Ancient Egypt Activity Packet

This packet is done in class and some sheets MAY be
for homework, however; this work packet MUST be
in the classroom at all times.
Name:
Teacher:

Westside of Natural Resources of Social Studies©

OngX^utanlchamun /\ctivittj
Name:

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Date:

Give 5 facts you know about King Tut
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

/hint: he is a pharaoh

Who is King Tut??
Source: biography.com
Born circa 1341 B . C . E . , King Tut was the 12th king cf the 18th Egyptian dynasty, in
power from approximately 1332 to 1323 B . C . E . During his reign, powerful advisers
restored the traditional Egyptian religion, which had been set aside by his father,
Akhenaten, who had led the "Amarna Revolution." After his death at age 19, he
disappeared from history, until the discovery ot his tomb in 1922. Since then, studies ot
his tomb and remains have revealed much information about his life and times.
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Background

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Probably one of the best known pharaohs of ancient Egypt, Tutankhamun was a minor
figure in ancient Egyptian history. The boy king of the 18th Egyptian dynasty was the
son of the powerful Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) and most likely one of
Akhenaten's sisters. His short reign of eight to nine years accomplished little, but the
discovery of his nearly intact tomb in 1922 has led many to attempt to unravel the
mysteries of his life and death.
Early Life

Tutankhamun was born circa 1341 B . C . E . and given the name Tutankhaten, meaning
"the living image of Aten." At this time, ancient Egypt was going through great social
and political upheaval. Tutankhaten's father had forbidden the worship of many gods in

favor of worshiping one, Aten, the sun disk. For this, he is known a s the "heretic king."
Historians differ on how extensive the change from polytheism to monotheism was, or
whether Akhenaten w a s only attempting to elevate Aten above the other gods. It does
seem, however, that his intent w a s to reduce the power of the priests and shift the
traditional temple-based economy to a new regime run by local government
administrators and military commanders.

A s the populace w a s forced to honor Aten, the religious conversion threw the society
into chaos. The capital w a s changed from Thebes to Armana, and Akhenaten put all of
his efforts into the religious transition, neglecting domestic and foreign affairs. A s the
power struggle between old and new intensified, Akhenaten became more autocratic
and his regime more corrupt. Following a 17-year reign, he w a s gone, probably forced
to abdicate, and died soon after. His 9-year-old son, Tutankhaten, took over around
1332 B . C . E .

Write 1 Paragraph of what you read

Ancient Egypt Pyramids and the Sphinx
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Tips:

Pyramids; Egyptian pyramids are used to burry dead important people in such as (Queen Hatshepsut, King Tutkhamen,
etc).

Sphinx; some scientists didn't know why and how the sphinx made its mark, but they said it was built by Akhenaton or
something, but they don't really know who built it or anything like that. Look up in the internet and found out how and
why is the sphinx here and find out who huilt it. **List your information in the hoxes hellow.
Why is the sphinx there

Who built the sphinx

Turn to page 288 in the blue book, for the pyramid information.
What did the Egyptians
believe?

When was the pyramid
built?

How did the engineers get
their knowledge to build the
pyramid?

How many, how big is
pyramids that are standing
now?

Look up in the B L U E text book to make information about these pharaohs
Queen Hatshepsut pg: 292
Information

What information did you find that you really
thought it was important?

O n g T u t a n k h a m u n : W h o was he?
Thin

Read, then complete the Think Pair Share about the

The name King Tut has instant recognition in today's world,
however, prior to the discovery of his tomb in 1922 people
were unfamiliar with this pharaoh. In fact, his name had been
omitted (left off) from all of the lists of rulers the ancient
Egyptians compiled (put together).
King Tut w a s born 1341 B C , a time when the pharaoh
Akhenaten, his probable father, had introduced quasimonotheistic beliefs (belief in only one god) into ancient
Egypt, replacing the traditional religion. Akhenaten had
moved both the administrative capital (Memphis) and
religious capital (Thebes) to Akhetaten (modern Tel el
Amarna) in Middle Egypt, a site not previously associated
with any other god.
It is here that this young prince, named Tutankhaten - to
honor Aten, the deity (god) of his new religion - w a s born and
spent his early childhood. The prince, however, ultimately
did not maintain the religious movement his father
introduced. He a s c e n d e d (came to) the throne (around 1333
B C E ) , while still a child. Guided by two officials of the court,
Tutankhamun restored the traditional
gods and reestablished T h e b e s a s the religious capital and Memphis a s
the administrative centre. He also changed his name to
Tutankhamun in order to direct attention to the restoration of
the pantheon (a group of many gods) and the god Amun at
its head. King Tut reigned for only about nine years, a s he
died in his late teens, but he h a s become famous the world
over because his tomb w a s uncovered in almost perfect
condition.
adapted from text written by Dr. 2a!ii Hawass in his book Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs (National Geographic Books

2005)

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2 . SNhat killed him?

2 . W i ^ a t kiiied him? ( M o d i f i e d )
Using a dictionary, look up the disabilities/deformities and explain them in your
own words.

Using a dictionary, look up the disabilities/deformities and explain them in your
own words.

