering. They are measured on a nominal
scale. An example of this variable could be a group of names.
2. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a
particular afternoon:
30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20
24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40
Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution.

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

1

3

2

16

11

4

2

1

Copyright ©2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

1

and broke down in to categories of victims of the two types. then the two types are broke in to subcategories then the data is displayed to the right. Inc. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The data was collected from 84 people.565). This table shows the frequencies in which the different types of bullying is committed.Week 1 Practice Worksheet PSY/315 Version 6 3. Then the chart shows the data for those who have been the bullied. explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. a. Copyright ©2013 by Pearson Education. Used with permission. harass. and how many has committed the two types of bullying. broke down the same way as the victims. All rights reserved. threaten. The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying. It goes through and shows how many has experienced the two different types of bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages. emails. and/or intimidate a peer” (p. 2 . and defaming Web sites} to taunt. Using this table as an example.

5 Rumors victim 32 38. all of the students completed a number of questionnaires. Note that the table shows the results combined for all of the students in the study. called KiVa. Used with permission. At the beginning.). In the table. All rights reserved.1 Internet victim (websites. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.2 Rumor bully 22 26. Inc.2 Exclusion bully 35 41.4 Text-message bully 18 21. middle. It seems that all together the older grades have more problems in bullying.5 Traditional Victims 60 71. “victimization” refers to students’ reports of being bullied and “bullying” is students’ reports of bullying other students. 3 . and end of the school year. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new antibullying program. b.Week 1 Practice Worksheet PSY/315 Version 6 b. chatrooms) 13 15.1 Traditional Bullies 54 64. but with both grades there is Copyright ©2013 by Pearson Education. explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics The table show of bullying throughout the different grades using frequency and percentage. 4.4 Internet bully 11 13. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the new antibullying program or no program.6 Exclusion victim 30 50 Electronic Bullies 18 21. Using this table as an example.5 Picture-phone victim 8 9.3 Physical bully 29 34.8 Text-message victim 27 32. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1–3 but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program among those in grades 7–9.4 Physical victim 38 45. What the frequency is showing is how much the percentage varies.2 Teasing victim 50 59. among students in grades 1–3 and grades 7–9 in 147 schools in Finland. which included the following two questions: “How often have you been bullied at school in the last couple of months?” and “How often have you bullied others at school in the last couple of months?” The table below is a frequency table that shows students’ responses to these two questions at the end of the school year (referred to as “Wave 3” in the title of the table). a.7 The chart shows that it people still mostly bully the traditional way with teasing still being the biggest form. Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84) Forms of Bullying N % Electronic victims 41 48.5 Teasing bully 38 45. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.

5 2 or 3 times a month 446 7.5 312 2.780 100 13. % Freq.3 402 2.203 53. All rights reserved.4 10.9 344 2.817 Total N 6.4 Several times a week 281 4.503 16.6 4. 4 .745 29.7 49 0.965 100 13. Frequencies of Responses in the Five Categories of the Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Variables at Wave 3 Grades 1-3 Grades 7-9 Victimization Bullying Victimization Bullying Variable Freq.333 22. Inc.3 196 1.031 14.503 Copyright ©2013 by Pearson Education.5 About once a week 297 5 90 1. % Freq.660 77. Used with permission.7 1.972 100 5.7 279 2 Participants Respondents n 5.723 2.927 6.686 100 Missing n 955 962 2.5 197 3. % Freq.987 14.8 375 2.927 16.Week 1 Practice Worksheet PSY/315 Version 6 problems with in twice a month and several times a week.3 2.2 1.296 72 10.880 79. % Occurrence Not at all 3.5 Only once or twice 1.