King Tutankhamun's physical disabilities
King Tutankhamun's physical disabilities

Club foot resulting from two deformed bones in his left foot

He needed a cane to walk with

Club foot resulting from two deformed bones in his left foot

Cleft-palate

He needed a cane to walk with


Extreme overbite

Cleft-palate

Elongated skull

Avascular bone necrosis [condition in which the poor blood supply to
the bone leads to weakening or destruction of an area of bone]


Extreme overbite
Elongated skull

Avascular bone necrosis [condition in which the poor blood supply to
the bone leads to weakening or destruction of an area of bone]

Cracking the Code

Cracking the Code
Word
Club Foot
Cleft Palate

Extreme
Overbite
Elongated
Skull
Avascular
Bone
Necrosis

Actual Definition
Clubfoot is a condition in which one or both feet are
twisted into an abnormal position at birth.
An opening in the roof of the mouth due to a failure of
the palatal shelves to come fully together from either
side of the mouth and fuse during the first months of
development as an embryo. The opening in the palate
permits communication between the nasal passages and
the mouth.

My Own Words
Word
Club Foot

Cleft Palate

An overbite is a dental condition where the upper teeth
noticeably cover the lower teeth.
is a form of permanent body alteration in which the skull
of a human being is intentionally deformed, it is done by
distorting the normal growth of a child's skull by applying
force
Avascular necrosis is a condition that occurs when there
is death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply.

Extreme
Overbite

Elongated
Skull

Avascular
Bone
Necrosis

Actual Definition

My Own Words

M o w did he die M a t f x
3- O f * w a s it....Mow d i d h e d i e ?

Suspect

Position Motive

Opportunity Conclusion

In 1968 x-ray examinations of the mummy of Tutankhamun by a group
from the University of Liverpool, England revealed that the mummy of
King Tut had dense spot on the lower back of the skull. Another
investigation in 1978 followed lead by a group from the University of
Michigan also found the same. T h e s e findings lead to significant
questions and speculation that the young King Tut had been killed, or
murdered, by a blow on his head.
Who would have wanted King Tutankhamun dead?
Formulate a reason why each suspect would have wanted the King
dead. Using the information provided complete the Matrix with
information about the s u s p e c t s and formulate a conclusion of who you
think killed King Tut.
The S u s p e c t s

. His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun
• Horemheb, his Military Commander
• Ay, Successor of Tutankhamun and his
Prime Minister
• Tey, The wife of Ay
I think

_ killed King Tut because (list reasons to support your argument)

They had _

motives and
and

,to kill King Tut.

_ did not kill King Tut because

(list reasons to support your argument)

M o w did he die fvlatf<>^

3-

O f w a s it.. M o w die h e d i e ?

Suspect

Position Motive

Opportunity Conclusion

In 1968 x-ray examinations of the mummy of Tutankhamun by a group
from the University of Liverpool, England revealed that the mummy of
King Tut had dense spot on the lower back of the skull. Another
investigation in 1978 followed lead by a group from the University of
Michigan also found the same. T h e s e findings lead to significant
questions and speculation that the young King Tut had been killed, or
murdered, by a blow on his head.
Who would have wanted King Tutankhamun dead?
Formulate a reason whv each suspect would have wanted the King
dead. Using the information provided complete the Matrix with
information about the s u s p e c t s and formulate a conclusion of who you
think killed Kino Tut.
The S u s p e c t s

. His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun
• Horemheb, his Miiitary Commander
• Ay, Successor of Tutankhamun and his
Prime Minister
• Tey, The wife of Ay
I think

killed King Tut because (list reasons to support your argument)

They had

motives and
_ and

to kill King Tut.

did not kill King Tut because

(list reasons to support your argument)

5u5pect #3
Ay, the Vizier of King Tut, has been put forward as a prime suspect in the
possible murder of King Tut. But who was Ay and what relationship did he
have with the Pharaoh Tutankhamun?
His Position: He rose to prominence as Master of
Horses during the reign of Akhenaten (the father
of Tutankhamun), then served as Grand Vizier to
Tutankhamun during which time he held
enormous power over the boy-king
Children of Ay: He was the father of Nefertiti
who married Akhenaten
He became Pharaoh immediately after the death
of King Tut
He usurped the throne from General Horemheb
who had been designated as the Boy King
Tutankhamun's "Deputy" and was the officially
recognised as heir to King Tut
He reigned for just four years (1325 BC -1321
8 0 ) - he was an old man, in his late sixties,
when he became Pharaoh
His Wives: Tey and Ankheseamun
• Ankhesenamun was previously the wife of Tutankhamun. She
was also the daughter Nefertiti and therefore the granddaughter
of Ay
• He married Ankhesenamun who was in her early twenties,
against her wishes. She died mysteriously during his reign
Pharaoh Ay continued the ideals of the highly unpopular religion
initiated by Akhenaten which worshipped just one god, the Aten
instead of worshipping the old gods

Tey, the wife of Ay and s u c c e s s o r of Tutankhamun, has been put
forward a s a prime suspect in the possible murder of King Tut. But
who w a s Tey and what relationship did s h e have with the Pharaoh
Tutankhamun?
• Her Position: Tey w a s the wife of Ay,
the s u c c e s s o r of Tutankhamun
• Ay usurped the throne from the named
heir who w a s General Horemheb
• Tey is known to have been the baby
nurse of Nefertiti
• Nefertiti w a s the daughter of Ay
• Nefertiti w a s the chief wife and
consort of Akhenaten
• Nefertiti influenced and supported
her husband in their religious
revolution which changed Ancient
Egypt from a polytheistic religion, with many gods, to
monotheism (the worship of one god).
• Ay and Tey had a daughter called Mutnedjmet who later married
the s u c c e s s o r to Ay, Horemheb

4. 5 o

who Iciiied |<king T u t a n k h a m u n ?

IT'S Y O U R T U R N TO S E Q U E N C E
Idcnijfy ihe events as tliey occisired

Trace the facts and place them on the sequence a s the events occur.
The mummy of Tutankamun was first examined by Dr. Douglas Derry shortly after it was found.
Derry estimated the king's age at between eighteen and twenty years. Because ot his youth there
was much speculation about the cause ot his death. It wasn't until 1963, however, that the body
was x-rayed by. R. G. Harrison, a leading University of Liverpool anatomist studying mummies.
After looking at an x-ray ot the skull. Harrison began to suspect that King Tut might have been
killed by a blow to the back ot the head, though Harrison never published a written report of his
findings.
In the mid-t990's a man named Bob Brier became interested in the death of King Tut. Brier, a
researcher at Long Island University, was an Egyptologist interested in paleopathology, the study
ot disease in the ancient world. He obtained a copy ot Harrison's head x-ray ot Tut and took it to
Dr. Gerald Irwin, head of the radiology department at Winthrop University Hospital. Irwin, an
expert in trauma, examined the X-ray. He agreed with Harrison's judgment that the image showed
what could have been a hematoma at the lower base ot the skull, probably caused by a blow to the
back of the head.
Irwin also noticed what he thought might have been calcified membrane formed over the
hematoma. It so it's existence suggested to Irwin that Tut had not died immediately after the blow,
but lived tor some time after the injury occurred.
Brier was told that a trauma to the back ot the head (just where the neck joins the skull) is very
unusual because that location is so well protected, it occurred to Brier that it Tut had died ot an
injury there he'd either suffered from an extremely rare accident, or someone had purposely
attacked him from behind. Irwin suggested that it it was an attack, it might have occurred as the
victim slept on his side
With this in mind Brier began to wonder if he could find other evidence that Tutkanhamun had
been murdered. Could he follow a murder trail that was over 3,000 years old?
Brier found supporting evidence tor his theory not in Egyptian records, but the records ot the
Hittites, a nation that fought Egypt tor control ot territory during that period. In the Hittite records
there was an account ot a letter sent to the Hittite king from the Queen ot Egypt. In part it read:
"...my husband died. A son I have not. But to thee, that say, the sons are many. If thou would give
me one son of thine, he would become my husband. Never shall I pick out a servant of mine and
make him my husband!"
Later in the letter she also declares, "I am afraid!"
It seemed likely to Brier that this extrodinatary message came from Ankhesenamun, Tut's widow.
The letter seemed to indicate she was being forced to choose one ot her "servants" to marry.
Marrying into royal family this way would make the groom the new Pharaoh.
Archaeological evidence shows that Ankhesenpamun did marry one ot her servants,
Tutkanhaman's advisor, Aye, who then became the new Pharaoh, it that was the case, then
Ankheseamun may have indeed had cause to worry. After the wedding she disappeared from the
historical record completely. In the pictures in his tomb that show Aye as Pharaoh, only his
original wife is pictured, never Ankhesenamun.
Brier also found evidence the Hittites had sent an envoy to verify the Queen's unusual request
and later sent a prince to marry the Pharaoh's widow. The Hittite records later indicate that the
prince was ambushed and killed while on his way to the Egyptian capitol...

Read the paragraph for background information. Then use the map to answer the questions.
E
5

Mesopotamia was not a country. In the same way that the Midwest in America refers to a
specific group of states, Mesopotamia names a specific region in the fertile crescent. The word

means, roughly "land between two rivers." Mesopotamia was the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Mesopotamians were the people who lived there
In the beginning, small nomadic groups settled into independent city-states. They built high walls around the
cities to protect them from one another. Much of the area around the fertile crescent was desert.
- Mesopotamians-had access to water with which to grow crops, so they were fortunate compared to the desert
nomads. They used their relative prosperity to build beautiful buildings and carve sculptures. They are best
remembered for inventing writing. Sumer is credited with being the first city-state to think of recording
information on clay tablets. Later, the Assyrians and Babylonians would use writing to record their conquests-and poetry and myths such as the story of Gilgamesh. It is for these reasons and others that
Mesopotamia is also known as the birthplace of civilization.
1. Name three cities along the Euphrates River.

:

2. Which one of the Euphrates cities was almost certainly the capital of one of the early empires?

3. Based on the map and the information above, which city is likely to have a greater population: Ashur or
Jarmo? Explain.
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4. List all of the cities shown between the 35th and 40th parallels.

5. List all of the cities shown between the 35th and 40th meridians.

6. Describe the location of the fertile crescent in terms of latitude and longitude.

7. What does the gray area of land represent on the map? Why were Mesopotamians fortunate to live
there?
8. If a traveler walked straight from one city to the next, which would be a longer journey: from
Jerusalem to Ebla or from Thebes to Memphis?
9. Which sea is north of the Persian Gulf?.
10. What is the approximate distance from Babylon to Ur?
10

Ancient Mesopotamia

Maps Ancient avtlizaliotisQ 2005 Creative Teaching Press

Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Vocabulary:

H a m m u r a b i ' s Code: A set of laws written in ancient times that enforce e x t r e m e
consequences
M e s o p o t a m i a : An area of land between t w o rivers that w a s the basis for ancient
civilizations
J u d a i s m : A religion that worships one god and w a s the base for many other
religions (Christianity, Islam)
T o r a h : Name given to the Jewish holy hooks
Sarcophagus: Ancient tombs or caskets for dead Egyptian rulers, which w e r e V E R Y
detailed
Pharaoh: Egyptian King
Dynasty: A period w h e n one family ruled and power w a s passed d o w n f r o m
generation to generation through male relatives
Papyrus: An ancient f o r m of paper
Hieroglyphics: Ancient Egyptian writing system
Sphinxes: A symbolic guardian of temples, tombs, and pyramids
Rosetta Stone: An ancient stone that helped to understand and decipher
Hieroglyphics
Mummification: T h e process of preparing and preserving a body for the afterlife.

Read the paragraph for background information. Then use the map to answer the questions.
does it seem like the titles of upper and lower Egypt are backwards? The mouth of a
river is considered its lower section. Its source is usually at a higher elevation, so it is the
river's upper section. Upper and Lower Egypt refer to their place on the Nile River-the source
section of Africa.
Egypt was the first civilization to make someone king. Most other people in the region lived in independently
ruled city-states. Egypt unified first as Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, and then these joined together under a
"common pharaoh. Later, Nubia became part of the empire, too.
Human settlement was made possible in Egypt by the flooding of the Nile. Heavy spring rains in Ethiopian
mountains cause the flooding of the Nile. The river begins to rise at the first cataract in the last week of June,
reaches its peak in September, begins to recede in October, and reaches its low point in June.
A cataract is an obstruction of hard stone that turns the river into an impassable rapid. The cataracts cut
Egypt off from the area to the south. Egypt then extended from the first cataract to the Mediterranean, where
the Nile exited in seven mouths. Over the centuries, the path of the river changed. The Nile now exits in only
two places.
1. What is the capital city of Upper Egypt? Of Lower Egypt?
2. Which city is immediately north of Philae?

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3. If you traveled east from Saqqara, what city would you soon come to? What is the significance of this city?
4. In the delta area, two cities very close to each other border the same stretch of the river. What are the
two cities? Which is on the eastern side of the river and which is on the western side?

5. Which city appears to sit right on the 25th parallel north?
6. Which cities are at approximately 27'/2°N and 31°E?

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:

7. Which natural geographic feature is at approximately 20°N and 30?:^?
8. At what point is the distance from one side of the fertile area to the other at its thinnest point?
Approximately how wide is it?
9. What is the approximate distance from one side of the fertile area to the other at its widest point?
Where Is it?
.
10. What is the approximate distance from the third to the fourth cataract? (Hint: Draw a dot at the bottom
of the U in the river between them. Measure to and from the dot and add.)
12

The Cities of Ancient Egypt

THE CITIES OF
ANCIENT EGYPT

100
200 kilometers
<§• I Mercator Projection

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The Cities of Ancient Egypt

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13

Egypt and the Middle East

Queen Hatshepsut: The Woman Who Was Pharaoh

QUEEN HATSHEPSUT:
THE WOMAN WHO
WAS PHARAOH
Because Egyptian pharaohs were conr
sidered divine, it was important for them to find
divine wives. Since the only other divine beings
in Egypt were in the royal family, pharaohs often
married their sisters. One such sister and wife of
a pharaoh was Hatshepsut. She, however, broke
with tradition when her husband died and ruled
as pharaoh in the place of her son, Thutmose III.
She took on the official title "she who embraces
Amun, the foremost of women."
Throughout Egyptian history, many of
the pharaohs' queens wielded equal power with
their husbands, but none had been able to seize
the throne and become pharaoh themselves.
Not only was she the first woman to become
pharaoh, but she was also the most successful _.,
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This sphinx of Hatshepsut depicts her wearing
ceremonial false beard of the pharaohs.

until Cleopatra 1.400 years later. As is true for
most of the New Kingdom pharaohs, she could
be warlike. She led Egyptian armies in person against Nubia in the south.
Hatshepsut is better known for her building program that included a huge and
beautiful terraced mortuary temple at Deir-el-Bahri. Unlike most temples, it is open to the
Sun so that a visitor can study the 190 statues and carvings in the full light of day. The
mummy, however, was not to rest here. Aware of the fact that the tombs of the Old and
Middle Kingdoms had almost all been robbed, Hatshepsut, like the rest of the New Kingdom
pharaohs, had a hidden tomb cut in the rock of the Valley of the Kings. Her tomb features
a long corridor that ends in a large burial chamber. Like the above-ground tombs of the
previous kingdoms, the walls were decorated with inscriptions and scenes of the afterlife
painted in brililant colors. Here, it was hoped, the mummy, surrounded by unbelievable
amounts of riches, would be hidden forever.
The architect of this beautiful temple was Hatshepsut's trusted assistant, Senmut.
In order to get himself a share of the queen's eternal life, he secretly sneaked carvings of
his own image onto some unobtrusive walls of the temple. When Hatshepsut discovered
what he had done, she ordered wreckers to destroy his tomb and deface most of the hidden
images that he had placed In her temple.
Hatshepsut is also famous for restoring Egypt to its former wealth by renewing
foreign commerce. For example, in the ninth year of her reign, she sent five large cargo ships
on a trading expedition to the land of Punt. Modern historians believe that Punt may have
been where modern Somalia is now. According to the pictures that decorate her mortuary
temple, the expedition was met by the local prince and his wife. After a great feast, the
Egyptian captains began to trade forthe many wonders ol Punt. They loaded their ships with
© Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers

Egypt and the Middle East

Queen Hatshepsut: The Woman Who, Was Pharaoh

myrrh trees used for incense, beautiful black ebony wood, ivory, gold, and eye cosmetics.
The Egyptians were also interested in the many exotic animals found In Punt. On the return
journey, one of the Egyptian ships must have looked like Noah's Ark. On it the Egyptians
loaded giraffes, hippopotami, apes, monkeys, and greyhounds.
Hatshepsut proved to be an able ruierfor 20 years. By avoiding war where she could,
she gave Egypt a breathing space in which it could recover Its strength. Yet her position on
the throne was not secure. As a woman, Egyptian law said that she technically could riot
rule as pharaoh. She tried to encourage her people to believe that she was a legitimate
pharaoh by disguising her gender. She adopted the ceremonial false beard and masculine
dress of male pharaohs. In some of her inscriptions she even calls herself "His Majesty." As
Thutmose III, who had been declared pharaoh before Hatshepsut seized the throne, grew
into manhood, his impatience and resentment toward the strong-willed woman Increased,
Finally, he gathered the supporters that he needed and overthrew the queen. We do not
know the details of this event, but it is likely that Hatshepsut was killed as a result.
Thutmose III tried to undo all that his mother had accomplished^ He abandoned
peaceful relations with neighboring countries and launched attacks Into Nubia and Palestine. He also destroyed Hatshepsut's statues and erased her name from all the temples and
monuments that she had constructed during her reign.

Discussion
1. How did Hatshepsut try to make herself acceptable as pharaoh?
2. What conclusions can you draw about Hatshepsut's personality?
3. How did Hatshepsut strengthen the power of the Middle Kingdom?

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1. Who was the son of Hatshepsut?- -

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2. How did Hatshepsut break with trajditiop?',- - .

3. What is remarkable about Deir-el-Bahrl? - .

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4. How did Hatshepsut try to keep grave* rp|)t?^r^7ffjm fiir tomb?
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5. Who designed Hatshepsut's temple?

6. Why did Hatshepsut deface his tomb?

7. How did Hatshepsut help to restore Egypt to its f ormer wealth?

8. What did the trading expedition to Punt bring back?

9. How long did Hatshepsut rule?

10. Why was her position as pharaoh Insecure?

© Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers

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Egypt and the Middle East

The Glories of Egypt: T h l P y r a n i i d i t e d K^^

THE GLORIES OF EGYPT:
THE PYRAMIDS AND
THE SPHINX
"5

Ask the average person •today-io:
name three things about artcierft- Egyptp
and they will probably answer "pyramids)
the Sphinx, and mummies." If asked whyf
the Egyptians erected the colossal'pyra-;
mids and the Sphinx and mumraified;the:bodies of the dead, they might give:.agood answer. But if asked how it . was
done, they will be stumped because .W6-can only guess about their methodSv .r. • The Egyptians were strong believers- in life after death. They believed -a.complete body was needed to house the Fiineral .barges transport the body of the pharaoh to
sou!, or
so they developed a process Ws pyramid-by way of a canal that branches off from
to keep the body preserved. The b o d i e s . . - : - .
• .
of the wealthier Egyptians were taken to the City of the Dead, where those trained in the
procedure turned the body into a mummy. Those who knew the secret were not going to
reveal their methods in writing because they did not want competition. The procedure was
rather gruesome, and we have a good idea of how it was done, but the chemicals used to
preserve the mummy remain a mystery. We know it was a long process because the time
between death and burial was 70 days.
The great Sphinx sits proudly near the pyramid of the pharaoh Khafre and was built
with blocks of stone remaining after that pyramid was completed. The lion body is 240 feet
long, and the human head wearing the roya! headpiece rises 66 feet above the base. It is
certain that the features of the face are those of Khafre and that the Sphinx was built to honor
him. Later, pharaohs used the Sphinx as a symbol of their god-given right to rule. The Sphinx
today suffers from abuse by man and desert sandstorms, but considering that it was built
between c.a. 2575 and 2467 B.C., it reflects well on its builders.
The most massive projects of the Middle Eastern world were the pyramids. They
were built to honor a pharaoh and provide him with a tomb worthy of his glory. Work on the
pyramid began while the pharaoh was alive and continued many years after his death.
Around the bases of the pyramids, large palaces, temples, and storerooms were built. Here
priests would oversee the worship of the pharaoh's spirit long after he was dead. Outside
the temple complex, much smaller pyramids forthe queens were constructed, and beyond
those were flat tombs called mastabas for the pharaoh's officials. In the Old Kingdom, an
afterlife was reserved for only the pharaoh and his officials. The pharaoh was perceived as
a god. He was considered the child of the Sun god Re. This god-king ruled over his realm
according to the principle of ma'at, which meant order, justice, and truth.
The 80 pyramids of Egypt were located west of the Nile River and in the desert
beyond irrigated land. Most of the large pyramids were built between the third and sixth

ka,

© Mark Twain Media. Inc., Publishers

. 1 7

Egypt and the Middle East

The Gforigs-ofEgypttThePyrap

dynasties, in th© period of the Old-Kingdom., :allj i i | | ^ , ; m p f ; ^
Memphis at a place called Gizeh. Heic>dptesy|lj0
men worked for 20 years in the s e a s o n s i i i t t s a i ; ^
The base of each was the s a i p | Q | | ^ | f e ^
Pyramid built in honor of Khufu ( C h e o p e | i i l | ^ f a a S e 7 5 5 ; p i | t d ^
Construction was so precise that lhepeasuTerrieots'^M^
tenths of an inch, The angles of the sides makeiaiiialm
Construction involved some v e i y ; d i i i c u i t i i i | i t r f e
the aid of a computer. Consider theiip!pbl|g|ti:
bad to beifiul-perfeptly: level,
otherwise it would never.lookTighUI^Sloi^l^fei
accurate in building the-Great. Pyidrrild thafthemod
half inch
lower than the southeast corner. ThsnTheybad'tSihdtterock toeut and;;moye-it from the
quarry 600 miles away to the buiiding site. Once-therei.groupSv.of 18 to 20 men puled the
two-and-a-half-ton stone block up a rarhp until JtreaGfjedltS^proper spot onlhe' pyramid.
Since the purpose was to create:al|laeefOr thedharaoh's bodyto-liein splendor, a
burial chamber was built deep mside-thep^rafnidTlneJdded there were the Pyramid Texts,
instructions to the pharaoh on how to guide his vesseldhraugh the underworld to the sky to
Re, the Sun god. A passageway was constructed''so the;;*vorkers assigned to prepare the
chamber could climb to the tomb. After their work-was^done, it was their route for leaving.
To keep grave robbers out, stones were dropped-In place when the workers left. These
passageways created the threat of ihternal collapse that-rnight briiig down the whole
structure. This required heavy granite slabs tq^be laid over the king's chamber.
Not all pyramids looked exactly alike. T h e first one attempted was built for King
Djoser and was designed by his brilliant architect, Imhotep. It was called the "stepped
pyramid" because its sides resemble six steps climbing to the top. The pyramid of King
Snefru is called the "bent pyramid" because the angle was steeper at the base than in the
top half. The later pyramids also differed in size and the types of stone used.
The monuments of Egypt stand today a s testimony to Egypt's religion, knowledge
of mathematics, skill in building huge structures, and the glory of the pharaohs.
Discussion
1. If there were an American Sphinx, whose face do you think should be carved on it? Why?
2. How would the Egyptians have felt about cremation? Why?
3. Suppose a bill were proposed in Congress to spend $2 billion on a pyramid honoring an
American president. What would be the reaction?
4. Look at pictures of the Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln memorials and compare them
with the pyramids. Why do we give such small honor to our leaders?

Egypt and the Middle East

T h e G!ones;of :E3ypt: The^PyTarniJs andithe Sphinx

Name

Date

•'

• I

. ' '

"

; CHALLEN:iiS?7j#
1. Why didn't the experts at the City of the Dead write down the chemical formuia for their
preservatives?
h.
I I e Y ? ' i .T^^Tvir-? ^

2. How long did it take from death to burial?

. -. .

3. What is the ka?

4. What has caused deterioration of the Sphinx?

5. What is a mastaba?

6. What is ma'at?

7. Where are the most impressive pyramids located?

8. How many men and how much time did Herodotus think it took to build the Great Pyramid?

9. What did they use to measure to be sure that every stone was level?

10. What was the purpose of the Pyramid Text?

€> Mark Twain Media, inc., Publishers

Analyzing the Code of Hammurabi Law <& Bill of Rights
Working in o small group try to determine which of the lows listed represent The Bill of Rights or the Code of
Hommurobi. Anolyze the woy you think the low is protecting the people ond the messoge it trying to convey.

Law

Judge

Analyze

Do you think this is

How is it protecting the

0 Hammurabi Low or

people? Whot messoge is the

0 Bill of Rights?

low trying to convey?

C o r r e c t Answer
The correct onswer
is
Hommurobi Low or o
Bill of Rights?

I f ony one ensnore onother, putting o
bon upon him, but he con not prove it,
then he thot ensnored him sholl be
put to deoth.
A well reguloted militio, being
necessory to the security of o f r e e
stote, the right of the people to
keep ond beor orms, sholl not be
infringed.
I f ony one bring on occusotion of ony
crime before the elders, ond does
not prove whot he hos chorged, he
sholl, if it be o copitol offense
chorged, be put to deoth.
I f he sotisfy the elders to impose o
fine of groin or money, he sholl
receive the fine thot the oction
produces.
No soldier sholl, in time of peoce be
quortered in ony house, without the
consent of the owner, nor in time of
wor, but in o monner to be
prescribed by low.
I f ony one steol the property of o
temple or of the court, he sholl be
put to deoth, ond olso the one who
receives the stolen thing from him
sholl be put to deoth.
Excessive boil sholl not be required,
nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel ond unusuol punishments
inflicted.
I f 0 judge try o cose, reoch o
decision, ond present his judgment in
writing; if loter error sholl oppeor in
his decision, ond it be through his
own foult, then he sholl poy twelve
times the fine set by him in the cose,
ond he sholl be publicly removed
from the judge's bench, ond never
ogoin sholl he sit there to render
judgment.

Pharaoh means great house or palace. It was only in later years the king was known as Pharaoh, the one
who lived in the great house.
The king had many titles. Some are listed below.
Horus The Falcon

He Of The Sedge find The Bee

Ttuo Ladies

He iJUho Unites The Ttuo Lands

mighty Bull

Use the above to fill In the missing Information below.
Match the pictures to the titles and label each one.

Egyptians believed their king had superhuman
powers. He made the Nile flood and the plants grow.
He protected his peopleft^omenemies with the
strength of a

The first king of Egypt was Menes. He wore the
double crown, the white crown ot Upper Egypt in the
south and the red crown ot Lower Egypt in the
north. The crown symbolized the title

Whenever a new king was crowned he became the
reincarnation otthe eternal sky god who swept
across the heavens looking down upon his kingdom,
tie was -

Upon his brow the king wore the \ailture goddess,
Nekhbet ot Upper Egypt and the cobra goddess,
Wadjyt ot Lower Egypt. They gave him divine
protection and the title

was another otthe king's titles. The sedge was a
symbol of Upper Egypt and the bee ot Lower Egypt.
On a separate piece of paper draw three symbols for Upper Egypt and three for Lower Egypt.
®UJorld Teachers PressS aiwviu.ujorldteacherspress.com

fincient Egypt

Eg>iptian Societ>i

Kings

Teachers Hotes
The various titles of the king refer to his divine power and Immortaiity and also as a unifier of the Two
Lands - Upper and Lower Egypt.
Vocabulary:

pharaoh

unite

symbol

reincarnation

eternal

divine

Picture and label matches:
Mighty Bull, He Who Unites The Two Lands, Horus The Falcon, Two Ladies, He Of The Sedge And The Bee
Extension
1. Look for pictures of kings to find out about their costumes and the different crowns they wore. Draw
and label a picture of a king.
2. Find out about the Heb Sed Festival. Every 30 years there was a jubilee when the king had to run
around a course set out by markers, proving he was still fit to reign.
3. Find out about Hatshepsut, the one and only female pharaoh. Hatshepsut took the unusual stance of
becoming a pharaoh. She adopted the king's regalia, having dispensed with the queen's. She even
took to wearing the regal beard (see pages 1 8 - 2 1 , Foreign Trade and pages 116-119, Timeline).

The king was crowned wlLh Lhe words "You arise a god." He was regarded as Lhe son of Ra the Sun god, and
embodiment of Lhe sky god, Horus Lhe Falcon. When he died he became Osiris, God of Lhe Underworld. The
successor aL his coronaLion was, in Lurn, proclaimed Lhe reincarnaLion of Horus Lhe Falcon, Lhe eLernal king
(see pages 64-71, Religion secLion and pages 78-79, Osiris, God of Lhe Underworld).
The king's divine powers broughL order and harmony Lo EgypL. He conLroUed Lhe river and made Lhe crops
grow. He proLecLed his people and broughL Lhem good forLune. He was depicLed as a Lowering figure,
wielding a mattock for cutting an irrigation canal, or striking his enemies and treading Lhem under foot.
He lived apart from ordinary mortals. Every aspect of his life was an elaborate ritual. Ele wore the costume
of kings. His crowns, described as "great of magic, "had their own divine power. The crown with tall feathers
Identified him as a god. As a warrior pharaoh, leading his troops to battle, he wore the Blue Crown or Crown
of Victory (see Background History - page 3).
Typically attired, a king wore Lhe double crown - Lhe red crown of Lower Egy^it and the white crown ot
Upper Egypt, a false braided beard, the tail ota bull or a giraffe, a beaded apron and, like the god Osiris,
carried the crook and flail, symbols otthe shepherd and the harvester.

^

fincient

Egypt

ujuJui.uuorldteacherspress.com iBUlorld Teachers Pressfi^

LAjrff^
Religion

vi^m^l^

rZ5hC3

Ra the Sun God

of all the gods, Egyptians believed Ra the Sun god was the most important, for he created the world.
A^

Read the passages below. Color, cut out and rearrange the pictures telling the story of Ra.
Glue on a separate piece of paper and write a suitable caption for each picture.

The lions otthe desert horizons guarded Ra as he rose above the hills in the east each morning and
sank below the hills in the west at night.
Every day at dawn baboons sat waiting tor the first rays ot daylight. They greeted the Sun with joyful
dancing.
Egyptians had a special name tor the rising Sun. They called it Khepri, which was their name tor the
scarab beetle that pushed along its eggs inside a ball ot dung. Egyptians imagined Khepri pushing the
Sun up into the skyjust like the beetle. Every morning Khepri stepped aboard the "Day Boat" to sail
across the sky towards the W^est.
By midday the Sun was overhead and blazing down. It had become "Ra and Horus ot the Two
Elorizons." This was the strong, young Sun god, with the head of a hawk.
By evening, the Sun was dying and sinking below the western horizon. It was now the ancient ramheaded god, Ra Atum. He boarded the night boat and began the dangerous journey across the sky ot
the Underworld beneath the Earth.
Apophis, the most terrible ot fiends, was Mng in wait. Ra Atum, disguised as a cat, chopped otthis
head with a knife, but every night Apophis returned.

K<cccc«<7?Z^<-t^<tt^<;<ttO»»»?TT777;»»»»».

*UJarld Teachers P r e s s * ujaiuj.aiorlclteacherspress.com

Ancient Egypt

<^

Religion

Rnimai Cods

Teachers Uptes

.

The flip book intr&t^44^s some of the most popular animal gjzras.
Extension

^"^^'^v.

/

1. Read the myth of Horus avenglngTH^death optfs father, Osiris. After an eighty-year battle against his cruel
uncle Seth, the murderous brother of 0§hs£|^orus eventually claimed the throne of Egypt, which was his
rightful inheritance. Thereafter the "Horu^TTirbN^was handed to a human successor, who became the
reincarnation of Horus (see pages 5 6 - ^ 7 , Kings; 9l^»Q3, A m u l e t s - E y e of Horus; 7 8 - 7 9 , Osiris, God of the
Underworld).
/
^s»,^_^
2. Look for pictures of Seth, the r r ^ t e r i o u s , donkey-like a n l m a l ^ d of ^baos and evil, who ruled the deserts
and brought the storms. Maj«e a picture of your own mysterious ahimal god.
3. Find out about the housdrold gods, Bes and Taweret. Make a model or picture of one of them.
4. Find out about the Apis bull and the cat goddess, Bastet.

Egyptians revered many offtfe animals that lived in the valley and along the desert fringe. They believed these
animals had divine powers and admired them for their special qualities, like the tender care of a cow for her calves.
They even admired animals they feared, the crocodile for its strength and tire lion for its fierceness. They imagined
certain animals embodied particular gods and goddesses. These were sacred and worshipped at cult centers.
Priests, wearing animal masks, gave voice to these gods and made their wishes known - according to the priests'
interpretations. Many deities came to have a human body with the head of an animal. Notice the gods carried in
their left hands the ankh, which was the sacred symbol of life, and in their right hand the di\Tne scepter, which all
gods and kings carried.
1. Horus appears throughout Egyptian mythology in varying forms. As a sky god he was often portrayed as a winged sundisc above a sacred doorway. As Horus, son of Isis, seated on his mother's lap with a finger in his mouth, he reminds us of
baby Jesus. It is an image similar to, but pre-dating, the Virgin Mary with Child.
2. Sobek, the crocodile god, constantly needed placating, especially along stretches of crocodile-infested waters. At
Crocodilopolis in the Faiyum Oasis.Jewel-studded crocodiles lolled in temple pools and mummified crocodiles were
buried in the necropolis.
3. Thoth was the god of wisdom and writing. He was the patron of scribes and was also associated with the moon. He
caused moonlight to brighten the night sky and dispel the fearful darkness.
4. Anubis, god of the Dead, led away the dead person's soul (see pages 70~7l).
5. Khnum was known as the "Potter God.' He created all living creatures from clay on his divine potter's wheel. Eventually
tiring othis work, he placed a potter's wheel in the womb ot every female creature. He then had only to breathe life into
each new being.
6. Bes, the protector otthe family, who brought health and happiness, was a grotesque, bandy-legged dwarf god with the
mane and ears of a lion and a protruding tongue.
-

7. Taweret, the goddess who protected women and children, had the head and body of a pregnant hippopotamus, with the
arms and legs ota lion and the back and tail ota crocodile.
. 8. The Apis bull personified the god Ptah, the patron ot craftsmen, and resided in Ptah's temple at Memphis. It had special
white markings on its forehead and chest. When it died, it was mummified and buried with great ceremonjr. A successor
with identical markings then had to be found.
9. The much-loved domestic cat was worshipped as Bastet, goddess otjoy and love, and was represented as a woman with a
cat's head. When a cat died the family mourned. They shaved oft their eyebrows and even took their embalmed pet to
the temple at Bubastis tor burial. During excavations otthe Suez Canal, tons of mummified cats were dug up from the
site ot an ancient necropolis and exported as fertilizer.

^

Ancient Egypt

vuuiuj.vjuorldteacherspress.com ®U)orld Teachers Presssi

Religion

Rnimai Cods

Teachers Rotes
The flip book Introduces some of the most popular animal gods.
Extension
1. Read the myth of Horus avenging the death of his father, Osiris. After an eighty-year battle against his cruel
uncle Seth, the murderous brother of Osiris, Horus eventually claimed the throne of Egypt, which was his
rightful inheritance. Thereafter the "Horus Throne" was handed to a human successor, who became the
reincarnation of Horus (see pages 5 6 - 5 7 , Kings; 9 2 - 9 3 , Amulets - Eye of Horus; 7 8 - 7 9 , Osiris, God of the
Underworld).
2. Look for pictures of Seth, the mysterious, donkey-like animal god of chaos and evil, who ruled the deserts
and brought the storms. Make a picture of your own mysterious animal god.
3. Find out about the household gods, Bes and Taweret. Make a model or picture of one of them.
4. Find out about the Apis bull and the cat goddess, Bastet.

Egyptians revered many of the animals that lived in the valley and along the desert fringe. They believed these
animals had divine powers and admired them for their special qualities, like the tender care of a cow for her calves.
They even admired animals they feared, the crocodile for its strength and the lion tor its fierceness. They imagined
certain animals embodied particular gods and goddesses. These were sacred and worshipped at cult centers.
Priests, wearing animal masks, gave voice to these gods and made their wishes known - according to the priests'
interpretations. Many deities came to have a human body with the head ot an animal. Notice the gods carried in
their left hands the ankh, which was the sacred symbol otiife, and in their right hand the divine scepter, which all
gods and kings carried.
1. Horus appears throughout Egyptian mythology in varying forms. As a sky god he was often portraj'ed as a winged sundisc above a sacred doorway. As Horus, son ot Isis, seated on his mother's lap with a finger in his mouth, he reminds us of
baby Jesus. It is an image similar to, but pre dating, the Virgin .Mary with Child.
2. Sobek, the crocodile god, constantly needed placating, especially along stretches ot crocodile-infested waters. At
Crocodilopolis in the Faiyum Oasis, jewel-studded crocodiles lolled in temple pools and mummitied crocodiles were
buried in the necropolis.
3. Thoth was the god ot wisdom and wilting. He was the patron of scribes and was also associated with the moon. He
caused moonlight to brighten the night sky and dispel the tearful darkness.
4. Anubis, god otthe Dead, led away the dead person's soul (see pages 70-71).
5. Khnum was known as the "Potter God." He created all living creatures from clay on his divine potter's wheel. Eventually
tiring othis work, he placed a potter's wheel in the womb of every female creature. He then had only to breathe lite into
each new being.
6. Bes, the protector otthe family, who brought health and happiness, was a grotesque, bandy-legged dwarf god with the
mane and ears of a lion and a protruding tongue.
7. Taweret, the goddess who protected women and children, had the head and body ota pregnant hippopotamus, with the
arms and legs ot a lion and the back and tail of a crocodile.
8. The Apis bull personified the god Ptah, the patron ot craftsmen, and resided in Ptah's temple at Memphis. It had special
white markings on its forehead and chest. When it died, it was mummitied and buried with great ceremony. A successor
with identical markings then had to be found.
9. The much-loved domestic cat was worshipped as Bastet, goddess otjoy and love, and was represented as a woman with a
cat's head. When a cat died the family mourned. They shaved ofttlieir eyebrows and even took their embalmed pet to
the temple at Bubastis tor burial. During excavations ot the Suez Canal tons ot mummitied cats were dug up from the
site otan ancient necropolis and exported as fertilizer.
90

Ancient Eg>ipt

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2 ^